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Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s

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Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s [#permalink]

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Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune system of mice and other mammals to invasive organisms such as bacteria. Unlike other mice, mice that are genetically incapable of making these particular cells do not show elevated levels of nitrates when infected with bacteria.

The statements above, if true, provide the most support for which of the following conclusions?

(A) Mice that are unable either to make macrophages or to make them in sufficient numbers will protect themselves from bacterial infections in some other way.

(B) Mice that show elevated levels of nitrates can easily fight off most types of bacterial infections.

(C) In mice, macrophages play a role in the production of nitrates or inhibit a process by which nitrates are broken down or otherwise eliminated.

(D) When a healthy mouse becomes infected with an invasive organism, the number of macrophages in the mouse’s body decreases.

(E) Injections of nitrates into mice that lack macrophages will not enhance the ability of these animals’ immune systems to fight off infection.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 02 Nov 2017, 07:02, edited 3 times in total.
Edited the question.

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Re: Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2006, 22:28
Took me almost three minutes to clarify the difference between B and C. C is a distortion of the premise to the the argument. All other answer choices are out of scope.

Best bet is (B)

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Re: Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2006, 00:16
I go for C.

Second sentence suggests that Macrophages elevates the levels of nitrates and a lack of Macrophages will not elevate levels of nitrates.
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Re: Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2006, 03:32
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jerrywu wrote:
Mice that are genetically incapable of making macrophages do not show elevated levels of nitrates when infected with bacteria.

A:Mice that are unable either to make macrophages or to make them in sufficient numbers will protect themselves from bacterial infections in some other way.

B:Mice that show elevated levels of nitrates can easily fight off most types of bacterial infections.

C:In mice, macrophages play a role in the production of nitrates or inhibit a process by which nitrates are broken down or otherwise eliminated.

D:When a healthy mouse becomes infected with an invasive organism, the number of macrophages in the mouse’s body decreases.

E:Injections of nitrates into mice that lack macrophages will not enhance the ability of these animals’ immune systems to fight off infection.

Clear C for me.
The conclusion is more about the nitrate production than about the defense mechanisms against bacterial infections.
No macrophage = no nitrate. C states that macrophages are involved in production of nitrates (positive role) or inhibition of nitrate break down (negative role).

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Re: Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2006, 19:58
C.

I thought B was close too, I eliminated B because it uses "fight off most types of bacterial infections", which is extreme.

There was one more thing that bothered me, argument says "macrophages" plays role in providing immune system against bacterial infection, so nitrate level could just be a side effect and that doesn't mean when you high level of nitrate level, it can make "macrophages"
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Re: Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s [#permalink]

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Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune system of mice and other mammals to invasive organisms such as bacteria. Unlike other mice, mice that are genetically incapable of making these particular cells do not show elevated levels of nitrates when infected with bacteria.

The statements above, if true, provide the most support for which of the following conclusions?

A. Mice that are unable either to make macrophages or to make them in sufficient numbers will protect themselves from bacterial infections in some other way.
B. Mice that show elevated levels of nitrates can easily fight off most types of bacterial infections.
C. In mice, macrophages play a role in the production of nitrates or inhibit a process by which nitrates are broken down or otherwise eliminated.
D. When a healthy mouse becomes infected with an invasive organism, the number of macrophages in the mouse's body decreases.
E. Injections of nitrates into mice that lack macrophages will not enhance the ability of these animals' immune systems to fight off infection.


Kindly provide your answer and reason for eliminating other answer choices

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Re: Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s [#permalink]

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RaviChandra wrote:
Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune system of mice and other mammals to invasive organisms such as bacteria. Unlike other mice, mice that are genetically incapable of making these particular cells do not show elevated levels of nitrates when infected with bacteria.

The statements above, if true, provide the most support for which of the following conclusions?

A. Mice that are unable either to make macrophages or to make them in sufficient numbers will protect themselves from bacterial infections in some other way.
B. Mice that show elevated levels of nitrates can easily fight off most types of bacterial infections.
C. In mice, macrophages play a role in the production of nitrates or inhibit a process by which nitrates are broken down or otherwise eliminated.
D. When a healthy mouse becomes infected with an invasive organism, the number of macrophages in the mouse's body decreases.
E. Injections of nitrates into mice that lack macrophages will not enhance the ability of these animals' immune systems to fight off infection.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:Soon


Kindly provide your answer and reason for eliminating other answer choices


I will go for C. As it seems to be Cause and Effect kind of relationship. In the 2nd line it is mentioned that "mice which are incapable of making Macrophages cells do not show elevated levels of Nitrates when infected with Bacteria." So bacteria doesnot cause the nitrate levels thus the macrophages are responsible in the production of nitrates. Thus will go with C.

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Re: Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2015, 08:47
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At first B seemed a contender, then realized its wayyy out of scope-
B. Mice that show elevated levels of nitrates can easily fight off most types of bacterial infections.

We only have these connections given to us:
i. Macrophages and Bacteria (Macrophages help immune system to fight against bacteria)
ii. Macrophages and Nitrates' level (no Macrophages, no high Nitrates)

While option C correctly explains 'ii' above, option B brings in a new and incorrect relationship:
Nitrates and Bacteria. (wrong because its Macrophages that fight bacteria and not the Nitrates)
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Re: Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s [#permalink]

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New post 28 Sep 2016, 16:06
hi ChrisLele,

can you please explain why A is not the answer

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Re: Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2016, 17:21
A is incorrect because we can’t make the assumption that the mice can protect themselves from infections in some other way. All we know is that macrophages play a role in the response of the immune system of mice.
C is correct because we know mice that are genetically incapable of making macrophages don’t show elevated levels of nitrates. Therefore, macrophages must play some sort of role in the production of nitrates or inhibit the process of the nitrates breaking down.
In essence: Without macrophages, nitrates not up. Therefore, with macros, nitrates elevated or don’t do a good job of making nitrates less elevated.
Make sense?

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Re: Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2016, 01:11
thehealthcareguy wrote:
A is incorrect because we can’t make the assumption that the mice can protect themselves from infections in some other way. All we know is that macrophages play a role in the response of the immune system of mice.


Don't you think it is quite logical to assume that if the mice don't have macrophages, they must be saving themselves through some other mechanism. We are NOT saying that they will save themselves through some specific process. Why do you think it'll be a wrong assumption. Please if you can expand more.

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Re: Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jan 2017, 10:03
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Hi please place this question under GMAT Prep Exam Pack 2 - Its verified
I do not get the add tag option above the topic.
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Re: Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2017, 05:09
DeepikaV wrote:
,

can you please explain why A is not the answer


Let's walk through the question.
We're given a set of facts, not an argument. The conclusions / supporting statements for the conclusions are listed as answer choices.
Ms are cells that come into picture when the immune system of mice/mammals responds to invasive organisms.
Mice that don't make Ms don't show elevated levels of nitrates when infected with bacteria.


Notice that the facts make it seem like, but do not guarantee that nitrate production, leave alone the elevated levels, is related to macrophages somehow.

A:Mice that are unable either to make macrophages or to make them in sufficient numbers will protect themselves from bacterial infections in some other way.

Mice will protect themselves in some other way. Well, where is that given ? It's possible that such mice(which don't make Ms or produce them in sufficient numbers) do not protect themselves. The given facts do not tell anything about this. So, this statement cannot be concluded from given facts.

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Re: Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2017, 00:33
A:Mice that are unable either to make macrophages or to make them in sufficient numbers will protect themselves from bacterial infections in some other way.( Wrong Answer : Nothing is there in the argument that supports this type of conclusion.)

B:Mice that show elevated levels of nitrates can easily fight off most types of bacterial infections.( Wrong Answer : This sort of connection between elevated levels of nitrates and bacterial infections is not reflected in the argument.)

C:In mice, macrophages play a role in the production of nitrates or inhibit a process by which nitrates are broken down or otherwise eliminated.( Correct Answer : The last line of the argument i,e Unlike …………….bacteria points to this kind of a role played by macrophages )

D:When a healthy mouse becomes infected with an invasive organism, the number of macrophages in the mouse body decreases.( Wrong Answer : This is nowhere indicated in the argument.)

E:Injections of nitrates into mice that lack macrophages will not enhance the ability of these animals immune systems to fight off infection.(Wrong Answer : This is out of scope of the argument.)

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Re: Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2017, 01:24
A:Mice that are unable either to make macrophages or to make them in sufficient numbers will protect themselves from bacterial infections in some other way.( Wrong Answer : Nothing is there in the argument that supports this type of conclusion.)

B:Mice that show elevated levels of nitrates can easily fight off most types of bacterial infections.( Wrong Answer : This sort of connection between elevated levels of nitrates and bacterial infections is not reflected in the argument.)

C:In mice, macrophages play a role in the production of nitrates or inhibit a process by which nitrates are broken down or otherwise eliminated.( Correct Answer : The last line of the argument i,e Unlike …………….bacteria points to this kind of a role played by macrophages )

D:When a healthy mouse becomes infected with an invasive organism, the number of macrophages in the mouse body decreases.( Wrong Answer : This is nowhere indicated in the argument.)

E:Injections of nitrates into mice that lack macrophages will not enhance the ability of these animals immune systems to fight off infection.(Wrong Answer : This is out of scope of the argument.)

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Re: Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jun 2017, 01:44
Inference questions impose a restriction that correct answer choice should go in line with the premises of the argument and no new information is allowed.

A) New information about mice that have less cells and their abbility to struggle with bacteria in a different way. - Eliminate
B) New information about the ability of mice to struggle with the bacteria easily. - Eliminate
C) Correct as long as it can be inferred from the premises that those cells trigger an increase in nitrate production once mice are infected with the bacteria.
D) New information about the decrease of nitrates once any organism in infected. - Eliminate
E) New information suggesting a potential scenario that can never be inferred basing on the premises presented in the passage. - Eliminate

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Re: Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2017, 14:12
Here are some of my takes, please correct me if I am wrong.

Q: The statements above, if true, provide the most support for which of the following conclusions?
-From the passage, we know that Macrophages will fight off bacteria. However, mice without Macrophages will not shown elevate level of nitrate when infected. In short, when Macrophages fight off bacteria the nitrate level will elevate. But we do not know which cause which and what really kills bacteria(i.e. either Macrophages produce nitrate to fight off bacteria OR nitrates can be the wastes after Macrophages fights off bacteria). What we know is the Macrophages is something to do with the level of nitrates and Macrophages fight off bacteria.

A:Mice that are unable either to make macrophages or to make them in sufficient numbers will protect themselves from bacterial infections in some other way.
-Wrong. Out of scope. We are not discussing "some other way" of the immune system.

B:Mice that show elevated levels of nitrates can easily fight off most types of bacterial infections.
-Wrong. From the passage, we only know that Macrophages fight off the bacteria and linked with the level of nitrates. (or maybe nitrates just the wastes after Macrophages fight off bacteria.)

C:In mice, macrophages play a role in the production of nitrates or inhibit a process by which nitrates are broken down or otherwise eliminated.
-Correct Answer. Macrophages linked with level of nitrates. This choice clearly explains that Macrophages plays a role in the production with nitrate.

D:When a healthy mouse becomes infected with an invasive organism, the number of macrophages in the mouse’s body decreases.
-Wrong. Out of scope. Passage does not mention the relationship between total number of Macrophages and bacteria.

E:Injections of nitrates into mice that lack macrophages will not enhance the ability of these animals’ immune systems to fight off infection.
-Wrong. Same as choice B, we do not know the the exact role of nitrates in this defensive mechanism.

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Re: Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2017, 01:48
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Macrophages are cells that play a role in the response of the immune s   [#permalink] 25 Jun 2017, 01:48
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