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Journalist: Well-known businessman Arnold Bergeron has long been popul

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Journalist: Well-known businessman Arnold Bergeron has long been popul  [#permalink]

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Journalist: Well-known businessman Arnold Bergeron has long been popular in the state, and he has often talked about running for governor, but he has never run. However, we have just learned that Bergeron has fulfilled the financial disclosure requirement for candidacy by submitting a detailed list of his current financial holdings to the election commission. So, it is very likely that Bergeron will be a candidate for governor this year.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the journalist's argument?


A. Has anybody else who has fulfilled the financial disclosure requirement for the upcoming election reported greater financial holdings than Bergeron?

B. Is submitting a list of holdings the only way to fulfill the election commission's financial disclosure requirements?

C. Did the information recently obtained by the journalists come directly from the election commission?

D. Have Bergeron's financial holdings increased in value in recent years?

E. Had Bergeron also fulfilled the financial disclosure requirements for candidacy before any previous gubernatorial elections?



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Originally posted by mba4me on 11 Sep 2004, 13:38.
Last edited by Bunuel on 08 Oct 2018, 09:16, edited 6 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: QOTD: Well-known businessman Arnold Bergeron  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2018, 06:24
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1
The journalist concludes that "it is very likely that Bergeron will be a candidate for governor this year." How does the journalist arrive at this conclusion?

  • Arnold Bergeron (AB) is a well-known businessman who has long been popular in the state.
  • AB has often talked about running for governor, but he has never actually run for governor.
  • According to recent news, AB has fulfilled the financial disclosure requirement for candidacy.

In other words, AB has taken a step that WOULD be necessary if he actually wanted to become a candidate. But does this necessarily imply that Bergeron will very likely be a candidate for governor this year?

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the journalist's argument?

Quote:
A. Has anybody else who has fulfilled the financial disclosure requirement for the upcoming election reported greater financial holdings than Bergeron?

In order to run for governor, a candidate would first have to submit a detailed list of his/her current financial holdings to the election commission. The requirement is that the candidate SUBMIT this information. The passage does NOT mention any requirements based on the CONTENTS of that financial information.

In other words, according to the passage, a potential candidate simply needs to submit the required information. It doesn't matter whether the candidate has greater financial holdings than the other potential candidates. Choice (A) is irrelevant and can be eliminated.

Quote:
B. Is submitting a list of holdings the only way to fulfill the election commission's financial disclosure requirements?

We already know that AB has fulfilled the election commission's financial disclosure requirements. Even if there are other ways to fulfill those requirements, it still seems as though AB has taken the first step towards running for governor. The answer to choice (B) might provide interesting information, but it would not help us evaluate the journalists' argument or conclusion. Eliminate (B).

Quote:
C. Did the information recently obtained by the journalists come directly from the election commission?

The passage tells us that the journalist has learned that AB has fulfilled the financial disclosure requirement for candidacy. Regardless of whether that knowledge came directly from the election commission or from a secondary or tertiary source makes little difference.

Sure, knowing whether the journalist got the information from an unreliable source could certainly affect the argument. But would we be able to determine the reliability of the source just by answering this question? For example, say that the answer to (C) were, "No, the information was obtained from the town council, which received its information directly from the election commission." Okay, we've answered the question, but do we have any grounds for questioning the accuracy of the information?

Certain answers to this question could impact the author's argument. But we are looking for the question whose answer would be "most useful", so let's see if we can do better.

Quote:
D. Have Bergeron's financial holdings increased in value in recent years?

As explained for choice (A), we are not aware of any requirements based on the details of a potential candidate's holdings. According to the passage, a potential candidate fulfills the election commission's financial disclosure requirements simply by submitting the required information. As far as we can tell, it makes no difference whether AB's financial holdings have increased, decreased, or stayed the same. Eliminate (D).

Quote:
E. Had Bergeron also fulfilled the financial disclosure requirements for candidacy before any previous gubernatorial elections?

AB has taken a step that WOULD be necessary if he actually wanted to become a candidate. Based on that information, the journalist concludes that AB is very likely be a candidate for governor this year.

But what if AB has taken this same step before other previous gubernatorial elections? We know that AB has never run before, so if the answer to (E) is "Yes," then AB has, in the past, completed this step without subsequently running for governor.

In other words, if the answer is "Yes," then AB has a history of completing this step without actually running for governor. So, taking that step would not be evidence that AB is actually going to run. Since the journalist's argument is based solely on that piece of evidence, this would hurt the argument.

If, however, this is the first time that AB has taken this step, then it is stronger evidence that AB will actually run.

Answering this question would be much more useful than answering the question listed in choice (C), so (E) is the best answer.
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Re: Journalist: Well-known businessman Arnold Bergeron has long been popul  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2004, 17:15
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My choice is E.

E questions the fact whether he has filled the Fin.disclosure before. If the answer is yes then the argument logic gets easily broken.

Choice B tries to find whether there are any other requirement for candidancy. The answer to this question would provide us information not directly related to our flow of logic.
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Re: Journalist: Well-known businessman Arnold Bergeron has long been popul  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2004, 06:28
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true it is between "B" and "E".
I will pick "E" on this bcoz

IMHO, the conclusion "it is very likely that Bergeron will be a candidate for governor this year" has nothing do whether bergeron has fulfill the election commission’s financial disclosure requirements or not. The pretty basic issue is if mr. bergeron had also previously fulfilled the candadicy financial requirement but not ran for gubernatorial elections then he might repeat the same again.

whats the OA ?

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Re: Journalist: Well-known businessman Arnold Bergeron has long been popul  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2004, 23:53
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Journalist: Well-known businessman Arnold Bergeron has long been popular in the state, and he has often talked about running for governor, but he has never run. However, we have just learned that Bergeron has fulfilled the financial disclosure requirement for candidacy by submitting a detailed list of his current financial holdings to the election commission. So, it is very likely that Bergeron will be a candidate for governor this year.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the journalist’s argument?

A. Has anybody else who has fulfilled the financial disclosure requirement for the upcoming election reported greater financial holdings than Bergeron?
B. Is submitting a list of holdings the only way to fulfill the election commission’s financial disclosure requirements? this does not link us to the conclusion as it deos not tell us if it is the only requrement one needs to run in an election. Anwer to this question will not help us much
C. Did the information recently obtained by the journalists come directly from the election commission?
D. Have Bergeron’s financial holdings increased in value in recent years?
E. Had Bergeron also fulfilled the financial disclosure requirements for candidacy before any previous gubernatorial elections? . This to me is more linked to the stem and carefluuy adressess the scope shift in this argument. Anwering this question will help us evaluate the jornalist argument in regards to Bergeons political asprirations
E is the best answer to this
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Re: Journalist: Well-known businessman Arnold Bergeron has long been popul  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2004, 02:01
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A. Has anybody else who has fulfilled the financial disclosure requirement for the upcoming election reported greater financial holdings than Bergeron?
Yes/No doesn't give us a clue if Bergeron is goign to run for governor this year

B. Is submitting a list of holdings the only way to fulfill the election commission’s financial disclosure requirements?
Yes/No again doesn't give us any clues. And anyway, we are told he has fulfilled the eletcion commison's financial disclosure requirements.

C. Did the information recently obtained by the journalists come directly from the election commission?
This might have an imact -- on hold

D. Have Bergeron’s financial holdings increased in value in recent years?
Yes/No doesn't tell us if he is going to run for govenor. It only tells us if he is getting richer or poorer.

E. Had Bergeron also fulfilled the financial disclosure requirements for candidacy before any previous gubernatorial elections?
This might have an impact too. If he had previously fufilled the requirements and not run for office, there's a possibility he is doing the same this time round (that is, not running)

I'll pick E. C only tells us the information is correct , Bergeron might still run or not run and nothing suggests he is or isn't going to.
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Re: Journalist: Well-known businessman Arnold Bergeron has long been popul  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2010, 20:06
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The answer is E.

The argument summarized:

A popular business man has talked about running for governor, but has never run.

The businessman recently did something you have to do to run for governor.

Thus, it is very likely he will run for governor.

The question we would want answered before we could confirm the journalist's reasoning is correct is; is the only reason that he would file these form is to run for governor? If yes, then we can agree with the journalist. If there are other reasons he would file the forms, then we would have to disagree with the journalist.

B is wrong because it does exactly opposite of what we want to know. B would let us know if there are other ways to become a candidate. This is irrelevant because he has filed the forms. What we need to know is if the only reason for filing these forms is to run for governor.

E is the right question. If, in the past, he has filed the form, then, based on the passage, he filed the form and didn't run for governor. This would lead us to conclude that he has other reasons to file the forms other than running for governor. If he hasn't filed the forms in the past, then we would be more inclined to agree with the journalist that he is doing so now to run. Either way, the answer to this question lets us evaluate the journalist's claims.

I hope this helps.

Thanks,

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Re: Journalist: Well-known businessman Arnold Bergeron has long been popul  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2010, 01:57
Quote:
E is the right question. If, in the past, he has filed the form, then, based on the passage, he filed the form and didn't run for governor. This would lead us to conclude that he has other reasons to file the forms other than running for governor. If he hasn't filed the forms in the past, then we would be more inclined to agree with the journalist that he is doing so now to run. Either way, the answer to this question lets us evaluate the journalist's claims.


Fantastic reasoning!

This is called a relevant information question. One strategy for dealing with this question type is to treat it as hybrid strengthen/weaken: the right answer will be something where, if it goes one way, it will strengthen the argument and, if it goes the other way, it will weaken the argument. Let's apply it to choice E:

If he has fulfilled this necessary condition in the past, then the fact that he did so this time also is no longer a good reason for predicting that he will run (since he didn't run in the past), and the argument is weakened. On the other hand, if he hasn't fulfilled this condition in the past, then the fact that he has done so this time stands as a good (but not sufficient!) reason for predicting that he will run this time, and the argument is strengthened. Thus, knowing the answer to this question would be helpful in evaluating the argument.

Let's consider choice B. Remember, we already know from the passage that he HAS in fact fulfilled financial disclosure requriements (by submitting a list of his financial holdings). If he's already fulfilled the financial disclosure requirements, does it really matter whether there may have been other ways for him to do so?
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Re: Journalist: Well-known businessman Arnold Bergeron has long been popul  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2012, 09:18
Journalist: Well-known businessman Arnold Bergeron has long been popular in the state, and he has often talked about running for governor, but he has never run. However, we have just learned that Bergeron has fulfilled the financial disclosure requirement for candidacy by submitting a detailed list of his current financial holdings to the election commission. So, it is
very likely that Bergeron will be a candidate for governor this year.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the journalist’s argument?

A. Has anybody else who has fulfilled the financial disclosure requirement for the upcoming election reported greater financial holdings than Bergeron?
B. Is submitting a list of holdings the only way to fulfill the election commission’s financial disclosure requirements?
C. Did the information recently obtained by the journalists come directly from the election commission?
D. Have Bergeron’s financial holdings increased in value in recent years?
E. Had Bergeron also fulfilled the financial disclosure requirements for candidacy before any previous gubernatorial elections?




please can anyone of the experts help here .... how is A not relevant

here all we are talking about is if he is the best candiae and he will be elected

but if any other candidate has declared greater holdings then he is not possibly going to win

Please help... :?
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Re: Journalist: Well-known businessman Arnold Bergeron has long been popul  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2012, 20:04
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venmic,

(A) is not relevant because the information does not lead us in one way or the other towards supporting the argument if it were True vs False.

"Financial disclosure" somehow linked to "running for governor".

This is an "evaluate" question. The key to these types of questions is that the answer choices have 2 states. One state should strengthen the argument, the other should weaken it.

We have a gap in the link between the 2 topics stated above.

(A) Has anybody else who has fulfilled the financial disclosure requirement for the upcoming election reported greater financial holdings than Bergeron?

The level of financial holdings (whether greater or less than Bergeron) is not relevant to linking the 2 topics above - "financial disclosure" and "running for governor". There is absolutely no link so (A) is irrelevant.


(E) Had Bergeron also fulfilled the financial disclosure requirements for candidacy before any previous gubernatorial elections?

We know that Bergeron NEVER ran for governor before. So what are the 2 possible states in this answer choice?

If YES, Bergeron DID indeed fulfill financial disclosure requirements in prior elections...yet he NEVER ran and was never a candidate.
If NO, Bergeron did NOT fulfill financial disclosure requirements in prior elections...and yes he never ran in the past and was never a candidate.

(E) brings in the possibility that in the "YES" case there is evidence in the past that Bergeron DID have financial disclosure. Well in the passage, it's possible that Bergeron fulfilled financial disclosure this time around but might not run for governor, as was the case in the past. THis WEAKENS the argument.

In the other case, we do not interfere and the argument that Bergeron will actually run for governor this time around because he fulfilled financial disclosure is actually strengthened because we don't have a case that goes against it.

Because of the 2 scenarios that play out with answer choice (E), (E) helps us better evaluate the argument and decide whether it is a valid argument or an invalid one.
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Re: Journalist: Well-known businessman Arnold Bergeron has long been popul  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2013, 01:38
The facts of the argument are: Arnold has been popular; He has talked about running for governor; He has fulfilled financial disclosure requirement (this year).
Based on these facts the argument concludes that Arnold is very likely to be a candidate for governor this year.

We need an answer choice that will help us evaluate the conclusion.
The inconsistency lies between Arnold fulfilling disclosure requirement and his being very likely to be candidate for governor this year. We do not know whether Arnold fulfilled the requirement in the previous years!
In fact if we come to know that he had fulfilled the disclosure requirements in the previous years, then it will be obvious that he is no less likely to be a candidate. On the other hand if we find that he did not fulfill the requirement in the previous years he is more likely to be a candidate. E is therefore the correct answer.

Whether "submitting a detailed list of holdings is the ONLY way to fulfill the financial disclosure requirement" is irrelevant because we know that he has in fact fulfilled the requirement! And evaluating this piece of information has no consequence to the conclusion of the argument!

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Re: QOTD: Well-known businessman Arnold Bergeron  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2018, 08:27
Journalist: Well-known businessman Arnold Bergeron has long been popular in the state, and he has often talked about running for governor, but he has never run. However, we have just learned that Bergeron has fulfilled the financial disclosure requirement for candidacy by submitting a detailed list of his current financial holdings to the election commission. So, it is very likely that Bergeron will be a candidate for governor this year.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the journalist's argument?

A. Has anybody else who has fulfilled the financial disclosure requirement for the upcoming election reported greater financial holdings than Bergeron? -Anybody else is out of scope
B. Is submitting a list of holdings the only way to fulfill the election commission's financial disclosure requirements? -Even if there is any other way still the financial disclosure requirement has been completed.
C. Did the information recently obtained by the journalists come directly from the election commission? -Out of scope
D. Have Bergeron's financial holdings increased in value in recent years? -Out of scope
E. Had Bergeron also fulfilled the financial disclosure requirements for candidacy before any previous gubernatorial elections? -Correct. If he had fulfilled this requirement in previous elections as well then it would cast doubt on the appearance of Arnold as a candidate.
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Re: QOTD: Well-known businessman Arnold Bergeron &nbs [#permalink] 30 Jan 2018, 08:27
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