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In considering the origin of species, it is quite conceivable that a n

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In considering the origin of species, it is quite conceivable that a n  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 05 Sep 2019, 02:06
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 194, Date : 08-Jul-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


In considering the origin of species, it is quite conceivable that a naturalist, reflecting on the mutual affinities of organic beings, on their embryological relations, their geographical distributions, geological successions and other such facts, might conclude that each species had not independently created, but had descended, like varieties, from other species. Nevertheless, such conclusion, even if well founded, would be unsatisfactory, until it could be shown how the innumerable species inhabiting this world have been modified, to acquire that perfection of structure and co-adaptation which most justly excites our admiration.

Naturalists continually refer to external conditions, such as climate, food, etc. as the only possible cause of variation. In one very limited sense, this may be true; but it is preposterous to attribute to mere external conditions, the structure, for instance, of the woodpecker, with its feet, tail, beak, and tongue, so admirably adapted to catch insects under the bark of trees. In case of the mistletoe, which draws its nourishment from certain trees, which has seeds that must be transported by certain birds, and which has flowers with separate sexes absolutely requiring the agency of certain insects to bring pollen from one flower to the other, it is equally preposterous to account for the structure of this parasite, with its relations to several distinct organic beings, by the effects of external conditions, or of habit, or of the volition of the plant itself.
1. What is the primary purpose of the author in writing the passage?

(A) To analyze the origin of species
(B) To disprove a particular group of naturalists
(C) To explore the effects of external conditions on evolution of species
(D) To substantiate the existence of innumerable species on the planet
(E) To examine the structure of different species


2. A naturalist is likely to consider for mutual affinities of organic beings, each of the following factors EXCEPT:

(A) Geological succession
(B) Geography
(C) Biology
(D) Volition
(E) Co-dependence


3. Which of the following can be inferred from the information in the passage?

(A) Most naturalists believe that each species has been created independently of others.
(B)The unique characteristics of the mistletoe can, to a large extent, be explained as being the result of its external conditions.
(C) commonly accepted belief amongst naturalists about the origin of species is
(D) The woodpecker was most likely created independently and has not descended from any other species.
(E) mistletoe cannot reproduce by itself but needs the assistance of other species.


4. The tone of the author can best be described as:

(A) Critical
(B) Impartial
(C) Cynical
(D) Disbelieving
(E) Exuberant


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Originally posted by TheMechanic on 31 May 2017, 23:59.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 05 Sep 2019, 02:06, edited 3 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (430).
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New post 05 Jun 2017, 06:10
1
Need some expert's explanation here. Especially with question 2 and 4.
2. My doubt here is since naturalists believe that external conditions are the cause of variation , i chose Biology as the option.
4. How do we deduce the author is impartial. The Author seems not to believe in that external conditions are alone responsible ,so i chose disbelieving
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Re: In considering the origin of species, it is quite conceivable that a n  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2019, 11:49
Interesting question!

I got 2/4 correct. My approaches are as follows:

Question1: Actually I expected something more like "how naturalists define the origin of species" stemming from the passage, but the closest answer to that was A, so I took it.
Question2: So debatable question for me. I got confused between D and E and took D as a correct answer. I think an expert answer would be great for this question.
Question3: The last sentence of the passage clearly indicates that mistletoes require some intermediary during their reproducing phase, so E was the clear answer
Question4: Author just explains how naturalists consider origin of species but do not mention any subjective judgment of it. He doesn't criticize, disbelieve or talk energetic about it or just takes his own approach to achieve his self-interest. So impartial would be the best fit for that.

Please, let me know my flaws or problem in my logic.

If helpful give kudos :)
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Re: In considering the origin of species, it is quite conceivable that a n  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2019, 21:54
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krishnabalu sisaqov Here it is.

Official Explanation


Topic

Origin of Species

Scope

Whether different species originated independently or whether, at least some of them, have descended from other species

Passage Map

P 1 – To state that it cannot be concluded for sure that each species has descended from some other species rather than having come into existence independently

P 2 – To contradict naturalists who refer to external conditions as the only possible cause of variations amongst species


1. What is the primary purpose of the author in writing the passage?

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation:

The author has conceded the current line of thought about the origin of different species found on earth. However, he also points out inconsistencies which he is convinced need to be delved into further. Hence, option (A) is the correct answer.

(B) The author does not disprove anyone. He merely states that some inconsistencies in a belief make it important to revisit that belief.
(C) The author talks of factors other than external that need to be explored—‘it is equally …plant itself. ’
(D) The author does not try to substantiate anything in the passage.
(E) The author does not dedicate the entire passage to discussing the structure of different species.

Answer: A


2. A naturalist is likely to consider for mutual affinities of organic beings, each of the following factors EXCEPT:

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation:

Towards the end of para 1, the author has put forward his opinion that besides the factors mentioned by naturalists (the options), it is imperative to consider how such perfect co-dependence exists between species. Hence, option (E) is the correct answer. A, B, and C are mentioned in the opening sentence of Para 1 and D is mentioned in the last sentence of para 2.

Answer: E


3. Which of the following can be inferred from the information in the passage?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

The last part of the second para clearly explains that the mistletoe has flowers having separate sexes, so it needs the assistance of certain insects to bring pollen from one flower to the other. It obviously can’t do so on its own. Thus, (E) is the correct answer.

(A) Opposite. Most naturalists believe that each species has descended from some other species.
(B) Opposite. The author states, in the last sentence of the passage, that the unique characteristics of the woodpecker and the mistletoe cannot be explained merely as the effect of external conditions.
(C) Opposite. According to the author, this commonly accepted belief is clearly not sufficient to explain the existence of species such as the woodpecker and the mistletoe.
(D) This may or may not be true but cannot be ascertained for sure from the passage.

Answer: E


4. The tone of the author can best be described as:

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

The author has first stated the accepted theories about origin of species. Then, he has put forth his opinion and substantiated it with relevant examples. Hence, (B) is the correct answer.

(A) The author is not critical of the views—he merely does not accept them as the final explanation.
(C) The words are extreme—the author does agree to the prevalent line of thought, but he also wants the alternatives explored.
(D) Same as C.
(E) The author has not used any word/phrase which would imply exuberance.

Answer: B


Hope it helps
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Re: In considering the origin of species, it is quite conceivable that a n   [#permalink] 09 Jul 2019, 21:54
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