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In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books

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Re: In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2019, 21:13
1
AkshdeepS wrote:
AjiteshArun : Please help me with this

The federal government’s books are being helped by
1. Boom in tax revenue
2. Lower defense spending
3. A drop in outlays for X
4. Proceeds from the sales of GM...

I believe "lower" is an adverb that is modifying "defense" (adjective)

Please let me know "boom, a drop, and proceeds" are also adverbs. Or

Can different parts of speech be parallel to each other i.e noun parallel to adjective or adjective parallel to adverb etc.

I am way too much confused in such questions.
Firstly, ignore both the in addition to... and the the automakers that were... because neither of them is part of the list of items introduced by the and.

This is the portion of the sentence that we are interested in:
The federal government’s books are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler.

The three items in the list are:
1. lower defense spending
2. a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid
(and)
3. proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler

All of these words (spending, drop, and proceeds) are capable of playing other roles in a sentence, but in this specific case, we are looking at a list of nouns.

Lower (here) is an adjective that describes the entire noun phrase defense spending (spending is a noun here). For example, consider lower employee satisfaction. Clearly, the intent is not to talk about the satisfaction of lower employees. The intent is to describe employee satisfaction as a whole. If you aren't sure about the word spending itself, check this dictionary entry for spending.

Drop also happens to be a noun in this case.

And finally, proceeds is also a noun in this case.
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Re: In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2019, 10:49
AjiteshArun wrote:
AkshdeepS wrote:
AjiteshArun : Please help me with this

The federal government’s books are being helped by
1. Boom in tax revenue
2. Lower defense spending
3. A drop in outlays for X
4. Proceeds from the sales of GM...

I believe "lower" is an adverb that is modifying "defense" (adjective)

Please let me know "boom, a drop, and proceeds" are also adverbs. Or

Can different parts of speech be parallel to each other i.e noun parallel to adjective or adjective parallel to adverb etc.

I am way too much confused in such questions.
Firstly, ignore both the in addition to... and the the automakers that were... because neither of them is part of the list of items introduced by the and.

This is the portion of the sentence that we are interested in:
The federal government’s books are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler.

The three items in the list are:
1. lower defense spending
2. a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid
(and)
3. proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler

All of these words (spending, drop, and proceeds) are capable of playing other roles in a sentence, but in this specific case, we are looking at a list of nouns.

Lower (here) is an adjective that describes the entire noun phrase defense spending (spending is a noun here). For example, consider lower employee satisfaction. Clearly, the intent is not to talk about the satisfaction of lower employees. The intent is to describe employee satisfaction as a whole. If you aren't sure about the word spending itself, check this dictionary entry for spending.

Drop also happens to be a noun in this case.

And finally, proceeds is also a noun in this case.


Thanks a lot Ajitesh. This makes things more clear. My other concern is regarding parallelism checking. I mean why did you ignore "lower" and choose only "spending" to make it parallel to " a drop". Don't we see the first word of the phrases to match it with the other one while looking for parallelism.

Lower = adjective : A drop = Noun

Why are we looking only word "spending" and not the entire noun phrase lower defense spending.
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SVP
User avatar
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Joined: 15 Jul 2015
Posts: 2216
Location: India
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V51
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Re: In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2019, 20:53
1
AkshdeepS wrote:
Thanks a lot Ajitesh. This makes things more clear. My other concern is regarding parallelism checking. I mean why did you ignore "lower" and choose only "spending" to make it parallel to " a drop". Don't we see the first word of the phrases to match it with the other one while looking for parallelism.

Lower = adjective : A drop = Noun

Why are we looking only word "spending" and not the entire noun phrase lower defense spending.
We are looking at the entire noun phrase (underlined in my previous reply). It's just that in this case, spending is the most important word in that phrase. That's the one we need (the first word may or may not be the most important). Think of it this way: if you were allowed to pick only one element in that phrase to replace the whole phrase, which one would you pick? You will almost certainly lose some meaning in the process, so it may be better to think of this as getting to the "least bad" outcome. For example:

The company benefited from lower taxes and higher government spending.

Look at this sentence as:
The company benefited from (A and B).

Now try to find which element (in A and B) fits best (least bad):
The company benefited from lower
The company benefited from taxes.

The company benefited from higher.
The company benefited from government.
The company benefited from spending.

So now we know that the company benefited from taxes and spending.

Try this in another sentence:
The government wants to lower taxes and increase its spending.

The government wants to taxes and its spending.
The government wants to lower and increase.

In this case, lower and increase are what we'll focus on.

Keep practicing. Don't limit yourself to "the first word", and let the rest of the sentence also help you.
_________________

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VP
VP
User avatar
V
Status: It's near - I can see.
Joined: 13 Apr 2013
Posts: 1455
Location: India
Concentration: International Business, Operations
Schools: INSEAD Jan '19
GMAT 1: 480 Q38 V22
GPA: 3.01
WE: Engineering (Real Estate)
Premium Member Reviews Badge
Re: In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2019, 22:39
AjiteshArun wrote:
AkshdeepS wrote:
Thanks a lot Ajitesh. This makes things more clear. My other concern is regarding parallelism checking. I mean why did you ignore "lower" and choose only "spending" to make it parallel to " a drop". Don't we see the first word of the phrases to match it with the other one while looking for parallelism.

Lower = adjective : A drop = Noun

Why are we looking only word "spending" and not the entire noun phrase lower defense spending.
We are looking at the entire noun phrase (underlined in my previous reply). It's just that in this case, spending is the most important word in that phrase. That's the one we need (the first word may or may not be the most important). Think of it this way: if you were allowed to pick only one element in that phrase to replace the whole phrase, which one would you pick? You will almost certainly lose some meaning in the process, so it may be better to think of this as getting to the "least bad" outcome. For example:

The company benefited from lower taxes and higher government spending.

Look at this sentence as:
The company benefited from (A and B).

Now try to find which element (in A and B) fits best (least bad):
The company benefited from lower
The company benefited from taxes.

The company benefited from higher.
The company benefited from government.
The company benefited from spending.

So now we know that the company benefited from taxes and spending.

Try this in another sentence:
The government wants to lower taxes and increase its spending.

The government wants to taxes and its spending.
The government wants to lower and increase.

In this case, lower and increase are what we'll focus on.

Keep practicing. Don't limit yourself to "the first word", and let the rest of the sentence also help you.


Thanks again. Your examples are crystal clear. I need to practice more and more to understand the deepness of //ism.
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Re: In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books   [#permalink] 04 Mar 2019, 22:39

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