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In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11

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Re: In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2018, 19:39
Conclusion: Older drivers are safer than younger drivers.
Premise: A smaller percentage of older drivers are involved in serious accidents.

Because this is an assumption question, we know that the correct answer, when negated, will undermine the conclusion.

(A)- Negated: Drivers 65 and older DO, on average, drive very many fewer miles per year than drivers 24 and younger.

Well, if the older drivers are driving many fewer miles than the younger drivers are covering, then it's not necessarily the case that older drivers are avoiding accidents because they're driving more safely. Rather, they're avoiding accidents because they're just driving less. Because A, when negated, undermines the conclusion, we know we're looking at the correct answer.

(B)- Negated - Drivers 65 and older constitute a significantly larger percentage of licensed drivers in Wareland than drivers ages 18-24 do. ---- First of how much significant is really going to matter, moreover what if 3% of that exceeds the number of young drivers who met serious accidents

Between A and B, A seems a better choice. Rest choices can be eliminated very easily.
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Re: In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2018, 19:54
Dear All

I have chosen A; Drivers 65 and older do not, on average, drive very many fewer miles per year than drivers 24 and younger.

My understanding and rationale was that older group drove same as the younger group and hence argument stands fine.

Going through a few threads, noticed some other interpretation of statement A.

Please can anyone confirm if my interpretation is correct ?
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Re: In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2018, 23:52
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proabhinav wrote:
Dear All

I have chosen A; Drivers 65 and older do not, on average, drive very many fewer miles per year than drivers 24 and younger.

My understanding and rationale was that older group drove same as the younger group and hence argument stands fine.

Going through a few threads, noticed some other interpretation of statement A.

Please can anyone confirm if my interpretation is correct ?


Your interpretation is correct. If the older group for example drove the same amount as the younger group, then the conclusion that the older group are safer drivers is supported.
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Re: In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2018, 03:27
In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11 percent of drivers ages 21-24 were in serious accidents. By contrast, only 3 percent of licensed drivers 65 and older were involved in serious accidents. These figures clearly show that the greater experience and developed habits of caution possessed by drivers in the 65-and-older group make them far safer behind the wheel than the younger drivers are.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Drivers 65 and older do not, on average, drive very many fewer miles per year than drivers 24 and younger.

(B) Drivers 65 and older do not constitute a significantly larger percentage of licensed drivers in Wareland than drivers ages 18-24 do.

(C) Drivers 65 and older are less likely than are drivers 24 and younger to drive during weather conditions that greatly increase the risk of accidents.

(D) The difference between the accident rate of drivers under 21 and of those ages 21-24 is attributable to the greater driving experience of those in the older group.

(E) There is no age bracket for which the accident rate is lower than it is for licensed drivers 65 and older.

main point by negation:
high experience and habit of caution will not make >65 older people safer then younger people
given that a) 3% injured in >65 group which is the lowest in the statistics of licensed drivers

pre-think
1. old people dont drive their own cars, rather young drivers do it for them
2. old people dont drive frequntly as young people do
3. old people drive less distance than young peope do

look at the options:
(A) Drivers 65 and older do not, on average, drive very many fewer miles per year than drivers 24 and younger.
it matches the pre-think above.

(B) Drivers 65 and older do not constitute a significantly larger percentage of licensed drivers in Wareland than drivers ages 18-24 do.
this is what mentioned in the passage. hence its just para-phase. hence incorrect

(C) Drivers 65 and older are less likely than are drivers 24 and younger to drive during weather conditions that greatly increase the risk of accidents.
if old guy more likely to drive in bad weather, then chance of accidents will go high not low. hence it is just the opposite.

(D) The difference between the accident rate of drivers under 21 and of those ages 21-24 is attributable to the greater driving experience of those in the older group.
this is some stupid logic. 16%-11% = 5% attributed to exp of old guy ??. incorrect

(E) There is no age bracket for which the accident rate is lower than it is for licensed drivers 65 and older.
it says there is no age group which has lower than 3% accident rate. even if there is an age group with lower than
3%, it can be >75,>85, <50,<30. not a concrete statement. hence incorrect
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Re: In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2018, 13:19
Hello.

Some replies state (not in here) that Option B actually weakens the argument. I understand that it can't be the assumption, but can it be a weakner?
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Re: In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2018, 19:52
1
for most of types of cr questions, such as, weaken, assumption, evaluate, flaw question, we need to know how to criticize/attack the argument. the main point on cr gmat tests us is how to attack an argument. inference question is like reading question.

though we do not learn and remember argument patterns, we can learn how to attack arguments . learn how to attack an argument , do not learn the argument pattern.

this argument is based on statistics. one typical way to attack statistic argument is to show that the statistics is not representative. this is very basic, but we need to do some statistic argument to be able to attack statistics.

how to attack this argument.

if the police dislike the young drivers, they fine them more. so, the rate of accident dose not show that the younger drive less carefully and the argument is broken

second way. if the older drivers give money to police , so, police dose not fine the older drivers. in this case the rate of accident dose not show that the older driver drive more carefully and the argument broke.

third way. if the older drivers drive less, the rate of accident dose not show that the older drivers drive more carefully and the arugment broke.
this is the answer choice A.
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Re: In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Oct 2018, 16:49
Hi GMATNinja,

Could you help me understand how you knew that the conclusion is comparing 65+ vs. 21-24 ONLY? I interpreted the below in bold "younger drivers" to comprise of everybody younger than the 65+ group, and therefore thought that the argument was saying 65+ is the SAFEST.

"...drivers in the 65-and-older group make them far safer behind the wheel than the younger drivers are."

Thank you!
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Re: In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2018, 10:35
mfl6189 wrote:
Hi GMATNinja,

Could you help me understand how you knew that the conclusion is comparing 65+ vs. 21-24 ONLY? I interpreted the below in bold "younger drivers" to comprise of everybody younger than the 65+ group, and therefore thought that the argument was saying 65+ is the SAFEST.

"...drivers in the 65-and-older group make them far safer behind the wheel than the younger drivers are."

Thank you!

Does the following change in emphasis change your interpretation?

"...drivers in the 65-and-older group make them far safer behind the wheel than the younger drivers are."

It should. I haven't changed any of the words here, but note that the conclusion is written in order to compare two groups. More specifically, the author is using "the ______________" to refer back to the two explicit age groups that were introduced at the start of the passage.

If the author intended to make an absolute comparison between drivers older than 65 and all drivers younger than 65, we would see language that explicitly draws this kind of comparison. But we don't see such language, and we know that the author has already set us up for a comparison of two specifically defined groups -- and we won't want to drift away from that comparison when interpreting the conclusion.

I hope this helps!
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In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2018, 21:02
I understand this has been answered already, but for clarity one technique that helped me understand why B isn't a valid assumption was stratifying the premises.

16% of those in the 21 and under bracket
11% in the 21-24 bracket; and
3% of those in the 65 or older bracket

I.e. each percentage is quantified relative to it's group.

An overriding assumption would deal with the frequency of all groups on the road since this is a uniform metric (common to all groups).

This is provided in A so let's negate A.

Conclusion: The figures show that the greater experience and developed habits of caution possessed by drivers in the 65-and-older group make them far safer behind the wheel than young drivers

Negation
(a) Drivers >65 DO drive fewer miles than drivers in under 24 years old.

Well this completely weakens the statement since we aren't comparing like for like. If the other stratas being compared drive 1000km/year on average, and the over 65 strata drives 100km/ year on average then this isn't an equal comparison.

Let's try negate (b)

(b) Drivers >65 do DO constitute a larger percentage of licensed drivers in Wareland than the 18-24 stratas.

Well even though we know there are more people with licenses we know nothing of their driving habits, so how can we make any conclusion on their safety?

Hopefull this adds some value.

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Re: In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2018, 09:19
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can option c be thought as:
negating c:

Drivers 65 and older are equally or more likely than are drivers 24 and younger to drive during weather conditions that greatly increase the risk of accidents.

So if their likelihood is more in driving accident prone envt and still they have less accident rate so their expeience has definitely made them better drivers.
So in a way it is a strengthener ,is my reasoning correct?
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Re: In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2019, 06:04
In answer C, can we associate "developed habit of cautions" with "less likely to drive during weather conditions"?
If that is the case, I feel that this answer choice strengthens an argument a little bit.
Can anyone confirm whether my logic is correct or not?
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In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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sayiurway - An assumption is an unstated fact in the given argument. Option C introduces an outside information to the argument. So for sure this can not be an assumption. There are many very good posts that can teach you how to make an assumption framework and find assumption in any question. Be sure to check them.

Just to be more sure, Can we definitely say that serious accidents take place more during bad weather? It is possible that the 65-and-older group drive more in bad weather and are yet less involved in serious accidents. Similarly, the younger drivers might be involved in serious accidents even when driving in normal weather conditions. So, this option need not be true for my conclusion to be true.
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In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2019, 07:32
aragonn wrote:
sayiurway - An assumption is an unstated fact in the given argument. Option C introduces an outside information to the argument. So for sure this can not be an assumption. There are many very good posts that can teach you how to make an assumption framework and find assumption in any question. Be sure to check them.

Just to be more sure, Can we definitely say that serious accidents take place more during bad weather? It is possible that the 65-and-older group drive more in bad weather and are yet less involved in serious accidents. Similarly, the younger drivers might be involved in serious accidents even when driving in normal weather conditions. So, this option need not be true for my conclusion to be true.

I understand that answer C is not correct since it doesn't have to be true for the conclusion to be true.
What I am asking is whether or not it strengthens the conclusion. The fact that older drivers are less likely to drive in bad weather gives evidence that they develop habits of caution => strengthen.
Sorry for not being very clear on my question.
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Re: In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jan 2019, 11:29
In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11 percent of drivers ages 21-24 were in serious accidents. By contrast, only 3 percent of licensed drivers 65 and older were involved in serious accidents.
CONCLUSION: These figures clearly show that the greater experience and developed habits of caution possessed by drivers in the 65-and-older group make them far safer behind the wheel than the younger drivers are.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Drivers 65 and older do not, on average, drive very many fewer miles per year than drivers 24 and younger.
CORRECT.
Negation: Drivers 65 and older, on average, drive very many fewer miles per year than drivers 24 and younger.
If this is so, the argument collapses because we will be comparing two dissimilar quantum. People who drive more will have more probability of being in accidents than people who drive less. So argument has to assume that there is no significant difference in the number of miles that both age groups drive.


(B) Drivers 65 and older do not constitute a significantly larger percentage of licensed drivers in Wareland than drivers ages 18-24 do.
INCORRECT.
Negate this: Drivers 65 and older constitute a larger percentage of licensed drivers than drivers ages 18-24 do.
If this is the case, the argument is actually strengthened. 5% of a larger base means lower number of accidents in the age group. However, this can't be the reason according to the conclusion.
So even if we negate, the conclusion isn't harmed.

(C) Drivers 65 and older are less likely than are drivers 24 and younger to drive during weather conditions that greatly increase the risk of accidents.
IRRELEVANT. Weather conditions may be a factor but is not essential here.

(D) The difference between the accident rate of drivers under 21 and of those ages 21-24 is attributable to the greater driving experience of those in the older group.
IRRELAVANT. Does not consider age group 65 and older, the age group on which the argument's conclusion is based.

(E) There is no age bracket for which the accident rate is lower than it is for licensed drivers 65 and older.
TRAP. The age bracket could be lower than 65 or above 65. So this cannot be an assumption even if we negate this.
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Re: In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2019, 05:08
The easiest way would be to negate the argument:

Less miles driven = Lower exposure to risky situations / Less chances to make mistakes = Less accidents

Therefore, the argument has to rely on the assumption that the actual miles driven between the two age groups is roughly comparable.

Hope this helps.

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Re: In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Mar 2019, 22:59
In choice C, it is specifically stated that the drivers 65 and more can identify the risky conditions and avoid going outside driving....Doesnt this justify and support the conclusion that more experience and caution makes them safer and less prone to accidents..per centage wise?
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Re: In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2019, 03:08
hazelnut wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: CR 635

In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11 percent of drivers ages 21-24 were in serious accidents. By contrast, only 3 percent of licensed drivers 65 and older were involved in serious accidents. These figures clearly show that the greater experience and developed habits of caution possessed by drivers in the 65-and-older group make them far safer behind the wheel than the younger drivers are.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Drivers 65 and older do not, on average, drive very many fewer miles per year than drivers 24 and younger.

(B) Drivers 65 and older do not constitute a significantly larger percentage of licensed drivers in Wareland than drivers ages 18-24 do.

(C) Drivers 65 and older are less likely than are drivers 24 and younger to drive during weather conditions that greatly increase the risk of accidents.

(D) The difference between the accident rate of drivers under 21 and of those ages 21-24 is attributable to the greater driving experience of those in the older group.

(E) There is no age bracket for which the accident rate is lower than it is for licensed drivers 65 and older.

Wareland Accidents

Step 1: Identify the Question

The word assumption in the question stem indicates that this is a Find the Assumption question.

Step 2: Deconstruct the Argument

Accident Rates

<21 – 16%

21-24 – 11%

≥65 – 3%

© Exper + caution ≥65 -> safer drivers

Step 3: Pause and State the Goal

On an Assumption question, you are looking for a piece of information that is necessary to draw the conclusion. In this case, the argument states that the lower accident rate for drivers 65 and older is caused because they are safer drivers. What else might cause a lower accident rate?

Step 4: Work from Wrong to Right

(A) CORRECT. If the cause of the lower accident rate among drivers 65 and over is their safe driving due to experience and caution, it is important to rule out alternative explanations for the lower accident rate. Mileage driven is one such alternate explanation; between two equally safe drivers, the one who drives fewer miles is less likely to get in an accident. This answer rules out the possibility that the lower accident rate for older drives is just due to driving fewer miles.

(B) The argument presents data about the percentage of drivers by age group who are involved in accidents. Thus, the number of drivers in each age group does not matter to these comparisons or the related conclusions.

(C) This information provides an alternate explanation for the lower accident rate, weakening the conclusion. Drivers 65 and over may have a lower accident rate because they drive in better conditions, not because they're safer drivers.

(D) This information supports some of the logic in the conclusion – that experience results in safer driving. But it is not necessary that the cause of the reduction in accident frequency for drivers 21 to 24 be the same as the cause of the reduction in accident frequency for those 65 and older. For example, suppose that 21 to 24 year olds have fewer accidents than those under 21 because they tend to drive cars with better brakes and other technology that may prevent accidents. Even in this case, those 65 and older could still be safer drivers due to their caution and experience.

(E) The conclusion is comparing drivers 65 and older to younger drivers, specifically those under 24. This conclusion and argument could still be valid even if there were some other age group (for example those 40 to 45) that has an even lower accident frequency.



Argument:
Serious Accident Stats
Less than 21 yrs – 16%
21-24 yrs – 11%
65 and above – 3%

Conclusion: The greater experience and developed habits of caution possessed by drivers in the 65-and-older group make them far safer behind the wheel than the younger drivers are.

The conclusion says that EXPERIENCE and DEVELOPED HABITS OF CAUTION are the reasons for older group being safer.

We are looking for an assumption.

(A) Drivers 65 and older do not, on average, drive very many fewer miles per year than drivers 24 and younger.

The conclusion gives us the reasons for safer older group. It assumes that these two are the reasons and not some other third reason. So we are assuming that the lower accident rate is not because they drive very few miles anyway. Since the conclusion is zeroing in on exactly two reasons, it is assuming that another third reason is not responsible. Hence option (A) is an assumption.

(B) Drivers 65 and older do not constitute a significantly larger percentage of licensed drivers in Wareland than drivers ages 18-24 do.

It is irrelevant how many drivers are there in each age group. The accident rates given are in percentage terms for their own group only.

(C) Drivers 65 and older are less likely than are drivers 24 and younger to drive during weather conditions that greatly increase the risk of accidents.

The conclusion already says that "developed habits of caution" are a reason for lower rates of accidents. "Not driving in bad weather" is a habit of caution. So this is not an "assumption".

(D) The difference between the accident rate of drivers under 21 and of those ages 21-24 is attributable to the greater driving experience of those in the older group.

Irrelevant. We need to compare only "65 and above" with "24 and below". There is no need to compare "under 21" with "21 - 24".

(E) There is no age bracket for which the accident rate is lower than it is for licensed drivers 65 and older.

This is not an assumption. There is no talk about people in the age group 25-64 yrs. Perhaps 55-64 yrs age group people have accident rate of 1% only. There have experience and caution AND better reflexes and eye sight than 65+ yr olds. It doesn't impact our conclusion at all. We just need to focus on 65+ vs 24 and less.

Answer (A)
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Re: In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2019, 22:14
Hi Experts ,

I was confused between A and B. Usually when we deal with Number and Statistics we try to get into absolute nos .

Let say we total licensed drivers are 100x, Option B tells that both >= 65 age and 18-24 age constitute roughly 50x .I rejected this option based on the fact that it does not tell the whole story as we are comparing >= 65 age and <= 24 age group and option B tells a subgroup. Now my question is if option B tells about <=24 instead of 18-24 will that option be correct.

A. whereas option A tells a complete new information and completes the whole age group . <=24

Please correct me if my reasoning is correct.
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Re: In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 27 May 2019, 01:55
LoneSurvivor wrote:
Hi Experts ,

I was confused between A and B. Usually when we deal with Number and Statistics we try to get into absolute nos .

Let say we total licensed drivers are 100x, Option B tells that both >= 65 age and 18-24 age constitute roughly 50x .I rejected this option based on the fact that it does not tell the whole story as we are comparing >= 65 age and <= 24 age group and option B tells a subgroup. Now my question is if option B tells about <=24 instead of 18-24 will that option be correct.

A. whereas option A tells a complete new information and completes the whole age group . <=24

Please correct me if my reasoning is correct.

I think this post might help. Check it out, and let us know if you still have questions!
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Re: In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2019, 12:09
n Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11 percent of drivers ages 21-24 were in serious accidents. By contrast, only 3 percent of licensed drivers 65 and older were involved in serious accidents. These figures clearly show that the greater experience and developed habits of caution possessed by drivers in the 65-and-older group make them far safer behind the wheel than the younger drivers are.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) Drivers 65 and older do not, on average, drive very many fewer miles per year than drivers 24 and younger.(Correct)

(B) Drivers 65 and older do not constitute a significantly larger percentage of licensed drivers in Wareland than drivers ages 18-24 do.

(C) Drivers 65 and older are less likely than are drivers 24 and younger to drive during weather conditions that greatly increase the risk of accidents.

(D) The difference between the accident rate of drivers under 21 and of those ages 21-24 is attributable to the greater driving experience of those in the older group.

(E) There is no age bracket for which the accident rate is lower than it is for licensed drivers 65 and older.
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Re: In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11   [#permalink] 09 Jul 2019, 12:09

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In Wareland last year, 16 percent of licensed drivers under 21 and 11

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