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Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th

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Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

OG16 SC113
Category: Rhetorical construction; Logical predication

Originally posted by marine on 20 Sep 2004, 05:59.
Last edited by GMATNinjaTwo on 27 Mar 2018, 12:03, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 26 Oct 2010, 00:18
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D and E gone because of wrong idiom, -conceived of to be -

A gone because of -conception of as -

B is gone because of very ambiguous reference of - which - . -Which - should point to the radio as per the essence of the passage, but here, seems to point to the telephone or the conversation or a tool, every thing other than the radio.

C is the lone winner
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New post 28 Mar 2005, 02:21
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marine wrote:
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,


we have two clauses separated by a semi-colon - and the second clause needs to be in contrast with the first.
Use of a transitional tag "instead" brings out the contrast..and has become says that radio, invented by Marconi, is still in existence.

C is the best
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New post 29 Mar 2005, 05:42
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marine wrote:
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,


Go for C.

(A) Marconi’s conception of is wrong

All the usage of 'which' is wrong, B,D is out.

(E) 'other than what it is' is awkward
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New post 11 Aug 2005, 13:52
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A is just fine...


A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is

A is fine.. it clearly refers to Marconi’s conception

B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is

- what does which refer to here..

C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
- out , bad restrictive clause. Seems to indicate that private conversation could substitute for the telephone.

D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
- out, sentence has a different meaning. Seems to say that private conversation is a substitute for the telephone and which clause is also weird. No clear referrent...

E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

- weird constructionl, other than what it is....
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New post 13 Dec 2005, 07:33
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A is passive and all the other answer choices are too choppy with multiple commas.

(C)
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New post 19 Jun 2006, 09:14
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It's C.

Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

- "conceived of" is a correct idiom
- "substitute for" is a correct idiom
- 'tool for private conversation' is || with 'tool for communicating'.
- "it" is used for radio.

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New post 25 Aug 2006, 21:33
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C

A, D and E are out. Correct idiomn is "concieved of X as Y....." where X and Y are nouns or noun phrases.

Out of B and C, C is fare better.
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New post 26 Oct 2010, 00:01
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If anyone answers C, could you please explain the use of that and it?

Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become

Aren't noun modifiers such as which and that(when that is used to modify a noun) supposed to be placed right next to the noun they are modifying? I can see that 'that' is modifying radio from the context of the sentence, but I want to know more about the rules governing exceptions like this one.

I know that when two clauses are connected by a conjunction, you can use a pronoun to refer back to the subject of the first clause. In this case, Marconi is the subject which can not be represented by the pronoun it, so you may assume it is referring to radio. I remember running into several questions that are very unforgiving about the use of pronoun like this, so I am a bit puzzled about the use of it here. I don't recall any from top of my head, but I will post them if I come across another.

Thanks in advance for your help.
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New post 26 Oct 2010, 00:20
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scheol79 wrote:
If anyone answers C, could you please explain the use of that and it?

Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become


conceived of X as Y- correct idiom. => only C and B are contenders.

Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become

radio as a tool that could substitute for the telephone -> this is the correct usage. But we may insert 'for private conversation' as a mission critical modifier. Read MGMAT SC advance chapters for this.

"It is used for radio". You can not use "it" for either tool or telephone.

Do not consider the pronoun ambiguity a hard and fast rule for the elimination.

You are here to select the best answer among 5 choices, not to select the best answer choice in the universe.
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New post 26 Oct 2010, 02:07
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Does the pronoun modifier - that - always have to modify the noun just before it?

I like ground coffee from India that is very enticing

I believe this sentence to be correct although India may not be very enticing.

Should a pronoun always refer to the subject of the earlier sentence? Not necessarily, It may also stand for the object.

Last week the mail order company sent me a book on grammar; unfortunately it contained anything but grammar.

In this sentence, what does the - it - refer to? The mail- order company? Nay, far from it;

I believe that context is also in contention and not the structure alone.
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New post 27 Jan 2014, 02:08
Hi E-GMAT,

Could you please explain the sentence structure of the above question listed below and the below listed queries.

Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

My first query is that isn't "instead" makes the second clause a dependent clause.
Second is noun modifier "a tool for private conversation" isnt it correctly modifying a telephone as mention in option B rather than in C .
Third is in choice C . The what does that modifies ?

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New post 30 Jan 2014, 09:34
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Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi E-GMAT,

Could you please explain the sentence structure of the above question listed below and the below listed queries.

Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

My first query is that isn't "instead" makes the second clause a dependent clause.
Second is noun modifier "a tool for private conversation" isnt it correctly modifying a telephone as mention in option B rather than in C .
Third is in choice C . The what does that modifies ?

Thanks



Hi Nitinaka19,

Answer 1: The word “instead” does not make clause because it is an “adverb”. For example,

Slowly, he finished the hot chocolate.

This sentence is an independent clause. Yes, it starts with the adverb “slowly”. However, adjectives and adverbs do not make a clause a Dependent clause.

Answer 2: Well yes, in Choice B, “a tool for private conversation modifies “telephone”. However, Choice B is not incorrect for this modifier. It is incorrect for the use of “which”. Notice that “which” is preceded by a parallel marker “but”. Now this “which” clause is not parallel to anything in the sentence. That’s the error in Choice B.

Answer C: In Choice C, the “that” clause modifies “a tool for private conversation” because grammatically, that’s the entity that precedes the Relative Pronoun “that”. However, logically it modifies “radio” because the sentence says that Marconi conceived of radio as a tool…. This means radio = a tool for private conversation. So logically “that” refers to “radio” as well.

You can take a look at OG13#6 where another Noun Modifier (Verb-ed Modifier) grammatically refers to the preceding Noun Entity that in essence refers back to the Subject of the sentence.

Hope this helps. :-)
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New post 22 Mar 2014, 23:41
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Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

(A) Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private
conversation; instead, it is
(B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private
conversation, but which is
(C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the
telephone; instead, it has become
(D) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the
telephone, which has become
(E) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private
conversation, other than what it is,

Meaning : Marconi’s conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation and he thought radio as a substitute for telephone. But radio became a tool for mass communication

Option A) Holding option A
Option B) If we remove the modifier “a tool for private conversation”. The sentence becomes
“Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone but which is”
which replaces telephone and makes the sentence nonsensical.
Option C) Holding option C)
Option D) Same issue as that of Option B)
Option E) “other than what it is” is wordy and can be replaced with instead.

I am confused between Option A and option C)

Meaning analysis of Option A):
Marconi conceptualized radio as a substitute of telephone. Now the modifier “a tool for private
conversation” provides more information about telephone. “it” logically refers to radio.
tense is present for the second half – which seems ok as the statement is made in present tense.

Meaning analysis of Option C)
Marconi conceptualized radio as a tool for private conversation and radio could substitute for the telephone. “it” logically refers to radio.
tense is present perfect -> that seems ok as the radio has been working as a mass communication since inception.

Please clarify.
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New post 02 Apr 2014, 14:32
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The modifier "a tool for private conversation" is a culprit in this choice. This modifier is intended for "radio", Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation. However, "it" (radio) has become just the opposite, "a tool for communicating with a large, public audience". This is the intended meaning of the sentence that is correctly expressed by Choice C.

Also, the use of "is" is not appropriate in Choice A. Use of simple present present tense makes this a universal fact. In choice C, "has become" clearly shows that what it was meant to be but what it has eventually become.

Hope this helps. :-)
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New post 15 Jul 2014, 00:11
Mission2012 wrote:
marine wrote:
Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

A. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is
C. Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become
D. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become
E. Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

Category: Rhetorical construction; Logical predication


Hi e-gmat,

My analysis on this question. Could you please review and let me know if my thought process is correct -

Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation:instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

(A) Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is


Analysis : IC, Noun + Noun Modifier; Adverb, IC
Error :
1. a tool for private conversation is N+NM, hence can modify radio or telephone (either)
2. Instead, it is – parallel IC, hence it refers back to parallel noun of “Marconi’s conception” instead of radio

(B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is


Analysis: IC, Noun + Noun Mod, But + IC
Which in this case would refer to radio (noun in parallel IC) or conversation (closest noun)?


(C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become

Analysis: IC + that + modifier; instead, IC
That can lead over to modify radio. It refers to radio –
Correct option


(D) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become

Analysis IC, Noun + Noun Modifier, modifier
Error :
1. Conceived ..to be – incorrect idiom
2. Which refer to telephone


(E) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

Analysis IC, Noun + Noun Modifier, <<can’t get rest of the structure
Error :
1. Conceived ..to be – incorrect idiom





Hi Nishant,
Thank you for posting your query here and a very good analysis I must say! :)


SENTENCE STRUCTURE

Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation:
• instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.


OPTION A: Incorrect

1) The way this sentence is worded, it suggests that Marconi’s conception was a substitute for the telephone. This meaning is absolutely illogical because an idea cannot be a substitute for a tool. From the context, we can understand that the radio was conceived as a substitute for the telephone. Hence, this sentence has meaning error.
2) The pronoun “it” seems to illogically refer to “Marconi’s conception”.

The Noun + Noun modifier “a tool for private conversation” modifies “telephone” correctly, since logically we know that radio is not a tool for private conversation.


OPTION B: Incorrect

1) “but” acts as a parallel market in this choice and is followed by a “which” clause. However, this “which” clause is not parallel to anything that lies on the left side of the marker.
2) Also, it is not clear what the modifier “which” refers to in this sentence. It can either refer to “radio” or to “telephone”.

As you have mentioned, “but” should be followed by an independent clause. However, the clause starting with “which” is not an independent clause.


OPTION C: Correct

This option changes the subject from “Marconi’s conception” to “Marconi”. This removes the meaning error of the original sentence.
Also, “it” in the second clause clearly refers to radio.

Here, “that” doesn’t refer to radio. It refers to “a tool for private conversation”.


OPTION D: Incorrect

1) “Conceived of X to be Y” is incorrect idiomatic usage. The correct usage is “conceived of X as Y”.
2) The relative pronoun modifier “which” seems to modify “telephone”. This gives an illogical meaning.
Note that, “which” can’t jump over “to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone” and modify “radio” since this modifier is not one unified phrase.


OPTION E: Incorrect

1) This choice repeats the idiom error of option D.
2) The phrase “other than what” is wordy and redundant. It gives the meaning similar to “precisely the opposite”.



Hope this helps! :)
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New post 14 Feb 2015, 02:04
Can someone please explain the error in option B. I read MGMAT and BTG explanation regarding the same but its still not clear to me.

Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.
B. Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is

As per Mitch:
Quote:
http://www.beatthegmat.com/og-12th-ed-marconi-conception-t62687.html#280168
In B, the pronoun which seems to refer -- incorrectly -- to the telephone, but the radio is the tool for communicating with a large, public audience.
>> Request someone to explain it further with example.

As per Ron
Quote:
http://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/forums/post36053.html#p36053
that choice says "BUT which..."
this means that "which..." is the second part of a parallel structure. the first part of this parallel structure is "a tool for private conversation".
BOTH parts of this parallel structure modify "telephone". (this is how parallel structures work: both/all parts of them MUST have the same grammatical function.)


After cutting the fluff:
Marconi conceived of the radio
as a substitute for the telephone
but which
is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.

Does this mean
X conceived of Y as Z but <..>
What follows but shall be || to Z.

Please add or correct my reasoning.

Option C : Correct:
Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone;
instead, it has become precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience.
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New post 14 Feb 2015, 07:15
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JarvisR wrote:
Can someone please explain the error in option B.

Hi JarvisR, B mentions: ....but which is...

Whenever we have this kind of structure (but which, and that, but that etc.), there has to be a corresponding parallel structure to the left of the conjunction (and/but).

In B, there is no corresponding parallel structure on the left hand side of but. Hence, B is not correct.
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New post 14 Feb 2015, 07:23
EducationAisle wrote:
JarvisR wrote:
Can someone please explain the error in option B.

Hi JarvisR, B mentions: ....but which is...

Whenever we have this kind of structure (but which, and that, but that etc.), there has to be a corresponding parallel structure to the left of the conjunction (and/but).

In B, there is no corresponding parallel structure on the left hand side of but. Hence, B is not correct.


I appreciate your inputs on the shared query. :)

This seems to be in line with Ron's explanation. Can u please confirm, if i understood it correctly (i have mentioned the structure breakdown in my original post).

Also, some of the posts point that "which" links to telephone. To me its ambiguous, can be telephone/radio.
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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Feb 2015, 07:42
Hi JarvisR, you mention:

What follows but shall be || to Z.

As I mentioned in my above post, what follows but is: which is..., and so, there has to be a corresponding which structure on the Left hand side of but.

Currently, there is no "which" structure on the Left hand side of but. In other words, what follows but is actually not parallel to anything; in fact, that is the problem with B.

So, it would not be appropriate to mention that what follows but is parallel to Z.
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Ashish
EducationAisle, Bangalore

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Re: Marconi's conception of the radio was as a substitute for th &nbs [#permalink] 14 Feb 2015, 07:42

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