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In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books

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Re: In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2019, 21:13
1
AkshdeepS wrote:
AjiteshArun : Please help me with this

The federal government’s books are being helped by
1. Boom in tax revenue
2. Lower defense spending
3. A drop in outlays for X
4. Proceeds from the sales of GM...

I believe "lower" is an adverb that is modifying "defense" (adjective)

Please let me know "boom, a drop, and proceeds" are also adverbs. Or

Can different parts of speech be parallel to each other i.e noun parallel to adjective or adjective parallel to adverb etc.

I am way too much confused in such questions.
Firstly, ignore both the in addition to... and the the automakers that were... because neither of them is part of the list of items introduced by the and.

This is the portion of the sentence that we are interested in:
The federal government’s books are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler.

The three items in the list are:
1. lower defense spending
2. a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid
(and)
3. proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler

All of these words (spending, drop, and proceeds) are capable of playing other roles in a sentence, but in this specific case, we are looking at a list of nouns.

Lower (here) is an adjective that describes the entire noun phrase defense spending (spending is a noun here). For example, consider lower employee satisfaction. Clearly, the intent is not to talk about the satisfaction of lower employees. The intent is to describe employee satisfaction as a whole. If you aren't sure about the word spending itself, check this dictionary entry for spending.

Drop also happens to be a noun in this case.

And finally, proceeds is also a noun in this case.
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Re: In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2019, 10:49
AjiteshArun wrote:
AkshdeepS wrote:
AjiteshArun : Please help me with this

The federal government’s books are being helped by
1. Boom in tax revenue
2. Lower defense spending
3. A drop in outlays for X
4. Proceeds from the sales of GM...

I believe "lower" is an adverb that is modifying "defense" (adjective)

Please let me know "boom, a drop, and proceeds" are also adverbs. Or

Can different parts of speech be parallel to each other i.e noun parallel to adjective or adjective parallel to adverb etc.

I am way too much confused in such questions.
Firstly, ignore both the in addition to... and the the automakers that were... because neither of them is part of the list of items introduced by the and.

This is the portion of the sentence that we are interested in:
The federal government’s books are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler.

The three items in the list are:
1. lower defense spending
2. a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid
(and)
3. proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler

All of these words (spending, drop, and proceeds) are capable of playing other roles in a sentence, but in this specific case, we are looking at a list of nouns.

Lower (here) is an adjective that describes the entire noun phrase defense spending (spending is a noun here). For example, consider lower employee satisfaction. Clearly, the intent is not to talk about the satisfaction of lower employees. The intent is to describe employee satisfaction as a whole. If you aren't sure about the word spending itself, check this dictionary entry for spending.

Drop also happens to be a noun in this case.

And finally, proceeds is also a noun in this case.


Thanks a lot Ajitesh. This makes things more clear. My other concern is regarding parallelism checking. I mean why did you ignore "lower" and choose only "spending" to make it parallel to " a drop". Don't we see the first word of the phrases to match it with the other one while looking for parallelism.

Lower = adjective : A drop = Noun

Why are we looking only word "spending" and not the entire noun phrase lower defense spending.
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Re: In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2019, 20:53
1
AkshdeepS wrote:
Thanks a lot Ajitesh. This makes things more clear. My other concern is regarding parallelism checking. I mean why did you ignore "lower" and choose only "spending" to make it parallel to " a drop". Don't we see the first word of the phrases to match it with the other one while looking for parallelism.

Lower = adjective : A drop = Noun

Why are we looking only word "spending" and not the entire noun phrase lower defense spending.
We are looking at the entire noun phrase (underlined in my previous reply). It's just that in this case, spending is the most important word in that phrase. That's the one we need (the first word may or may not be the most important). Think of it this way: if you were allowed to pick only one element in that phrase to replace the whole phrase, which one would you pick? You will almost certainly lose some meaning in the process, so it may be better to think of this as getting to the "least bad" outcome. For example:

The company benefited from lower taxes and higher government spending.

Look at this sentence as:
The company benefited from (A and B).

Now try to find which element (in A and B) fits best (least bad):
The company benefited from lower
The company benefited from taxes.

The company benefited from higher.
The company benefited from government.
The company benefited from spending.

So now we know that the company benefited from taxes and spending.

Try this in another sentence:
The government wants to lower taxes and increase its spending.

The government wants to taxes and its spending.
The government wants to lower and increase.

In this case, lower and increase are what we'll focus on.

Keep practicing. Don't limit yourself to "the first word", and let the rest of the sentence also help you.
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Re: In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2019, 22:39
AjiteshArun wrote:
AkshdeepS wrote:
Thanks a lot Ajitesh. This makes things more clear. My other concern is regarding parallelism checking. I mean why did you ignore "lower" and choose only "spending" to make it parallel to " a drop". Don't we see the first word of the phrases to match it with the other one while looking for parallelism.

Lower = adjective : A drop = Noun

Why are we looking only word "spending" and not the entire noun phrase lower defense spending.
We are looking at the entire noun phrase (underlined in my previous reply). It's just that in this case, spending is the most important word in that phrase. That's the one we need (the first word may or may not be the most important). Think of it this way: if you were allowed to pick only one element in that phrase to replace the whole phrase, which one would you pick? You will almost certainly lose some meaning in the process, so it may be better to think of this as getting to the "least bad" outcome. For example:

The company benefited from lower taxes and higher government spending.

Look at this sentence as:
The company benefited from (A and B).

Now try to find which element (in A and B) fits best (least bad):
The company benefited from lower
The company benefited from taxes.

The company benefited from higher.
The company benefited from government.
The company benefited from spending.

So now we know that the company benefited from taxes and spending.

Try this in another sentence:
The government wants to lower taxes and increase its spending.

The government wants to taxes and its spending.
The government wants to lower and increase.

In this case, lower and increase are what we'll focus on.

Keep practicing. Don't limit yourself to "the first word", and let the rest of the sentence also help you.


Thanks again. Your examples are crystal clear. I need to practice more and more to understand the deepness of //ism.
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In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2019, 21:42
VERITAS OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

The most obvious decision point in this problem is the verb choice at the beginning, but it is a false decision point! All of these tenses create a logical timeline, so you need to look elsewhere for your decisions. At the end of the choices you have a series that needs to be parallel.
Choice B violates that standard by adding an additional "by" in front of "proceeds."
C does it in front of "the automakers,"
and D does the same in front of "a drop". In each case, either all items need "by" or only the first one needs "by," so all are incorrect. Choice E improperly connects the list, as "..., also by" is not a valid connector after a comma.
Only choice A properly connects the list and keeps it parallel.
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Re: In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Apr 2019, 03:08
first question:In this part,a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, does it modify lower defense spending?

second question: As the sentence is connected by conjunction "and" before proceeds, then is "proceeds" the verb of the federal government’s books? If yes, then "proceeds" is singular verb, but subject,the federal government’s books, is plural.

please, remove my confusion. I'll be grateful. :-)
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Re: In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Apr 2019, 18:23
JakariaShuvo wrote:
first question:In this part,a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, does it modify lower defense spending?

second question: As the sentence is connected by conjunction "and" before proceeds, then is "proceeds" the verb of the federal government’s books? If yes, then "proceeds" is singular verb, but subject,the federal government’s books, is plural.

please, remove my confusion. I'll be grateful. :-)
1. The drop is actually part of the list.

The federal government’s books are being helped by
(a) lower defense spending,
(b) a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid,
and
(c) proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers that were taken over by Washington in 2009.

2. Proceeds is a noun in this case. Take a look at this post.
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New post 09 Aug 2019, 21:18
i understand that parallelism is being tested over but isnt like used for comparison but how come Like is giving examples over here

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In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 10 Aug 2019, 09:25
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Suarab

I understand your point regarding the use of 'like' to denote examples. But let's not get stuck at that. After all it is not underlined and it is in all the choices. What is the point in trying to say that the author is wrong? We know such an error will not happen in the official test.

That aside, see what this topic can teach you. Certainly, it has some points on parallelism.
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Re: In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 06:48
saurabh9gupta wrote:
i understand that parallelism is being tested over but isnt like used for comparison but how come Like is giving examples over here

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Since 'like' is not a decision point, it is irrelevant. SC is mostly about "best available option".
Note that using 'like' for examples is common in colloquial usage and in fact, if you search English grammar articles online, you will get many that say that like is used to give examples. In formal language, we may still not accept 'like' for examples though grammarians will have their own views. GMAT grammar is also ever evolving and what was not acceptable yesterday, may become acceptable today in non underlined part and tomorrow even in underlined part!
The point is to keep an open mind in non "hard rules" cases.
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New post 18 Aug 2019, 14:47
It's quite clear that parallelism is being tested here, but cmon Veritas "like" to introduce examples? I've never seen this accepted on the GMAT. I know this stuff changes all the time, but at least in the last 3 years I've always observed that when Like is used to introduce examples it is incorrect. Perhaps this is because so many young people, particularly Americans, speak saying "like". "Like you know, whatever"....lol

(A) are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers

(B) have been helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and by proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, automakers

(C) have been helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, and by the automakers

(D) are being helped by lower defense spending, by a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and (by) proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers

(E) were helped by lower defense spending and a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, also by proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers

E requires a conjunction.

Official Explanation:
The most obvious decision point in this problem is the verb choice at the beginning, but it is a false decision point! All of these tenses create a logical timeline, so you need to look elsewhere for your decisions. At the end of the choices you have a series that needs to be parallel. Choice B violates that standard by adding an additional "by" in front of "proceeds." C does it in front of "the automakers," and D does the same in front of "a drop". In each case, either all items need "by" or only the first one needs "by," so all are incorrect. Choice E improperly connects the list, as "..., also by" is not a valid connector after a comma. Only choice A properly connects the list and keeps it parallel.

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Re: In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2019, 21:55
alphaseeker wrote:
In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers that were taken over by Washington in 2009.


(A) are being helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers

(B) have been helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and by proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, automakers

(C) have been helped by lower defense spending, a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, and by the automakers

(D) are being helped by lower defense spending, by a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, and proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers

(E) were helped by lower defense spending and a drop in outlays for benefits like Medicaid, also by proceeds from the sales of General Motors and Chrysler, the automakers


the simplest way is to match the parallel elements in the list.. go slow to get it right
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Re: In addition to the boom in tax revenue, the federal government’s books   [#permalink] 21 Aug 2019, 21:55

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