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Many house builders offer rent-to-buy programs that enable a

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Re: Many house builders offer rent-to-buy programs that enable a  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2017, 10:09
egmat wrote:
JusTLucK04 wrote:
betterscore wrote:
Many house builders offer rent-to-buy programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing and to apply part of the rent to a purchase later.

(A) programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing and to apply

(B) programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing and to apply

(C) programs; that enables a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing, to apply

(D) programs, which enables a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing, applying

(E) programs, which enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing, applying


It is easy to boil it down to B & E..

E has redundancy issues with repetition of "be able to" and " , which " issue
For people interested in how the -ing part works here(I am one of these few)...
ing modifies the complete action as it is following the clause "which enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing"..So it does makes sense to say that 'applying' is a correct usage of -ing modifier here as it is telling us something more about the previous clause..a valid usage
But there is also an additional premise to be fulfilled..the subject should also make sense with the ing modifier..
Here the subject is "which" i.e rent to buy programs..Here it is the program payment structure that is applying part of the rent payment to purchase payment.It is also a plausible meaning and is grammatically correct...
Although this modifies the intended meaning i.e Person applies for a part of the rent to be converted into purchase...I am concerned with the grammatical validity of the option E

Experts please comment on my thinking



Hi JusTLucK04,

You have correctly identified both the errors in option E. Also, your understanding regarding the verb-ing modifier is absolutely correct. :)

1. The phrase ‘to be able’ is redundant in the given sentence because of the presence of the verb ‘enable’.

2. The verb-ing modifier ‘applying’ is incorrectly used here. Since this modifier is placed after a clause and preceded by a comma it modifies the preceding clause. So, this conveys the meaning that the action of applying part of the rent to a purchase later enables the family to move into a new house. This is incorrect. The rent-to-buy programs enable a family to move into a new house.

Also, the modifier should make sense with the subject of the preceding clause. Since the modifier ‘which’ refers to ‘rent –to-buy programs’, this means that the programs apply the part of the rent to a purchase later. This is illogical since the programs cannot apply part of the rent to a purchase.



Option B does not have any of these errors and conveys the meaning clearly:

Many house builders offer rent-to-buy programs
o that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment
• to move into new housing
• and to apply part of the rent to a purchase later.


This option clearly states that the programs enable the family to do two things:

1.) to move into new housing.
2.) To apply part of the rent to a purchase later.



Hope this helps! :)
Deepak



Hello e-gmat team

Use of which and that is correct in the sentence as per the rule which and that must clearly refer to the preceding noun. But you have explained here that use of which is illogical.

It's not very clear to me and I am still trying to understand the difference between that and which in this sentence. Please help.


Thanks
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New post 28 Jun 2017, 11:05
PiyushK wrote:
@e-gmat:
Could you please help answer my query as well.

OG-12#55
OG explanation for option D and E says "applying following a non restrictive clause suggests incorrectly that the builders, not the family, are applying the rent."

I have seen many sentence structures such as "main clause + restrictive clause, -ing modifier ..." in which participle modifier can modify either of the clause main or restrictive, depends on sentence, but I am not aware of such rule that participle modifier can jump over non restrictive clause and modify the subject of main clause. Could you please shed some light on this ?


I have the same question and dilemma.
GMATNinja could you clarify ?
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New post 15 Jul 2017, 01:26
mikemcgarry wrote:
kirtivardhan wrote:
mike,

Can we eliminate option C because the ";" is used to separate two independent clauses.The second clause of the option, starting with that enables is not independent.

Please correct me if i am wrong.

Regards

Dear kirtivardhan,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

Option (C) is set up so that, on both sides of the semicolon, we DO have independent clauses.

Version (C):
Many house builders offer rent-to-buy programs; that enables a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing, to apply part of the rent to a purchase later.
Independent clause #1:
subject = "Many house builders"
verb = "offer"
Independent clause #2:
subject = "that"
verb = "allows"

Remember, the word "that" has many different uses. In the prompt, and in many of the choices, the word "that" is a relative pronoun that introduces a subordinate clause. But the word "that" can also be a pronoun, and as such, can be the subject of an independent clause, as it is in (C). See:
https://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-sent ... s-of-that/

What you identified is not true and not the problem with (C). The problem is a pronoun problem. The word "that," used as a pronoun, must have a noun antecedent. The antecedent cannot be an action. The problem with (C) is that the word "that" refers to the entire action in the first independent clause. This is an illegal pronoun use. That's a big problem with (C). See:
https://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-pronoun-traps/

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


hello, I have a question, I did have a struggle with this question because I did not recognize the structure for....to...., then I realize that the actual structure is "with...for..."
1/ "for sb to do sth" is informal in gmat so this structure will not be tested, right?
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New post 16 Jul 2017, 20:04
Shiv2016 wrote:
Hello e-gmat team

Use of which and that is correct in the sentence as per the rule which and that must clearly refer to the preceding noun. But you have explained here that use of which is illogical.

It's not very clear to me and I am still trying to understand the difference between that and which in this sentence. Please help.

Dear Shiv2016,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

The use of "which" and "that" throughout the answer choices is correct. That is the wrong place to look to find the flaws. One of the many features that makes this such an effective SC question is that some students will waste valuable time getting hung up on the "that"/"which" split rather than pay attention to the features that make a real difference.
sevenplusplus wrote:
PiyushK wrote:
@e-gmat:
Could you please help answer my query as well.

OG-12#55
OG explanation for option D and E says "applying following a non restrictive clause suggests incorrectly that the builders, not the family, are applying the rent."

I have seen many sentence structures such as "main clause + restrictive clause, -ing modifier ..." in which participle modifier can modify either of the clause main or restrictive, depends on sentence, but I am not aware of such rule that participle modifier can jump over non restrictive clause and modify the subject of main clause. Could you please shed some light on this ?


I have the same question and dilemma.
GMATNinjacould you clarify ?

Dear sevenplusplus & PiyushK,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friends, you are asking for a mathematical cut-and-dry rule for something that is far more subtle. There is simply not a one-size-fits-all rule for this scenario. It is a matter of logic and rhetorical feel.

Look at version (E)
Many house builders offer rent-to-buy programs, which enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing, applying part of the rent to a purchase later.
As I am sure you understand, the terminology -ing modifier is sloppy and imprecise. Here, what we have is participle "applying." As we see from the prompt and from (B), the intended target of this noun-modifier is "a family"--this family is the one who will perform the action of "applying." This target noun, though, is merely a direct object of a verb inside a relative clause. Rhetorically, it is about as unemphasized as we could make a noun, and yet we are expecting the participle to point to this noun clearly as a target. That's awkward. That's why (E) is a spectacular failure.

You see, in an effective sentence, grammar and logic and rhetorical all reinforce each other, to produce a powerful and unambiguous meaning. If we analyze this purely at the level of grammar, we are missing 2/3 of the story.

It is impossible to get to GMAT SC mastery by learning some mythical "complete" set of rules. Language doesn't work that way. if you want to develop SC master, you need to develop a habit of reading. Reading will help you develop the intuition to see how grammar and rhetoric and logic all work together. See:
How to Improve Your GMAT Verbal Score
chesstitans wrote:
hello, I have a question, I did have a struggle with this question because I did not recognize the structure for....to...., then I realize that the actual structure is "with...for..."
1/ "for sb to do sth" is informal in gmat so this structure will not be tested, right?

Dear chesstitans,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, you are confusing a few different things. The technical name for the structure "to do something" is called an infinitive. On the rare occasion that we specify a subject with an infinitive, that subject always becomes the object of the preposition "for."
For a person to commit this crime is almost unthinkable.

If we were specifying a subject for the preposition, we always would situation that subject as the object of the preposition "for." This is NOT an informal structure. This is a rigorously correct structure that appears on the GMAT SC in correct answers.

Here, say in (B), the infinitive "to move" doesn't have a subject. Many times, infinitives don't have any subject at all. Instead, this is an idiomatic structure, a verb that idiomatically takes the infinitive. The idiom with the verb "enable" is
enable {person/people] to do {thing]
The fundamental structure in that part of the sentence is
. . . programs that enable a family . . . to move . . .
That's the core structure, but the noun "family" is too vague and needs a vital noun modifier to make clear its identity. Here, a pair of prepositional phrases, "with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment" serves as the vital noun modifier. This is absolutely unrelated to the infinitive.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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New post 09 Sep 2017, 10:09
Many house builders offer rent-to-buy programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing and to apply part of the rent to a purchase later.

(A) programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing and to apply

(B) programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing and to apply

(C) programs; that enables a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing, to apply

(D) programs, which enables a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing, applying

(E) programs, which enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing, applying
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New post 26 Sep 2018, 07:51
Referring to Option B: (B) programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing and to apply

Is 'to' before 'apply' redundant? I mean the option as "programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing and to apply," better?
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New post 29 Oct 2018, 21:24
PiyushK wrote:
@e-gmat:
Could you please help answer my query as well.

OG-12#55
OG explanation for option D and E says "applying following a non restrictive clause suggests incorrectly that the builders, not the family, are applying the rent."

I have seen many sentence structures such as "main clause + restrictive clause, -ing modifier ..." in which participle modifier can modify either of the clause main or restrictive, depends on sentence, but I am not aware of such rule that participle modifier can jump over non restrictive clause and modify the subject of main clause. Could you please shed some light on this ?


Hi can any one help answer this question as I am confused here too.

Suppose we have a

main clause + that.. + ing... then is that the implied subject of the present participle or is the subject of the main clause.

Similarly

main clause + ,which ..., +ing... then is which the implied subject or ...?

The question here is whats the meaning of the entire preceding clause (is it the relative/subordinate clause or is it the main clause)
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New post 30 Oct 2018, 02:57
Referring to Option B: (B) programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing and to apply

Is 'to' before 'apply' redundant? I mean the option as "programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing and to apply," better?
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New post 30 Oct 2018, 04:07
jack0997 wrote:
Referring to Option B: (B) programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing and to apply

Is 'to' before 'apply' redundant? I mean the option as "programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing and to apply," better?


No it is not . If to is not used parallelism is hampered. It will then imply that the programs apply part of the rent.

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New post 19 Dec 2018, 12:26
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one problem at a time, and narrow down the options to get the correct answer quickly! First, let's start by taking a look at the original question, and then highlighting the major differences between the options in orange:

Many house builders offer rent-to-buy programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing and to apply part of the rent to a purchase later.

(A) programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing and to apply
(B) programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing and to apply
(C) programs; that enables a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing, to apply
(D) programs, which enables a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing, applying
(E) programs, which enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing, applying

After a quick glance over the options, there are a few key differences we can focus on:

1. How they begin (punctuation / subject-verb agreement)
2. to be able to move vs. to move (parallelism)
3. to apply vs. applying (parallelism)


Let's start with #1 on our list, which is a combination of punctuation and subject-verb agreement. Since the punctuation varies so much from one option to the next, let's focus on subject-verb agreement first. To figure out what type of verb we need, we need to answer the question, "What is enabling families to move into new housing?" Rent-to-buy programs. Since "programs" is plural, we need a plural verb to match! Let's see which options use a plural verb, and rule out the ones that don't:

(A) programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing and to apply
(B) programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing and to apply
(C) programs; that enables a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing, to apply
(D) programs, which enables a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing, applying
(E) programs, which enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing, applying

We can eliminate options C & D because they use the singular "enables" with a plural subject, which does not agree in number. Now that we're down to 3 options, we can focus on the next problem.

Since both #2 and #3 on our list have to do with parallelism, let's combine them and figure out which options use parallel structure. Remember that whenever we talk about a subject doing more than one action, each action needs to be written using parallel verbs, wording, or structure.

(A) programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing and to apply --> NOT PARALLEL

(B) programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to move into new housing and to apply --> PARALLEL

(E) programs, which enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing, applying --> NOT PARALLEL

There you have it - option B is the correct choice! It's the only option that uses the correct subject-verb agreement and parallelism.


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New post 20 Feb 2019, 10:36
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New post 08 Mar 2019, 10:13
betterscore wrote:
Many house builders offer rent-to-buy programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing and to apply part of the rent to a purchase later.


Cut the fluff

Many house builders offer rent-to-buy programs that enable a family with insufficient savings for a conventional down payment to be able to move into new housing and to apply part of the rent to a purchase later.

programs that enable a family to be able to move.....and to apply....
Now it is much easier to see the redundant usage of "to be able" along with enable.
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