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# In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen

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21 Jan 2014, 11:45
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This is a nice question with a good degree of difficulty. The key to these questions (evaluating the argument) is to understand assumptions, which are unstated elements that bridge the gap between premises and conclusions. On this question type, your answer will essentially be a question that asks for clarification about a key assumption. As you mentioned, C does provide a question focused on a key assumption (tranquilizers are only used for recollaring).

Now to your question regarding answer choice A. The reason why A would not be our answer is because the premise of the argument deals with fertility RATES not fertility numbers. The GMAT will often shift between figures and rates in the argument/answer choices to throw you off. The use of rates takes the actual numbers out of the equation (essentially normalizing/standardizing the data). Any answer choices that shift from rates to absolute numbers (or vice versa) will not be correct.

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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2014, 01:44
This Question says that tranquilizer(which is used to put collars on female rhinoceroses ) -> lower fertility rate .

To evaluate this arguments we need to find an assumption that either strenghtens or weakens the conclusion.

Choice C does that by Questioning whether tranquilizer is used only for the purpose of putting collars or Is that(tranquilizer) also used to for other purposes ?

If the first part is true, it strengthens the conclusion that Putting collars -> low fertility rate.
If the latter part is true, it weakens the conclusion that other cause -> low fertility rate .

Hope this helps
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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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18 Apr 2014, 12:18
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TooLong150 wrote:
I know that this is a Causation Question, but I don't know how any of the answers address the Causation assumptions that tranquilizers cause lower fertility rates.

Well, only one of them will address the assumption.

The conclusion states that the tranquilizer inhibits fertility. This conclusion is based on the information that recollared rhinos have to be tranquilized in the process and recollared rhinos have lower fertility rates.

The question wants to you evaluate the argument - or in other words to determine what information you would like to have to assess the validity of the argument. To best evaluate the argument, you want some of the "missing" data related to tranquilizer use, recollaring and fertility. Answer choice C gets at that "missing" data by suggesting that there might be other uses for tranquilizers. If there are other uses, we lose our tight connection between recollaring, tranquilizers and fertility and, as a result, we have less confidence in the conclusion. If there are no other uses, that tight connection remains and our confidence in the conclusion increases.

To use your Causation language, the argument notices correlation between recollaring and fertility and asserts that tranquilizers are the cause of the correlation. Answer choice C suggests that we need to know if there are other uses for tranquilizers before we feel comfortable that they are causing the fertility problems.

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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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05 Dec 2014, 13:07
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In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movements of many rhinoceroses because those animals wear radio collars. When, as often happens, a collar slips off, it is put back on. Putting a collar on a rhinoceros involves immobilizing the animal by shooting it with a tranquilizer dart. Female rhinoceroses that have been frequently recollared have significant lower fetility rate than uncollared females. Probably, therefore, some substances in the tranquilizer inhibit fertility.

In Evaluating the argument, it would be most useful to determine which of the following?
a. Whether there are more collared female rhinoceroses than uncollared female rhinoceroses in the park.
b. How the tranquilizer that is used for immobilizing rhinoceroses differs, if at all, from tranquilizers used in working with other large mammals.
c. How often park rangers need to use tranquilizer dart to immobilize rhinoceroses for reasons other than attaching radio collars.
d. Whether male rhinoceroses in the wild park lose their collar any more often than the park's female rhinoceroses do
e. Whether radio collar is the only practical means that park rangers have for tracking the movements of rhinoceroses in the park.
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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2014, 09:29
Let's take a look at the argument: we're saying that collars are needed to track rhinos and that they must be put back on if they fall off. However, to reattach them, the rhinos must be tranquilized. The tranquilizer seems to lower fertility rates in female rhinos.

In Evaluating the argument, it would be most useful to determine which of the following?
a. Whether there are more collared female rhinoceroses than uncollared female rhinoceroses in the park.--irrelevant, we're not concerned with the numbers, just the effect
b. How the tranquilizer that is used for immobilizing rhinoceroses differs, if at all, from tranquilizers used in working with other large mammals.--out of scope, just concerned about rhinos
c. How often park rangers need to use tranquilizer dart to immobilize rhinoceroses for reasons other than attaching radio collars.--correct (if we know this, we can determine if its truly the tranquilizer being used many times that causes the decreased fertility or some other factor)
d. Whether male rhinoceroses in the wild park lose their collar any more often than the park's female rhinoceroses do--irrelevant, only concerned about female rhinos
e. Whether radio collar is the only practical means that park rangers have for tracking the movements of rhinoceroses in the park.--irrelevant, not concerned about the collars, just about the contents of the tranquilizer
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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2014, 20:43
In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movements of many rhinoceroses because those animals wear radio collars. When, as often happens, a collar slips off, it is put back on. Putting a collar on a rhinoceros involves immobilizing the animal by shooting it with a tranquilizer dart. Female rhinoceroses that have been frequently recollared have significant lower fetility rate than uncollared females. Probably, therefore, some substances in the tranquilizer inhibit fertility.

Argument states the Rhinoceroses are tracked using radio collars - if a collar slips off, then it is put back by immobilizing rhino with a tranquilizer.
Frequent use of tranquilizer causes infertility in female rhinos.

In Evaluating the argument, it would be most useful to determine which of the following?
a. Whether there are more collared female rhinoceroses than uncollared female rhinoceroses in the park. - doesn't help in anyway to determine if frequent use of tranquilizer causes infertility.
b. How the tranquilizer that is used for immobilizing rhinoceroses differs, if at all, from tranquilizers used in working with other large mammals. - irrelevant as argument is only about rhinos
c. How often park rangers need to use tranquilizer dart to immobilize rhinoceroses for reasons other than attaching radio collars. - correct. if the frequency of using tranquilizer dart is high for other activities then conclusion is weakened and if the frequency is low or zero then conclusion is strengthened.
d. Whether male rhinoceroses in the wild park lose their collar any more often than the park's female rhinoceroses do - irrelevant as the argument is dealing with reasons of infertility among female rhinos with and without radio collar
e. Whether radio collar is the only practical means that park rangers have for tracking the movements of rhinoceroses in the park. - irrelevant as the argument is dealing with reasons of infertility among female rhinos with and without radio collar

Ans. C)
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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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09 Jan 2015, 00:08
I will try to put this in simpler terms:
Conclusion : Tranquilizer --> Inhibits infertility
Premise : 2categories of rhinos (collared and uncollared).
We will use the variance test to anayse
options:
C. How often park rangers need to use tranquilizer darts to immobilize rhinoceroses for reasons other than attaching radio collars
strengthen: Very often tranquilizers are used other than collaring--> uncollared sets of rhinos could also be tranquilized under this condition. So if tranqs were to inhibit fertility then this group of uncollared rhinos should become infertile as well
Weaken: Not as much ---> then the conclusion is not that much affected
Hence C
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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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25 May 2015, 16:59
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I think the key to solve this problem successfully is to realize that there are 2 groups of rhinos, one with radio tag and other w/o the tag. If you assume that all rhinos are actually being tagged than you wont get to the correct solution. What I want to say is that once a tag fall off than the same rhino is tranquilized again and again and again... and you will say with certainty that the tranq is the culprit for the fertility only if compared with other rhinos w/o a tagg and never been tranqed and their fertility rate.
I admit I would not had that in mind on test day. I assumed that all rhinos in the park were tranqulized in order to get the tag, the difference is that I made a group one more frequently transited and the other group let say only once, and I was looking for answer in these lines and it took me nowere All answers were irelevant , my best bet was on D even though I knew males are not in the argument. If there was expeclitly stated that tehre are rhinos that dont have tagges at all than I would go for C, but I didnt assume that and got it wrong.
Hope my reasoning helps
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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 20 Apr 2017, 16:50
In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movements of many rhinoceroses because those animals wear radio collars. When, as often happens, a collar slips off, it is put back on. Putting a collar on a rhinoceros involves immobilizing the animal by shooting it with a tranquilizer dart. Female rhinoceroses that have been frequently re-collared have significant lower fertility rate than un-collared females. Probably, therefore, some substances in the tranquilizer inhibit fertility.

In evaluating the argument, it would be most useful to determine which of the following?

A. Whether there are more collared female rhinoceroses than un-collared female rhinoceroses in the park.
B. How the tranquilizer that is used for immobilizing rhinoceroses differs, if at all, from tranquilizers used in working with other large mammals.
C. How often park rangers need to use tranquilizer dart to immobilize rhinoceroses for reasons other than attaching radio collars.
D. Whether male rhinoceroses in the wild park lose their collar any more often than the park's female rhinoceroses do
E. Whether radio collars are the only practical means that park rangers have for tracking the movements of rhinoceroses in the park.

Originally posted by gautamsinha on 24 Jun 2015, 08:53.
Last edited by hazelnut on 20 Apr 2017, 16:50, edited 4 times in total.
Edited the title of the question
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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2015, 00:44
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
I will try to put this in simpler terms:
Conclusion : Tranquilizer --> Inhibits infertility
Premise : 2categories of rhinos (collared and uncollared).
We will use the variance test to anayse
options:
C. How often park rangers need to use tranquilizer darts to immobilize rhinoceroses for reasons other than attaching radio collars
strengthen: Very often tranquilizers are used other than collaring--> uncollared sets of rhinos could also be tranquilized under this condition. So if tranqs were to inhibit fertility then this group of uncollared rhinos should become infertile as well
Weaken: Not as much ---> then the conclusion is not that much affected
Hence C

hi,

the whole logic of this argument depends on the assumption that tranquilizer darts are also used for reasons other than attaching radio collars.
we need to assume this w/o which choice C fails. But, how should we know that we need to consider this assumption while answering?
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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2015, 20:27
thoufique wrote:
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
I will try to put this in simpler terms:
Conclusion : Tranquilizer --> Inhibits infertility
Premise : 2categories of rhinos (collared and uncollared).
We will use the variance test to anayse
options:
C. How often park rangers need to use tranquilizer darts to immobilize rhinoceroses for reasons other than attaching radio collars
strengthen: Very often tranquilizers are used other than collaring--> uncollared sets of rhinos could also be tranquilized under this condition. So if tranqs were to inhibit fertility then this group of uncollared rhinos should become infertile as well
Weaken: Not as much ---> then the conclusion is not that much affected
Hence C

hi,

the whole logic of this argument depends on the assumption that tranquilizer darts are also used for reasons other than attaching radio collars.
we need to assume this w/o which choice C fails. But, how should we know that we need to consider this assumption while answering?

No, you don't have to assume that darts are used for other purposes. Option (C) tells you that you have to find out whether they are used for other reasons and if yes, then how often are they used. The answer to question in (C) could be 'Never' or it could be 'every week'. This would tell you whether the data you collected about collared rhinos and uncoloured rhinos is reliable.
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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2015, 06:51
1
My take:
In order to evaluate this argument, it would be useful to pre-think the assumptions.
C: some substances in the tranquilizer inhibit fertility in recollared female rhinoceroses.
One assumption could be: Other (uncollared) female rhinos do not have to face the tranquilizer as often as the collared one. Otherwise, how could we say that tranquilizer is the culprit?
Now we can formulate our evaluate Qn around this assumption: How often other (uncollared) female rhinos are tranquilized?
Note: choice C is just a reword of the Q that we just derived.

POE can also be used but chances of mistake increases a bit.

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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2016, 03:09
phammanhhiep wrote:
In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movements of many rhinoceroses because those animals wear radio collars. When, as often happens, a collar slips off, it is put back on. Putting a collar on a rhinoceros involves immobilizing the animal by shooting it with a tranquilizer dart. Female rhinoceroses that have been frequently recollared have significant lower fetility rate than uncollared females. Probably, therefore, some subtances in the tranquilizer inhibit fertility.

Inevaluating the argument, it would be most useful to determine which of the following?
a. Whether there are more collared female rhinoceroses than uncollared female rhinoceroses in the park.
b. How the tranquilizer that is used for immobilizing rhinoceroses differs, if at all, from tranquilizers used in working with other large mammals.
c. How often park rangers need to use trangquilizer dart to immobilize rhinoceroses for reasons other than attaching radio collars.
d. Whether male rhinoceroses in the wild park lose their collar any more often than the park's female rhinoceroses do
e. Whether radio collar is the only pratical means that park rangers have for tracking the movements of rhinoceroses in the park.

Hello.

I have no doubt about the correct choice because it exploits the flaw in the argument.
But I still have a doubt about choice A.
The author makes a comparison between the fertility rates between 2 groups to support his conclusion. If there are 1000 recollared rhinos and 10 uncollared rhinos, and the fertility rates are 50% and 80% respectively, so we have 500 fertile recollared rhinos and 8 fertile uncollared rhinos.

if the difference between numbers of the two groups are too large-- i.e. 1000 and 10 -- and if we accept the author's assumption that the only purpose to shoot rhinos with T darts is to put collar, does the comparison between the fertile rates support the conclusion?

I must ask the question because before I see the correct answer I did not know the flaw of the argument, and the choice A seems good to me. So, if I know the answer for the question, I can eliminate choice A.

Thank you.

Tricky question.

Premises:
- Radio Collar (R.C) enables Tracking.
- R.C -> tranquilizing (T)
- More R.C -> lower Death Rare (Causal relationship)
----
Assumption:
- More Fertility -> Less Death

Comment:
- Notice the gap between the premises (Death Rate-DR) and (Fertility-F)
- Hence we should deduce correlation, and more specifically causality
- But in what direction? does DR->F or F->DR
- Well, logically F->DR makes sense, the other way does not make sense

----
Conclusion:
- Tranquilizer (a material in it) -> more fertility

Question Analysis:
A. This comparison have nothing to do with the assumption or conclusion- and hence not relevant.
B. Again, This comparison have nothing to do with the assumption or conclusion.
C. Sounds good - lets try to weaken & strengthen the conclusion by taking 2 extreme cases:
- Now, look at the structure again:
- More Tranq. -> More Fertility -> Less death
- a good way to understand the implications of an answer choice is by taking a specific example and analyze its impact.
- So if other uses CAUSE Tranq. ( something else -> Tranq) - for example pregnancy, then we are weaken the relationship "More Tranq.->More Fertility". why? because Fertility->Pregnancy->Tranq.
- Now if we negate that option, we have in fact negated an alternate weakener - which strengthen the conclusion.

Hence C is correct,

D.The sample group (males) is not relevant, as is the comparison.
E. Assume with have another practical means- this does not weaken the conclusion.
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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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16 Oct 2016, 09:40
Based on my passage analysis I came up with the assumption : "uncollared female rhinos are likely not needed to be tranquilized using the tranquilizer darts". Based on this assumption, I found out that only option C is close enough. To cross check my answer I used the variance analysis on this option -- How often park rangers need to use tranquilizer darts to immobilize rhinoceroses for reasons other than attaching radio collars?

A high (very often) to the above question weakens the conclusion and a low (rarely) to the above question strengths the conclusion. Hence I selected Option C which turned out to be correct answer.
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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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05 Nov 2016, 23:30
rahulsukhija wrote:
In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movements of many rhinoceroses because those animals wear radio collars. When, as often happens, a collar slips off, it is put back on. Putting a collar on a rhinoceros involves immobilizing the animal by shooting it with a tranquilizer dart. Female rhinoceroses that have been frequently recollared have significantly lower fertility rates than uncollared females. Probably, therefore, some substance in the tranquilizer inhibits fertility.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

a) The dose of tranquilizer delivered by a tranquilizer dart is large enough to give the rangers putting collars on rhinoceroses a generous margin of safety.

b) The fertility rate of uncollared female rhinoceroses has been increasing in the past few decades.

c) Any stress that female rhinoceroses may suffer as a result of being immobilized and handled has little or no negative effect on their fertility.

d) the male rhinoceroses do not lose their collars as often as the female rhinoceroses do.

e) the tranquilizer used in immobilizing rhinoceroses is the same as used for other mammals.

Why is b wrong???
Can anyone explain....

a) The dose of tranquilizer delivered by a tranquilizer dart is large enough to give the rangers putting collars on rhinoceroses a generous margin of safety. Irrelevant; Margin of safety for rangers is not relevant to the argument

b) The fertility rate of un-collared female rhinoceroses has been increasing in the past few decades. Irrelevant; This does not give any information about the effect of Tranquilizers on fertility

c) Any stress that female rhinoceroses may suffer as a result of being immobilized and handled has little or no negative effect on their fertility.
"The substance in the tranquilizer is the reason for infertility, there is no other cause for infertility (i,e stress due to immobilization)

d) the male rhinoceroses do not lose their collars as often as the female rhinoceroses do.
irrelevant; the argument deals only with FEMALE rhinos.

e) the tranquilizer used in immobilizing rhinoceroses is the same as used for other mammals.
irrelevant; the argument deals only with rhinos.
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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2016, 09:09
The OA is correct and explanation provided above appears sufficient. If there are any specific questions, please post them here and then click again on the "Request Expert Reply" button.
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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2017, 23:32
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movements of many rhinoceroses because those animals wear radio collars. When, as often happens, a collar slips off, it is put back on. Putting a collar on a rhinoceros involves immobilizing the animal by shooting it with a tranquilizer dart. Female rhinoceroses that have been frequently recollared have significantly lower fertility rates than uncollared females. Probably, therefore, some substance in the tranquilizer inhibits fertility.

In evaluating the argument, it would be most useful to determine which of the following?

A. Whether there are more collared female rhinoceroses than uncollared female rhinoceroses in the park.
B. How the tranquilizer that is used for immobilizing rhinoceroses differs, if at all, from tranquilizers used in working with other large mammals
C. How often park rangers need to use tranquilizer darts to immobilize rhinoceroses for reasons other than attaching radio collars
D. Whether male rhinoceroses in the wildlife park lose their collars any more often than the park’s female rhinoceroses do
E. Whether radio collars are the only practical means that park rangers have for tracking the movements of rhinoceroses in the park

Kindly provide your explanation. I do not agree with OA.

this is hard and I dont think that I can choose c when in the test room.
this argument look like a causal argument. because A and B co exist, A cause B..
so, if our prethinking is that there is another cause and we look for this cause in answer choices as usual , we fail.

the key to success on CR is how to attack the argument. there are two ways
way 1, attack the logic of argument
way 2, attack the way evidence is presented.

we should remember these two. these is to help you to criticize the argument.they are simple

look at the way evidence is presented. recollared animals have low rate of fertility, so, dart is the cause. what if the uncollared also are transquilized many time but not for collaring. in this way the argument fall apart. choice C is this case

but honestly, even we read choice C, we do not see this scenario, because we are focusing on finding anther cause for a causal argument.

very hard. but we do need to do this question to get a score close to 700
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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2017, 13:09
Heisenberg12 wrote:
How does knowing if the female rhinos are shot with tranquilizers for attaching radio collars or not, affect the argument?

After all, we have to find something that evaluates the given conclusion viz. "tranquilizers inhibit fertility."

The conclusion is that some substance in the tranquilizer probably inhibits fertility.

We are comparing two groups of female rhinos: those who have been recollared frequently (and thus tranquilized frequently) and those who are uncollared (we don't know how often this group has been tranquilized). We know that the first group has lower fertility rates. If we somehow knew that the second group was rarely tranquilized, this would support the author's conclusion that the tranquilizer probably inhibits fertility. But if the second group is frequently tranquilized for other reasons, then the author's argument falls apart, and there must be another explanation for the difference in fertility rates.

I hope this helps!
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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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17 Jun 2017, 08:41
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Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen  [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2018, 07:31
priyankur_saha@ml.com wrote:
In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movements of many rhinoceroses because those animals wear radio collars. When, as often happens, a collar slips off, it is put back on. Putting a collar on a rhinoceros involves immobilizing the animal by shooting it with a tranquilizer dart. Female rhinoceroses that have been frequently recollared have significantly lower fertility rates than uncollared females. Probably, therefore, some substance in the tranquilizer inhibits fertility.

In evaluating the argument, it would be most useful to determine which of the following?

(A) Whether there are more collared female rhinoceroses than uncollared female rhinoceroses in the park.

(B) How the tranquilizer that is used for immobilizing rhinoceroses differs, if at all, from tranquilizers used in working with other large mammals

(C) How often park rangers need to use tranquilizer darts to immobilize rhinoceroses for reasons other than attaching radio collars

(D) Whether male rhinoceroses in the wildlife park lose their collars any more often than the park’s female rhinoceroses do

(E) Whether radio collars are the only practical means that park rangers have for tracking the movements of rhinoceroses in the park

this is hard. look at choice C.
if ranger use dart often for a purpose other than attaching collar,
here we have to infer that only animal with collar have lower fertility rate, animal immobilized for other purpose dose not have lower rate.
this point is hardest. most of us can not find out this point.
from this point we can see that this scenario weaken argument.
Re: In a certain wildlife park, park rangers are able to track the movemen &nbs [#permalink] 26 Feb 2018, 07:31

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