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Many symptoms of mental illnesses are affected by organic factors such

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Many symptoms of mental illnesses are affected by organic factors such  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 10:07
2
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Question Stats:

43% (02:08) correct 57% (02:13) wrong based on 154 sessions

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Many symptoms of mental illnesses are affected by organic factors such as a deficiency in a compound in the brain. What is surprising, however, is the tremendous variation among different countries in the incidence of these symptoms in people with mental illnesses. This variation establishes that the organic factors that affect symptoms of mental illnesses are not distributed evenly around the globe.

The reasoning above is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that it

(A) does not say how many different mental illnesses are being discussed

(B) neglects the possibility that nutritional factors that contribute to deficiencies in compounds in the brain vary from culture to culture

(C) fails to consider the possibility that cultural factors significantly affect how mental illnesses manifest themselves in symptoms

(D) presumes, without providing justification, that any change in brain chemistry manifests itself as a change in mental condition

(E) presumes, without providing justification, that mental phenomena are only manifestations of physical phenomena
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Re: Many symptoms of mental illnesses are affected by organic factors such  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2019, 10:57
Can you please explain why D is incorrect?
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Re: Many symptoms of mental illnesses are affected by organic factors such  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2019, 11:42
can anyone please explain why "c" is correct
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Re: Many symptoms of mental illnesses are affected by organic factors such  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2019, 20:27
sbi770 wrote:
Can you please explain why D is incorrect?

---

(D) presumes, without providing justification, that any change in brain chemistry manifests itself as a change in mental condition


The statement mentions that variations in symptoms of mental illnesses are correlated with organic factors that vary culturally. It does not talk specifically about "brain chemistry" processes and does not link these processes to mental conditions. Reading more into the statement is discouraged by GMAT test makers. Therefore, D can be eliminated.
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Re: Many symptoms of mental illnesses are affected by organic factors such  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2019, 20:30
Vitamin B-12 and other B vitamins play a role in producing brain chemicals that affect mood and other brain functions. Low levels of B-12 and other B vitamins such as vitamin B-6 and folate may be linked to depression.

Low levels of a vitamin can result from eating a poor diet or not being able to absorb the vitamins you consume. Older adults, vegetarians and people with digestive disorders such as celiac disease or Crohn's disease may have trouble getting enough B-12. Sometimes a vitamin B-12 deficiency occurs for unknown reasons. Your doctor may order a blood test to check levels of B-12 or other vitamins if a deficiency is suspected.
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Re: Many symptoms of mental illnesses are affected by organic factors such  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2019, 20:33
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jrk23 wrote:
can anyone please explain why "c" is correct


(C) fails to consider the possibility that cultural factors significantly affect how mental illnesses manifest themselves in symptoms

The statement makes the conclusion (last sentence) that mental illnesses are linked with varying organic factors based on the premise that there are variations in symptoms among countries. However, it neglects the possibility that different cultural factors may favor or disfavor the manifestation of these symptoms. Some cultures might be permissive, while others may be restrictive. This means that the same supposed illness will demonstrate different symptoms.

Since (C) hones in on this logical error - failure to consider a very likely alternative possibility - it is the best choice.
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Many symptoms of mental illnesses are affected by organic factors such  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2019, 20:35
3lephant wrote:
Vitamin B-12 and other B vitamins play a role in producing brain chemicals that affect mood and other brain functions. Low levels of B-12 and other B vitamins such as vitamin B-6 and folate may be linked to depression.

Low levels of a vitamin can result from eating a poor diet or not being able to absorb the vitamins you consume. Older adults, vegetarians and people with digestive disorders such as celiac disease or Crohn's disease may have trouble getting enough B-12. Sometimes a vitamin B-12 deficiency occurs for unknown reasons. Your doctor may order a blood test to check levels of B-12 or other vitamins if a deficiency is suspected.


Sure, but all of this is not mentioned in the statement. We cannot bring in external specialized knowledge to answer questions.

By the way, there are big differences between "depression" and "symptoms of mental illness" - the subject of the original statement.
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Re: Many symptoms of mental illnesses are affected by organic factors such  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2019, 11:35
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B and C are quite close, but the right answer is indeed C.

First, understand the conclusion. It says the variation in symptoms is associated with the organic factors being unevenly distributed.

OF Variation ---> Symptom Variation.

We need to pick an alternate explanation for this.

B says - Nutritional Factors ---> Organic Factors

C says - Cultural Factors ---> Mental Illness manifesting in Symptoms.

In an ideal world, both are pretty darn close and you'd really want to pick B. But it requires you to assume that an influence of Nutrition on Organic Factors - Compounds in the brain, would cause Mental Illness.
C does this without assuming anything.
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Re: Many symptoms of mental illnesses are affected by organic factors such  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2019, 02:20
Hovkial wrote:
sbi770 wrote:
Can you please explain why D is incorrect?

---

(D) presumes, without providing justification, that any change in brain chemistry manifests itself as a change in mental condition


The statement mentions that variations in symptoms of mental illnesses are correlated with organic factors that vary culturally. It does not talk specifically about "brain chemistry" processes and does not link these processes to mental conditions. Reading more into the statement is discouraged by GMAT test makers. Therefore, D can be eliminated.


Hi Hovkial,
A few things in your explanation that are confusing for my pea sized brain.
1. By "statement", do you mean argument?
2. "Reading more into the statement is discouraged by GMAT test makers." what do you mean by this?
3. "organic factors that vary culturally" could global translate to culture?
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Many symptoms of mental illnesses are affected by organic factors such  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2019, 15:44
Doer01 wrote:
Hovkial wrote:
sbi770 wrote:
Can you please explain why D is incorrect?

---

(D) presumes, without providing justification, that any change in brain chemistry manifests itself as a change in mental condition


The statement mentions that variations in symptoms of mental illnesses are correlated with organic factors that vary culturally. It does not talk specifically about "brain chemistry" processes and does not link these processes to mental conditions. Reading more into the statement is discouraged by GMAT test makers. Therefore, D can be eliminated.


Hi Hovkial,
A few things in your explanation that are confusing for my pea sized brain.
1. By "statement", do you mean argument?
2. "Reading more into the statement is discouraged by GMAT test makers." what do you mean by this?
3. "organic factors that vary culturally" could global translate to culture?


1. Statement = argument (tangential point).

2. You must not bring in additional outside knowledge to answer the question. The answer choices are controlled only by the information contained within the question statements.

3. Organic factors could and indeed may vary with culture. You would then need to conclude that this in turn causes differences in symptoms of mental illnesses.

You would need to make assumptions about this information and draw conclusions based on your outside knowledge (see point 2). You simply should not do that.

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Re: Many symptoms of mental illnesses are affected by organic factors such  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2019, 18:43
Hovkial wrote:
Many symptoms of mental illnesses are affected by organic factors such as a deficiency in a compound in the brain. What is surprising, however, is the tremendous variation among different countries in the incidence of these symptoms in people with mental illnesses. This variation establishes that the organic factors that affect symptoms of mental illnesses are not distributed evenly around the globe.

The reasoning above is most vulnerable to criticism on the grounds that it

(A) does not say how many different mental illnesses are being discussed . —— irrelevant

(B) neglects the possibility that nutritional factors that contribute to deficiencies in compounds in the brain vary from culture to culture —-discusses only about a single organic factor how nutrients vary in brain. This actually strengthens the argument by proving only variance in organic factor leads to symptoms variance.

(C) fails to consider the possibility that cultural factors significantly affect how mental illnesses manifest themselves in symptoms —— perfectly fits our requirements

(D) presumes, without providing justification, that any change in brain chemistry manifests itself as a change in mental condition —- never question the premise. The author is always right ..?

(E) presumes, without providing justification, that mental phenomena are only manifestations of physical phenomena ——irrelevant


Conclusion : organic factors that affect symptoms of mental illnesses are not distributed evenly around the globe.

Gap in reasoning : variance in distribution of organic factors. ——-> variance in symptoms incidence

Any additional info that can prove that symptoms variance is not only because of organic factors variance is the right answer. C perfectly fits in our requirement.

Note : It is my first post. Have no idea how to change font color and where to put comments. I guess everything understands my comments.

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Re: Many symptoms of mental illnesses are affected by organic factors such   [#permalink] 16 Aug 2019, 18:43
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