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In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of

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In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of  [#permalink]

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In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later generations lost all but the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho, and dozens of plays by Aeschylus and Euripides.


(A) resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria,

(B) the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and

(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,

(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,

(E) Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was


The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 263
Page: 695

Note : This question was deleted in Verbal Review 2017.


Natural History Vol. 103, No. 2, February 1994
NATURE's INFINITE BOOK Jared Diamond
Stinking Birds and Burning Books
https://archive.org/stream/naturalhistory10301amer/naturalhistory10301amer_djvu.txt
http://discovermagazine.com/1993/feb/speakingwithasin177
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Originally posted by superfreak on 15 Nov 2009, 03:11.
Last edited by Bunuel on 12 Dec 2018, 06:23, edited 5 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jan 2012, 23:51
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I think we should not miss the fine point of the text. Please read the underlined portion yet again and you will find that this is testing a style error i.e. wrong word order.
The question is: where was the library? : It was in Alexandria; it was the largest library of the ancient world; we should not take to think that the ancient world was at Alexandria, giving an absurd meaning

That is the reason A and B are thrown out.
C is wrong because of redundancy, as all have pointed out
D is the right choice
E tends to distort that meaning that there were many libraries in Alexandria and the one that was the largest was destroyed , leaving smaller ones without destruction, This meaning is not what the text intends to convey.

Incidentally, is a B run-on? A run-on is one where the conjugation is wrong. Either a comma is simply used where a conjunction or a different punctuation such as a period or semicolon is required. B is amply conjuncted with a coordinate conjunctiuon ‘and’. The first portion is a full sentence with a subject (the destroying of) and a full verb (resulted) and the second part is a full clause. So how is B a run-on?
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New post 25 Oct 2014, 13:56
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In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later generations lost all but the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho, and dozens of plays by Aeschylus and Euripides.

(A) resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria,
(B) the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and
(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(E) Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was

Let me try.

In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later generations lost all but the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho, and dozens of plays by Aeschylus and Euripides.

(A) resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria,
Wrong. Be aware of "RESULTING FROM......". This verb-ing modifier is always wrong in GMAT.

(B) the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and
Wrong. "resulted and...." does not make any sense. Absolutely wrong.

(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
Wrong. "Because of the result of" is redundant.

(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
CORRECT.

(E) Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was
Wrong. 2 problems.
- Meaning: let read "Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world". It's very unclear. Let break the phrase into two parts (1) Alexandria (2) the largest library of the ancient world, the structure is Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world. It means the largest library of the ancient world OF Alexandria. Does it make sense? Nope. Double possessive should be avoided in GMAT.
- Parallelism problem: "and" is a sign of parallel structure. But we have cause and effect, thus "and" is wrong.

Hope it helps.
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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2010, 13:08
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the "library at Alexandria" is the subject in the sentence, not "Alexandria"
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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of  [#permalink]

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superfreak wrote:
Hello, not sure why D (the OA) is better than A. Any thoughts?

In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later generations lost all but the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho, and dozens of plays by Aeschylus and Euripides.

(A) resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria,
(B) the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and
(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(E) Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was


elevinty wrote:
harikattamudi wrote:
Please explain why what is wrong with 'E' and also, what makes 'E' to be correct.

Thanks
-H

you have an idiom problem here, if you are going to say (the result was) you have to add (that) after was, and in E it's omitted.


Hi Elevinty,

Buddy, We don't have any idiom like "result was that". The idiom for result are below :
as a result (of something)
because of something that has happened. As a result of the accident, Tom couldn't walk for six months. We couldn't afford to borrow money for a house as a result of the rise in interest rates.

result from something
to emerge from something; to be the outcome of something. It will be interesting to see what results from your efforts. Nothing resulted from all that work.

result in something
to achieve something; to bring about something; to cause something to happen. I hope that this will result in the police finding your car. All my effort resulted in nothing at all.


Hi superfreak,
Let's analyze original sentence after removing all middlemen (prepositional phrases).

In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction [strike]of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria[/strike], later generations lost all [strike]all but[/strike] (just using "except" for idiom "all but") the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry[strike]of Pindarand Sappho[/strike] , and dozens of plays [strike]by Aeschylus and Euripides[/strike].
so sentence is :
In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction, later generations lost all except the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics,most of the poetry and dozens of plays.
Now we can see clearly that "resulting from the destruction" is modifying "Later Generation" which is wrong. The meaning of sentence is more or less that later generation which is resulting from the destruciton.
So A is wrong.

(B) the destroying [strike]of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria[/strike] resulted and
Here looks like, "destroying resulted" and "later generation" both lost something.
(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
"because of the result of" comes many time in GMAT and this construction is wrong because of redundancy.
(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
Correct and concise. as a result of destruction, later generation lost something.
(E) Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was[/quote]
"Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed" is a complete sentence so can not be followed with "and the result was",
moreover for coordinating conjunction "and", both part should be parallel which is not the case here.

If any question, please revert.


I hope my explanation helped, If indeed please give me Kudos.
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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2011, 13:06
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rphardu wrote:
superfreak wrote:
Hello, not sure why D (the OA) is better than A. Any thoughts?

In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later generations lost all but the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho, and dozens of plays by Aeschylus and Euripides.

(A) resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria,
(B) the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and
(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(E) Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was


elevinty wrote:
harikattamudi wrote:
Please explain why what is wrong with 'E' and also, what makes 'E' to be correct.

Thanks
-H

you have an idiom problem here, if you are going to say (the result was) you have to add (that) after was, and in E it's omitted.


Hi Elevinty,

Buddy, We don't have any idiom like "result was that". The idiom for result are below :
as a result (of something)
because of something that has happened. As a result of the accident, Tom couldn't walk for six months. We couldn't afford to borrow money for a house as a result of the rise in interest rates.

result from something
to emerge from something; to be the outcome of something. It will be interesting to see what results from your efforts. Nothing resulted from all that work.

result in something
to achieve something; to bring about something; to cause something to happen. I hope that this will result in the police finding your car. All my effort resulted in nothing at all.


Hi superfreak,
Let's analyze original sentence after removing all middlemen (prepositional phrases).

In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction [strike]of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria[/strike], later generations lost all [strike]all but[/strike] (just using "except" for idiom "all but") the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry[strike]of Pindarand Sappho[/strike] , and dozens of plays [strike]by Aeschylus and Euripides[/strike].
so sentence is :
In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction, later generations lost all except the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics,most of the poetry and dozens of plays.
Now we can see clearly that "resulting from the destruction" is modifying "Later Generation" which is wrong. The meaning of sentence is more or less that later generation which is resulting from the destruciton.
So A is wrong.

(B) the destroying [strike]of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria[/strike] resulted and
Here looks like, "destroying resulted" and "later generation" both lost something.
(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
"because of the result of" comes many time in GMAT and this construction is wrong because of redundancy.
(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
Correct and concise. as a result of destruction, later generation lost something.
(E) Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was

"Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed" is a complete sentence so can not be followed with "and the result was",
moreover for coordinating conjunction "and", both part should be parallel which is not the case here.

If any question, please revert.


I hope my explanation helped, If indeed please give me Kudos.[/quote]

I agree with your explanation except for the option E. First off, to use coordinating conjunction, I don't think both parts should be in parallel. The only requirement for coordinating conjunction is two independent clauses that should be related. And even if there is requirement for parallelism, I am not sure why "result was" is not in parallel. Could you please clarify?
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New post 23 Aug 2011, 07:27
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As usual, let me give a forthright and simple pathway to this topic, which can get complicated by the way one looks at it.

Do not please bother for a moment about any other thing.
it is the library at Alexandria that is an issue. Any choice that separates library and at Alexandria is essentially therefore uses a wrong word-order. You can kick out A, B and E in one stroke. Between C and D, C is wrong because of the redundancy ‘of because of the result of’

Then make merry with D, the remainder.
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New post 13 Jun 2013, 06:35
in 'C' and 'D'
why option choice is incorrect what are the main difference
because of the result of 'X', later generations lost
As a result of the 'X',later generations lost

both convey same meaning that because of result of destruction of ....
later generations lost....some stuff.

can some one help me to resolve these ambiguity in my reasoning?
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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2013, 02:52
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WarriorGmat wrote:
in 'C' and 'D'
why option choice is incorrect what are the main difference
because of the result of 'X', later generations lost
As a result of the 'X',later generations lost

both convey same meaning that because of result of destruction of ....
later generations lost....some stuff.

can some one help me to resolve these ambiguity in my reasoning?


Let me try

(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
This changes the meaning, it seems that the result was something else and because of that result, later generation lost acces
(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
This correctly states that the access was lost due to destruction.

Hope it helps!
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New post 12 Dec 2013, 04:38
In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later generations lost all but the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho, and dozens of plays by Aeschylus and Euripides.

(A) resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria,
(B) the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and
(C) because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
(E) Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was

RE D AND E
in these 2 choices, we have to independent clauses connected by "and", which is used for two independent ideas which have no causal relation.
because "and" is used for two independent ideas, the use of "and" in these choice is not logic

in A, "resulting..." must refer to the word after the comma. This make a wrong

in C, "because of" and "result of" is redundant
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New post 16 May 2017, 18:58
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I understood why wrong answers are incorrect.But i m unable to digest the right answer as well for the following reason.
d) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world
what is the largest of the ancient world modifying.?
It seems ambiguous to covey the meaning
1) the largest (library at Alexandria) of the ancient world.
2) the largest(city that is Alexandria) of the ancient world.
Can someone explain this ?
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New post 17 May 2017, 00:39
daagh wrote:
I think we should not miss the fine point of the text. Please read the underlined portion yet again and you will find that this is testing a style error i.e. wrong word order.
The question is: where was the library? : It was in Alexandria; it was the largest library of the ancient world; we should not take to think that the ancient world was at Alexandria, giving an absurd meaning

That is the reason A and B are thrown out.
C is wrong because of redundancy, as all have pointed out
D is the right choice
E tends to distort that meaning that there were many libraries in Alexandria and the one that was the largest was destroyed , leaving smaller ones without destruction, This meaning is not what the text intends to convey.

Incidentally, is a B run-on? A run-on is one where the conjugation is wrong. Either a comma is simply used where a conjunction or a different punctuation such as a period or semicolon is required. B is amply conjuncted with a coordinate conjunctiuon ‘and’. The first portion is a full sentence with a subject (the destroying of) and a full verb (resulted) and the second part is a full clause. So how is B a run-on?


among the lot, D is better. But what follows "In A.D. 391," should be an event right?Not the result of the event.

Because of that I went with option E, even though I was not that happy with the last phrase " and the result was" of option E
daagh ur insight will be helpful.
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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of  [#permalink]

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New post 20 May 2017, 12:07
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sandaki wrote:
daagh wrote:
I think we should not miss the fine point of the text. Please read the underlined portion yet again and you will find that this is testing a style error i.e. wrong word order.
The question is: where was the library? : It was in Alexandria; it was the largest library of the ancient world; we should not take to think that the ancient world was at Alexandria, giving an absurd meaning

That is the reason A and B are thrown out.
C is wrong because of redundancy, as all have pointed out
D is the right choice
E tends to distort that meaning that there were many libraries in Alexandria and the one that was the largest was destroyed , leaving smaller ones without destruction, This meaning is not what the text intends to convey.

Incidentally, is a B run-on? A run-on is one where the conjugation is wrong. Either a comma is simply used where a conjunction or a different punctuation such as a period or semicolon is required. B is amply conjuncted with a coordinate conjunctiuon ‘and’. The first portion is a full sentence with a subject (the destroying of) and a full verb (resulted) and the second part is a full clause. So how is B a run-on?


among the lot, D is better. But what follows "In A.D. 391," should be an event right?Not the result of the event.

Because of that I went with option E, even though I was not that happy with the last phrase " and the result was" of option E
daagh ur insight will be helpful.


The "event" that you seek is "lost". The later generations lost X in A.D. 391 - this loss was a result of the destruction of the library.
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New post 30 Aug 2017, 10:12
How is there a modifier error in A? verb-ing modifier followed by a comma & a clause can modify either the subject of the clause or the entire clause. So, isn't 'resulting from the destruction' modifying 'later generations lost...', and not the just the later generation
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New post 29 Sep 2017, 09:56
I have 2 general doubts in this question.
When and when not a comma is used before 'and'. ?
and can in any question a comma before 'and' be grounds enough to reject the option ?
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New post 29 Sep 2017, 12:39
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LoudGuardian wrote:
How is there a modifier error in A? verb-ing modifier followed by a comma & a clause can modify either the subject of the clause or the entire clause. So, isn't 'resulting from the destruction' modifying 'later generations lost...', and not the just the later generation



Hello LoudGuardian,

I am not sure if you still have this doubt. Nonetheless, here is the explanation in case someone else has the same doubt. :-)

It is true that when a verb-ing modifier starts a clause, it can modify either the subject or the entire clause.

Even if the opening verb-ing modifier modifies the entire clause, it must make sense with the subject of the modified action.

In this official sentence, the opening verb-ing modifiers seems to modify the clause later generations lost all....

So, the modified action is lost. Now who is the subject of the action lost? Later generations.

So does the modifier resulting from the destruction... make sense with the subject? Did later generations result from the destruction? Most definitely not.

This is the reason why use of the opening verb-ing modifier in this official sentence is incorrect.


We cover in excruciating details the correct usage of Verb-ing Modifiers with ample examples. In fact, the concepts dealing with these modifiers is part of our Free Trial course. You can just register yourself at e-gmat.com for free and learn about these modifiers.


Hope this helps. :-)
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New post 29 Sep 2017, 13:38
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cubs wrote:
I have 2 general doubts in this question.
When and when not a comma is used before 'and'. ?
and can in any question a comma before 'and' be grounds enough to reject the option ?



Hello cubs,

I will be glad to help you out with this one. :-)

1. Usage of comma + and is very common in the following two situations across GMAT SC:

i. It is used to join two independent clauses.

The 19-year-old pianist and composer performed his most recent work all over Europe, Asia, and North America last year, winning prestigious awards in both London and Tokyo for his achievement at such a young age, and he hopes to continue composing now that he has returned to Chicago.


ii. It joins more than two parallel elements in a list.

Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating rich foods high in fats, and alcohol consumption not only do damage by themselves but also aggravate genetic predispositions toward certain diseases.



2. The answer to your second question is no. Never reject or select any answer choice only on the basis of presence or absence of a punctuation mark. Look for at least one deterministic error to reject an answer choice.




Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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New post 09 Dec 2017, 23:30
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D) as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,

Isn't "the largest of the ancient world" wrongly modifying Alexandria?

Can some please help me with this doubt.
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New post 28 Mar 2018, 04:13
Quote:
In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later generations lost all but the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho, and dozens of plays by Aeschylus and Euripides.
A. resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria,
B. the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and
C. because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
D. as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
E. Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was


Hi mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn, sayantanc2k,
I start to doubt that my interpretation about participle modifier is incorrect after reading a correct example.

One correct example:
i dropped the groceries onto the floor, scaring the baby.
this is a "modifying the entire action" type of modifier.
what scared the baby? well, my dropping the groceries onto the floor did.
did *i* directly scare the baby? no.

similary,
the original sentence
resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later generations lost all but the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics,
anyone think this is another "modifying the entire action" type of modifier.
what resulted the loss? the destruction of the largest library.
Did "later generation" directly result from the destruction? no, their lost result from detruciton

Any expert help to clarify what's the difference between above two sentences?
Please point out my fault.

Thanks in advance
Have a nice day
>_~
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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Mar 2018, 21:08
zoezhuyan wrote:
Quote:
In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later generations lost all but the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics, most of the poetry of Pindar and Sappho, and dozens of plays by Aeschylus and Euripides.
A. resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria,
B. the destroying of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria resulted and
C. because of the result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
D. as a result of the destruction of the library at Alexandria, the largest of the ancient world,
E. Alexandria’s largest library of the ancient world was destroyed, and the result was


Hi mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn, sayantanc2k,
I start to doubt that my interpretation about participle modifier is incorrect after reading a correct example.

One correct example:
i dropped the groceries onto the floor, scaring the baby.
this is a "modifying the entire action" type of modifier.
what scared the baby? well, my dropping the groceries onto the floor did.
did *i* directly scare the baby? no.

similary,
the original sentence
resulting from the destruction of the largest library of the ancient world at Alexandria, later generations lost all but the Iliad and Odyssey among Greek epics,
anyone think this is another "modifying the entire action" type of modifier.
what resulted the loss? the destruction of the largest library.
Did "later generation" directly result from the destruction? no, their lost result from detruciton

Any expert help to clarify what's the difference between above two sentences?
Please point out my fault.

Thanks in advance
Have a nice day
>_~


Hi zoezhuyan!

I think your understanding is generally correct -- in general, it's perfectly fine to have a modifier which modifies the entire action, not just a noun. However, the problem here is resulting from. When we use "resulting from", it must always modify a noun or a noun phrase. If we instead use "as a result...", then that can modify an entire phrase/clause/action. For example,

CORRECT: Our bags got wet, as a result of the rain.
INCORRECT: Our bags got wet, resulting from the rain.

In both cases, we are modifying the entire action (our bags getting wet). However, we can't use "resulting from" to describe the whole action. This would be a correct use of "resulting from":

CORRECT: The damage to the house resulting from the rain was extensive.

Here, "resulting from the rain" is modifying "damage", which is a noun.

I hope that helps! :-)
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Re: In A.D. 391, resulting from the destruction of the largest library of   [#permalink] 29 Mar 2018, 21:08

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