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In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce

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In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2019, 03:40
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A
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Question Stats:

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In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce lower-cost electricity, Smith-Diatom is developing a new way to make dye-sensitive solar cells, in which photons strike light-sensitive dyes. The process uses diatoms, which are unicellular algae that have silicon shells with a complex structure. First, the organic material is removed, and then the shells are coated with a titanium dioxide film that acts as a semiconductor. The diatoms' structure results in more photon activity and thus more efficient production of electricity than with current dye-sensitized solar cells, which in turn lowers the cost.

Which of the following considerations would, if true, most strongly support the hypothesis that the plan, if implemented, will produce low-cost electricity from dye-sensitive solar cells?

(A) Diatoms are an important link in oceanic food chains and help cycle carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
(B) The current cost of electricity produced by dye-sensitive solar cells is roughly three times that of non-solar electricity.
(C) Because diatoms occur naturally, no special engineering processes are needed to produce the basic dye-sensitive solar cell structures.
(D) Dye-sensitive solar cells work somewhat more efficiently in lower light than previous solar cell technologies.
(E) The production of dye-sensitive solar cells primarily uses materials that do not harm the environment.



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Re: In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2019, 05:06
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adkikani wrote:
Quote:
D. Dye-sensitive solar cells work somewhat more efficiently in lower light than previous solar cell technologies.

Where in the argument are we comparing the role of outside environment favoring Dye-sensitive solar cells?
Though we can bring outside info in this strengthen question, we need to stick to the scope of argument: how the mentioned
advantages of dye-sensitive solar cells can help us in producing low cost electricity than existing / previous technologies.


Hi,

The most likely reason for someone choosing is mixing up lower cost with lower light. Otherwise, there is no reason for this to be chosen as correct answer.

Having said that, the para is full of scientific terms, which are not within the scope of GMAT.
SO what? So, there has to be a simpler way to get to correct answer..

Let us see what the para says..
The crux is the solar energy produced through Diatoms is going to be cheaper...
Diatoms >>>>> more photon activity >>>>more efficient production of light>>>>lower cost of producing electricity


Now we are looking for strengthener...
The likely answers could be..
1) There are no other costs involved while shifting to Diatoms.
2) No related drawbacks of this new technology that could result in some hidden expenses.
3) No other cheaper means are available....[b]But may not work here, as we are comparing just with current dye-sensitized solar cells
[/b]

So, we should not expect any answer in lines with some scientific terms, but something based on NO hidden expenses.

ONLY C talks of extra expense by talking of no special engineering processes are needed. Hence correct.
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Re: In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Apr 2019, 02:03
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Bunuel wrote:
In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce lower-cost electricity, Smith-Diatom is developing a new way to make dye-sensitive solar cells, in which photons strike light-sensitive dyes. The process uses diatoms, which are unicellular algae that have silicon shells with a complex structure. First, the organic material is removed, and then the shells are coated with a titanium dioxide film that acts as a semiconductor. The diatoms' structure results in more photon activity and thus more efficient production of electricity than with current dye-sensitized solar cells, which in turn lowers the cost.

Which of the following considerations would, if true, most strongly support the hypothesis that the plan, if implemented, will produce low-cost electricity from dye-sensitive solar cells?

A. Diatoms are an important link in oceanic food chains and help cycle carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
B. The current cost of electricity produced by dye-sensitive solar cells is roughly three times that of non-solar electricity.
C. Because diatoms occur naturally, no special engineering processes are needed to produce the basic dye-sensitive solar cell structures.
D. Dye-sensitive solar cells work somewhat more efficiently in lower light than previous solar cell technologies.
E. The production of dye-sensitive solar cells primarily uses materials that do not harm the environment.

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Verbal Review 2020 NEW QUESTION

The argument is that the more efficient diatom will make 'low-cost electricity' better than the current tech. The weakest link in the logic is that producing the diatom might be so expensive so as to negate any benefits from the cheaper electricity. Then this is the natural thing we need to strengthen. Other possibilities include how easy it is to sell/implement diatoms in the current system. As we know what to look for, we can just look for it, without wasting time on irrelevant info. This is a Precise approach.

(C) is the only option which does this, by saying that they are easy to make.
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Re: In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Apr 2019, 18:40
DavidTutorexamPAL gmat1393 VeritasKarishma chetan2u nightblade354

Wow, an astonishing percentage of students chose D!!!

Quote:
In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce lower-cost electricity, Smith-Diatom is developing a new way to make dye-sensitive solar cells, in which photons strike light-sensitive dyes. The process uses diatoms, which are unicellular algae that have silicon shells with a complex structure. First, the organic material is removed, and then the shells are coated with a titanium dioxide film that acts as a semiconductor. The diatoms' structure results in more photon activity and thus more efficient production of electricity than with current dye-sensitized solar cells, which in turn lowers the cost.

Which of the following considerations would, if true, most strongly support the hypothesis that the plan, if implemented, will produce low-cost electricity from dye-sensitive solar cells?


Quote:
D. Dye-sensitive solar cells work somewhat more efficiently in lower light than previous solar cell technologies.

Where in the argument are we comparing the role of outside environment favoring Dye-sensitive solar cells?
Though we can bring outside info in this strengthen question, we need to stick to the scope of argument: how the mentioned
advantages of dye-sensitive solar cells can help us in producing low cost electricity than existing / previous technologies.
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Re: In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2019, 16:20
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Hi adkikani

Can you please change the tag of the question to be' strengthen'?
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Re: In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce  [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2019, 21:36
The plan: to investigate a new cost-effective method of developing dye-sensitive solar cells
What do we know?
- There's a new method to produce dye-sensitive cells that uses organic material.
- the passage then goes on to describe the mechanics of this efficiency

What will be useful to know in order to assess whether The plan will work?

A. Diatoms are an important link in oceanic food chains and help cycle carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

An understanding of the importance of Diatoms to the oceanic food chains neither strengthens or weakens the decision to pursue the plan -->Eliminate (A)

B. The current cost of electricity produced by dye-sensitive solar cells is roughly three times that of non-solar electricity.
This actually presents the business case for investigating a new method of developing dye-sensitive solar cells, but it does not have any bearing whatsoever on "The plan" above.

-->Eliminate (B)

C. Because diatoms occur naturally, no special engineering processes are needed to produce the basic dye-sensitive solar cell structures.
Ok. So as a business, I don't need to invest any money or research in order to develop special engineering processes to basic start production. Good to know.

Keep

D. Dye-sensitive solar cells work somewhat more efficiently in lower light than previous solar cell technologies.
Information on the efficiency of dye-sensitive solar cells does not affect The plan at all.
Eliminate
E. The production of dye-sensitive solar cells primarily uses materials that do not harm the environment

So what? This doesn't affect the plan. It's a qualitative consideration, but it doesn't affect 'The plan' above.

Eliminate

Therefore C is correct
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Re: In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce  [#permalink]

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New post 19 May 2019, 02:59
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Hello Everyone,
Though not an expert but would like to add one of the insights I saw in this question:

I think the explaination for Option D is not that its out of scope but correct reasoning is something else.
The diatoms' structure results in more photon activity and thus more efficient production of electricity than with current dye-sensitized solar cells, which in turn lowers the cost.

Remember that the currently used solar cells are also dye-sensitized. It's just the ones proposed are more optimized. Our question stem asks to strengthen the plan of implementing the new optimized dye-sensitized solar cells and we need to strengthen that part.

What option D says is -
Dye-sensitive solar cells work somewhat more efficiently in lower light than previous solar cell technologies.

It's a comparison of CURRENT ( because of the verb WORK) Dye-Sensitive solar cells to PREVIOUS solar cell technologies and thus will not strengthen the plan.

So, it's not that the option is out of scope, its just that the option strengthens the wrong part of the argument.
PS: Had it been WILL WORK and comparison would have been in future optimized dyes to the current ones then the option D would have been the correct answer.

Let me know if in any case I have thought wrongly
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Re: In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce  [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2019, 08:16
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Hi, I believe strengthen and weaken question stems should be read carefully since many a times they also give clear instructions on what the conclusion is and what is required of the answer.
The question stem in this case says "Which of the following considerations would, if true, most strongly support the hypothesis that the plan, if implemented, will produce low-cost electricity from dye-sensitive solar cells?"
Hence it is clear that author concludes by saying that production of electricity from dye-sensitive solar cells will be low cost. We need to strengthen this conclusion.
Choice C states that no special engineering processes are needed, hence the production of electricity can be assumed to be of low cost. Best choice.
Choice D states that Dye-sensitive solar cells work somewhat more efficiently, this is already stated in the conclusion of the passage; The diatoms' structure results in more photon activity and thus more efficient production of electricity than with current dye-sensitized solar cells, which in turn lowers the cost. How will mentioning the same thing result in strengthening the conclusion?
Hope what I am saying is right!
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In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2019, 19:12
Dear VeritasKarishma AjiteshArun,

I have 2 questions on choice D. Please help :please :please :please

Choice D : Dye-sensitive solar cells work somewhat more efficiently in lower light than previous solar cell technologies.


Q1. Does Dye-sensitive solar cells in choice D. mean the new one (Smith-Diatom's plan) or the current one or both as a whole?
Note that the question stem also mentions "Dye-sensitive solar cells", which actually means the new one. However, choice D. seems to compare between 2 technologies, i.e. "Dye-sensitive solar cells" and "previous solar cell technologies". So, I am not sure how to interpret "Dye-sensitive solar cells" in choice D.

Q2. Could you please provide your explanation on why choice D. is incorrect? Is it because the passage already mentions that new dye-sensitive solar cells are "more efficient" than the current ones, so choice D. just repeats the given information. (OE does not touch upon this point).
If not, could you explain how information given in choice D. is different from that given in the passage?

Thank you in advance!
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In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2019, 11:29
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varotkorn wrote:
Dear VeritasKarishma AjiteshArun,

I have 2 questions on choice D. Please help :please :please :please

Choice D : Dye-sensitive solar cells work somewhat more efficiently in lower light than previous solar cell technologies.


Q1. Does Dye-sensitive solar cells in choice D. mean the new one (Smith-Diatom's plan) or the current one or both as a whole?
Note that the question stem also mentions "Dye-sensitive solar cells", which actually means the new one. However, choice D. seems to compare between 2 technologies, i.e. "Dye-sensitive solar cells" and "previous solar cell technologies". So, I am not sure how to interpret "Dye-sensitive solar cells" in choice D.

Q2. Could you please provide your explanation on why choice D. is incorrect? Is it because the passage already mentions that new dye-sensitive solar cells are "more efficient" than the current ones, so choice D. just repeats the given information. (OE does not touch upon this point).
If not, could you explain how information given in choice D. is different from that given in the passage?

Thank you in advance!
Hi varotkorn,

1. SD is working on "a new way to make" DSSCs (it is planning to use diatoms, so that's the "innovation" here), so it is likely that there are other DSSCs out there that don't use diatoms. Option D doesn't specify anything about the DSSCs that it discusses, so I'd have to say that it is talking about DSSCs in general.

2. Your first question helps us see why D is incorrect. Option D just introduces information about DSSCs in general, and gives us no reason to believe that "the (Smith-Diatom's) plan, if implemented, will produce low-cost electricity from dye-sensitive solar cells". It just says that DSSCs are somewhat better in low light conditions than previous solar tech. But how will the plan involving diatoms make electricity from DSSCs cheaper?

The correct option adds {diatoms are not likely to be expensive} to what the question says {diatoms increase the effectiveness of DSSCs}. The correct option thus gives us some reason (more than any other option) to believe that the cost of the new tech is not going to offset the efficiency gains.
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In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2019, 22:37
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Bunuel wrote:
In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce lower-cost electricity, Smith-Diatom is developing a new way to make dye-sensitive solar cells, in which photons strike light-sensitive dyes. The process uses diatoms, which are unicellular algae that have silicon shells with a complex structure. First, the organic material is removed, and then the shells are coated with a titanium dioxide film that acts as a semiconductor. The diatoms' structure results in more photon activity and thus more efficient production of electricity than with current dye-sensitized solar cells, which in turn lowers the cost.

Which of the following considerations would, if true, most strongly support the hypothesis that the plan, if implemented, will produce low-cost electricity from dye-sensitive solar cells?

(A) Diatoms are an important link in oceanic food chains and help cycle carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
(B) The current cost of electricity produced by dye-sensitive solar cells is roughly three times that of non-solar electricity.
(C) Because diatoms occur naturally, no special engineering processes are needed to produce the basic dye-sensitive solar cell structures.
(D) Dye-sensitive solar cells work somewhat more efficiently in lower light than previous solar cell technologies.
(E) The production of dye-sensitive solar cells primarily uses materials that do not harm the environment.



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Verbal Review 2020 NEW QUESTION


Smith-Diatom is developing a new way to make dye-sensitive solar cells
The process uses diatoms.
The diatoms' structure results in more photon activity and thus more efficient production of electricity than with current dye-sensitized solar cells.
Due to more photon activity, the cost is lowered with diatoms.

Which of the following considerations would, if true, most strongly support the hypothesis that the plan, if implemented, will produce low-cost electricity from dye-sensitive solar cells?
We need to support production of lower cost electricity from new dye-sensitive solar cells (presumably lower than the current cost of producing electricity from current dye-sensitive solar cells).

(A) Diatoms are an important link in oceanic food chains and help cycle carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Irrelevant.

(B) The current cost of electricity produced by dye-sensitive solar cells is roughly three times that of non-solar electricity.

Current dye-sensitive solar cells vs non solar is not our argument. Incorrect.

(C) Because diatoms occur naturally, no special engineering processes are needed to produce the basic dye-sensitive solar cell structures.

This helps our low cost angle. The dye-sensitive solar cell are naturally occurring so no special (which could be expensive) processes are needed.

(D) Dye-sensitive solar cells work somewhat more efficiently in lower light than previous solar cell technologies.

Irrelevant. This is the comparison of dye-sensitive solar cells with previous solar cell tech. Not the difference between new tech dye-sensitive solar cells vs current tech dye-sensitive solar cells.

(E) The production of dye-sensitive solar cells primarily uses materials that do not harm the environment.

Irrelevant.

Answer (C)
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Re: In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Dec 2019, 09:08
Bunuel wrote:
In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce lower-cost electricity, Smith-Diatom is developing a new way to make dye-sensitive solar cells, in which photons strike light-sensitive dyes. The process uses diatoms, which are unicellular algae that have silicon shells with a complex structure. First, the organic material is removed, and then the shells are coated with a titanium dioxide film that acts as a semiconductor. The diatoms' structure results in more photon activity and thus more efficient production of electricity than with current dye-sensitized solar cells, which in turn lowers the cost.

Which of the following considerations would, if true, most strongly support the hypothesis that the plan, if implemented, will produce low-cost electricity from dye-sensitive solar cells?


Argument - SD is developing a new type of solar cells. These new cells require the following pre-processing - removing material and coating. The means of reducing cost - efficient production of electricity
Question - support the hypothesis that implementing these cells will reduce cost.
Areas to be focused on - The argument does not comment on the cost of the pre-processing.

(A) Diatoms are an important link in oceanic food chains and help cycle carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
- If diatoms are an important link - they are precious - this increases their face value because of various restrictions such as environmental restrictions
- Weakens

(B) The current cost of electricity produced by dye-sensitive solar cells is roughly three times that of non-solar electricity.
- Cost comparison with non-solar is irrelevant.
- what matters is comparison with cost of current means of producing solar electricity
-Wrong

(C) Because diatoms occur naturally, no special engineering processes are needed to produce the basic dye-sensitive solar cell structures.
- No special engineering process = easy pre-processing - Hence can be less costly
- Correct

(D) Dye-sensitive solar cells work somewhat more efficiently in lower light than previous solar cell technologies.
- Somewhat more efficiently - Say the improvement is 1% in lower light electricity production.
However, we do not know the low light energy production in the basic solar cells. What if the low light energy production in basic solar cells is hardly 0.2% of its full potential. Then 1% increase will not make a substantial increase in the energy production capacity.
-Wrong

(E) The production of dye-sensitive solar cells primarily uses materials that do not harm the environment.
- Even if materials do not harm the environment, we do not know how costly it is to process these materials.
-Wrong
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Re: In its search for new technologies for solar energy that can produce   [#permalink] 06 Dec 2019, 09:08
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