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# Lee Bollinger, rejecting traditional models of the defense of free spe

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Lee Bollinger, rejecting traditional models of the defense of free spe  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 18 Mar 2019, 10:34
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 91, Date : 18-MAR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

Lee Bollinger, rejecting traditional models of the defense of free speech as inadequate, defends it with a model designed to take into account changes in the function of speech attributable to the emergence of a society marked by stability and widespread consensus on essential values. This new, ―self-restraint model justifies free speech from a different perspective. Although staunchly supporting free speech, the self-restraint model inverts the relationship between speech and tolerance. Under traditional models, the value of tolerance is subordinated to the value of speech. The self-restraint model, however, often subordinates the value of speech to that of tolerance. Traditional justifications of the free speech principle originated in the belief that speech is entitled to greater tolerance than other kinds of activity.

A review of the traditional justifications reveals two distinct models of explanation. Although both these models link the need to protect speech to its inherent value, they agree on little else. According to the classical model, freedom of speech serves an indispensable function in democratic self-government. Meiklejohn uses the traditional New England town meeting as a paradigm for a self-governing society.

From this perspective, the free speech principle need only protect political speech—the facts, theories, and opinions relating to any issue on which the citizens must vote. Meiklejohn insists that even extremist views cannot be withheld from voting citizens, if these views bear on any public issue. Protection of free speech, including extremist political speech, serves the collective interests of a self-governing society, made up of all rational, equal, and fully participating citizens. Predicated on the belief that speech itself is valuable, this theory ascribes positive value to a very broad range of speech, including any that may be offensive to many people.

In contrast to the serene and optimistic, the fortress model is built on a foundation of pessimism, individualism, relativism, and self-doubt. According to Holmes, speech represents not so much a free marketplace of ideas as a kind of ―counsel of despair.‖ Freedom of speech is necessary to the discovery of truth; but, although any belief held by an individual is ultimately likely to prove false, individuals tend to feel certain about their beliefs and consequently justified in requiring others to conform. From Holmes‘ perspective, the government and any majority of the people pose a great danger of intolerance. In order to protect speech from the natural tendency to censor nonconforming views, the fortress model prescribes overprotection of speech. This strategy establishes a broad "buffer zone" that encompasses extremist speech because its protection substantially diminishes the probability that inherently valuable speech will be suppressed. Even if speech is so extreme that it cannot seriously be considered to contribute to the discovery of truth—like the most extreme views propounded by the Nazis—it still ought not to be censored, for once unleashed censorship cannot be reasonably expected to remain confined to worthless views.
1. It can be inferred from the passage that speech is viewed as a fundamental value in the:

I. classical model.
II. fortress model.
III. self-restraint model.

A. I only
B. I and II only
C. II and III only
D. I, II and III
E. I and III only

2. Turning an eye to the greater structure of the passage, which of the following best describes the function of the last three paragraphs of the passage?

A. The author describes two theories and links each to the historical situation in which it was proposed.
B. The author refers to a traditional way of viewing a question and examines two contrasting approaches that spring from that view.
C. The author establishes contrasts between two approaches to a question and then explores their points of agreement.
D. The author discusses two theories and the opposed conclusions that follow from them.
E. The author reconciles two competing theories for a particular phenomenon

3. The author indicates that Meiklejohn‘s and Holmes‘ understanding of free speech is similar in that both:

A. believe that free speech ultimately leads to the discovery of truth.
B. favour extending the right of speech to those who express extremist doctrines.
C. consider that censorship involves the suppression of valuable speech.
D. justify free speech by referring to the citizen‘s right to be informed of all views relevant to public issues.
E. are against blindly supporting free speech

Difficulty Level: 750

Originally posted by aanyajain20 on 30 May 2018, 22:58.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 18 Mar 2019, 10:34, edited 2 times in total.
Updated
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Re: Lee Bollinger, rejecting traditional models of the defense of free spe  [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2019, 10:39
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
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Re: Lee Bollinger, rejecting traditional models of the defense of free spe  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2019, 03:27
2
Q1
Passage-'Under traditional models, the value of tolerance is subordinated to the value of speech. The self-restraint model, however, often subordinates the value of speech to that of tolerance.'
i.e. in the self restraint model, tolerance is fundamental
only 1 and 2 is the answer
Ans:B

Q2
Para 2-'A review of the traditional justifications reveals two distinct models of explanation.'
After that the author talks about classical model and the fortress model

Q3

Holmes (last para)-'Even if speech is so extreme that it cannot seriously be considered to contribute to the discovery of truth—like the most extreme views propounded by the Nazis—it still ought not to be censored'
'Even if speech is so extreme that it cannot seriously be considered to contribute to the discovery of truth—like the most extreme views propounded by the Nazis—it still ought not to be censored'
therefore as per passage, Answer is B
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Re: Lee Bollinger, rejecting traditional models of the defense of free spe  [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2019, 20:08
2
1. It can be inferred from the passage that speech is viewed as a fundamental value in the:

I. classical model.
II. fortress model.
III. self-restraint model.

Answer to above question lies in the below line of the paragraph.
Although both these models link the need to protect speech to its inherent value, they agree on little else.
The self-restraint model, however, often subordinates the value of speech to that of tolerance.

2. Turning an eye to the greater structure of the passage, which of the following best describes the function of the last three paragraphs of the passage?

A. The author describes two theories and links each to the historical situation in which it was proposed. - Incorrect. There is no historical situation related to author's explanation of two traditional approach.
B. The author refers to a traditional way of viewing a question and examines two contrasting approaches that spring from that view. - Correct The author mentions "A review of the traditional justifications reveals two distinct models of explanation" and then goes into examining the two theories.
C. The author establishes contrasts between two approaches to a question and then explores their points of agreement. - Incorrect. There is no exploration of points of agreement and there is no emphasis on pointing out the contrast.
D. The author discusses two theories and the opposed conclusions that follow from them. Incorrect - the two theories do not have opposite conclusion.
E. The author reconciles two competing theories for a particular phenomenon. - Incorrect There is no reconciliation between the two theories in the last 3 paragraphs.

3. The author indicates that Meiklejohn‘s and Holmes‘ understanding of free speech is similar in that both:

A. believe that free speech ultimately leads to the discovery of truth. - Incorrect Only the fortress model explicitly states tha free speech leads to discovery of truth.
B. favour extending the right of speech to those who express extremist doctrines. - Correct. Both theories advocate the protection of extremist views.
C. consider that censorship involves the suppression of valuable speech. - Incorrect Only fortress model considers the censorship as a tool to suppress valuable speech.
D. justify free speech by referring to the citizen‘s right to be informed of all views relevant to public issues. - Incorrect There is no mention of views relevant to public issues in fortress model.
E. are against blindly supporting free speech - Incorrect none of the model states this statement.
Re: Lee Bollinger, rejecting traditional models of the defense of free spe   [#permalink] 20 Mar 2019, 20:08
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