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# It has estimated that over 20% of the annual gross domestic product i

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Re: It has estimated that over 20% of the annual gross domestic product i [#permalink]
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Official Explanation

1. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

Explanation

The author discusses one definition, and then a superior but not perfect alternative definition of innovation. Which answer choices match our understanding?

(A) and (E) are out, because the author does not discuss data of any sort or clarify ambiguity (the issue with the first definition was relevance, not ambiguity).

Choices (B) and (D) are similar. Does the author slap down the first definition harshly? Does the author push hard for the use of the second definition? No, and no. While the author prefers the second definition, the author's ultimate judgment is that both definitions leave important questions unanswered and that we will not be able to refine the superior definition and apply it to strategy and policy.

The more general choice, (C), is the correct answer.

5. The author refers to the "culture and economy" (see highlighted text) that support innovation primarily in order to point out

Explanation

This question harks back to the prior question, in which the culture and economy where mentioned to demonstrate that the less obviously important innovations might still play an important role supporting the more obviously important innovations. It's not uncommon for reading comprehension passages to hammer on the same point.

Answer choice (A) is out: no factors or diversity of factors is discussed.

(B) is correct: the author is in the middle of an explanation about how innovations can't be judged easily according to the practical definition.

(C) is the opposite of the point; there isn't a clear link between the definition and the impact on GDP. (D) and (E), similarly, describe what belongs in the definition, but the point is that the definition is inclusive to a fault.

Hope it helps

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Re: It has estimated that over 20% of the annual gross domestic product i [#permalink]
Spent 13 minutes and got 3 (1, 3 and 4) wrong. 3 and 4 took a lot of time since i could not figure out what was inferred about the innovation (Q3) and what disadvantage s mentioned.

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Re: It has estimated that over 20% of the annual gross domestic product i [#permalink]
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Official Explanation

3. The passage suggests which of the following about innovation?

Explanation

In this question, as always, we will attempt to find an answer that must be true. That will be an objectively correct answer to what is suggested to be true. We can apply this filter to the answer choices. The answer choices appear to relate to the author's comments near the end of the passage. We can check back: what is the point here? It's that some innovations are disproportionately useful, but not such that the other ones do not have value. Is there any answer choice matching this view? Answer choice (D) matches the latter part. As the author says, "Whether that 20%"--the very successful innovations--" could have manifested itself without a culture and economy to support the whole"--including the other innovations--"is less clear." So (D) is right on. And if (D) were false, that would undermine the author's comment. As for the other answer choices, we simply haven't been told enough--i.e., anything--about where important innovations occur and whether and how they impact GDP or economic value.

4. The author of the passage mentions which of the following as one disadvantage of the "more practical" definition of innovation, as mentioned in the highlighted text?

Explanation

This question asks for a detail, but it's a more salient detail that should be fairly fresh in our minds, because it pertains to one of the author's opinions: the more practical definition is better than the traditional one, but it doesn't help us decide whether an innovation is "new, successful, or authentic." We can look for that criticism in the answer choices.

(A) is not what we expected but is not offensive. (B) is false; the definition is broader than the traditional one. (C) is plausible, but not stated in the passage. (D) is quite similar to our expectation about "new, successful, or authentic."

(E) might be true, but it's been advanced as an advantage rather than a disadvantage, to the extent that it's either. So we are down to (A) and (D). One will have an objective defect. Is there an error with (A)? The author says that we cannot "refine" the practical definition for use in policy and strategy, but he never says that the unrefined definition can't serve as a basis at all. It's quite possible the author thinks the definition is useful, just not refineable. (A) is out.

Hope it helps

lnm87
Spent 13 minutes and got 3 (1, 3 and 4) wrong. 3 and 4 took a lot of time since i could not figure out what was inferred about the innovation (Q3) and what disadvantage s mentioned.

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Re: It has estimated that over 20% of the annual gross domestic product i [#permalink]
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practice rc but i cant raise my efficiency , any suggestion to raise my efficiency.......
at present its 50% percent howi can raise it to 75% above
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Re: It has estimated that over 20% of the annual gross domestic product i [#permalink]
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It has estimated that over 20% of the annual gross domestic product i [#permalink]
I lost track of the topic from Otherwise, the oft-repeated challenge to uses of the term ........... of innovation further are without merit.. Can someone explain whats going on in that text ?
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Re: It has estimated that over 20% of the annual gross domestic product i [#permalink]
Official Explanation

2. The author suggests that the traditional definition of innovation, of the two definitions discussed, is

Difficulty Level: 650

Explanation

In this question, we know what the author thinks of the traditional definition: it is "of limited relevance" (line 12). Which answer choice fits that best? It will be a negative judgment, so (A), (C) and (D) are out; we also definitively haven't been given sufficient information to know (D). That leaves (B) and (E). Is the traditional definition less useful, or less rigorous? If it's irrelevant, it's not worth much; it's less useful. The definition might actually be more rigorous than the practical definition--for example, by limiting innovation to organizations--but it's more rigorous in an unuseful way.

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Re: It has estimated that over 20% of the annual gross domestic product i [#permalink]
In Question 1, it clearly comes out that the author is clarifying the ambiguity in both the definitions.
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Re: It has estimated that over 20% of the annual gross domestic product i [#permalink]
Sajjad1994 a feedback. It would be great if you provide the solutions in a more comprehensive deep dive way. How did you eleminated answer c to the question 4? Is it because of the word "type"? Because the other parts of the answer is present in the passage.
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Re: It has estimated that over 20% of the annual gross domestic product i [#permalink]
NawalDwivedi
I lost track of the topic from Otherwise, the oft-repeated challenge to uses of the term ........... of innovation further are without merit.. Can someone explain whats going on in that text ?

Indeed a challenging sentence as well as the sentences before this also contain many counter-keywords.
This somewhat loose definition, however, fails to address explicitly what makes an innovation truly new, successful, or authentic, although it may imply that all innovation is equally valid in a sense. Otherwise, the oft-repeated challenge to uses of the term innovation may put too little emphasis on the activity and too much on its results.

Author supported this loose definition - saying this definition put doesn't put emphasis on result and appreciate Innovation as Activity.
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It has estimated that over 20% of the annual gross domestic product i [#permalink]
randarth
Sajjad1994 a feedback. It would be great if you provide the solutions in a more comprehensive deep dive way. How did you eleminated answer c to the question 4? Is it because of the word "type"? Because the other parts of the answer is present in the passage.

By the lines:

This somewhat loose definition, however, fails to address explicitly what makes an innovation truly new, successful, or authentic,

We can surely infer D

To cross out (C) we need to read very carefully the following text:

Otherwise, the oft-repeated challenge to uses of the term innovation may [Not surely] put too little emphasis on the activity and too much on its results. Quite possibly [Again not surely], 80% of the value of innovation has been contributed by 20% of the activity.

C is an example of "could be true" option but we are looking for a "must be true" answer. Hence (C) is out.

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Re: It has estimated that over 20% of the annual gross domestic product i [#permalink]
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Re: It has estimated that over 20% of the annual gross domestic product i [#permalink]
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