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New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker

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New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 21 Aug 2018, 19:45
2
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Question 1
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A
B
C
D
E

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75% (03:15) correct 25% (03:23) wrong

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Question 2
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B
C
D
E

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62% (01:26) correct 38% (01:51) wrong

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Question 3
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E

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62% (00:58) correct 38% (01:11) wrong

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New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenges the theory that strains of bacteria can be “trained” to mutate by withholding a metabolite necessary for their regular function. In particular, they consider the case of bacteria typhosum, which needs tryptophan in order to reproduce. Earlier researchers had grown the bacteria in a medium somewhat deficient in tryptophan and observed the growth of mutant strains of the bacteria which did not need tryptophan in order to reproduce.

Fildes and Whitaker argue that the withholding of tryptophan did not induce these mutant strains of bacteria. Rather, these mutants were already present in the original sample of bacteria typhosum, albeit in a concentration too small to detect. In experimenting with the bacteria grown in agar cultures, they found that by plating out huge quantities of the bacteria, one could locate mutant strains. Because of the possibility that the lack of uniformity of the agar cultures had in fact trained mutant strains, they conducted similar experiments with liquid cultures and again found that mutant strains of the bacteria were present in the original sampling. From these experiments, Fildes and Whitaker conclude that the mutants are of genetic origin and are not induced by environmental training. They asserted that the concentration of tryptophan is unrelated to the appearance of these mutants in the bacteria.

To confirm these results, Fildes and Whitaker used an innovative plating technique using pile fabrics, such as velvet or velveteen, to accurately imprint the growth found on an original agar plate to a series of replica agar plates. The process entails taking the original agar plate, inverting it onto the velvet while using light finger pressure to transfer growth, and then imprinting the fabric, with its pattern of growth, on the new agar plates. By using this replica plating method, Fildes and Whitaker demonstrated that the mutants were in fact genetically present or preadapted, as the locations of the mutant strains of bacteria on the replica plates were identical to the locations of the mutant strains on the original agar plate.

1. According to the passage, Fildes and Whitaker conducted the experiment with liquid culture because

A. agar culture contained tryptophan
B. liquid culture allowed for easier plating
C. agar culture could not support a sufficiently large number of bacteria
D. liquid culture offered a more consistent medium
E. agar culture did not adhere well to pile fabric



2. It can be inferred from the passage that the replica plating method is effective for which of the following reasons?

A. It allows researchers to determine the relative sizes of different populations of bacteria.
B. It shows that no new mutant strains developed after transfer from the original agar plate.
C. It eliminates the possibility that the agar culture was contaminated by a different type of bacteria.
D. It demonstrates that no tryptophan was present in the original agar culture.
E. It establishes that the original agar culture contained the necessary metabolites for bacterial reproduction.



3. Which of the following most accurately states the purpose of the passage?

A. To defend a scientific hypothesis from attack by an innovative technique
B. To describe a process by which bacteria can be trained to mutate
C. To present the results of an experiment designed to test an established theory
D. To argue against an established protocol on the grounds that it is outdated
E. To challenge a scientific technique used to prove a questionable theory



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Originally posted by Skywalker18 on 08 Sep 2016, 02:32.
Last edited by workout on 21 Aug 2018, 19:45, edited 2 times in total.
Added timer, Formatted the passage
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2016, 02:33

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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2016, 02:34
6 mins 40 seconds , including 2 mins 50 seconds to read
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2016, 07:19
8 mins. DBC

Can someone please explain how can we reject choice E in question 2?
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2016, 22:24
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7 mins all correct. Nice passage.
Regarding the query on Q2, why not E.

It can be inferred from the passage that the replica plating method is effective for which of the following reasons?
E) It establishes that the original agar culture contained the necessary metabolites for bacterial reproduction.

2:Fildes and Whitaker argue that the withholding of tryptophan did not induce these mutant strains of bacteria. Rather, these mutants were already present...Blah Blah
P3: To confirm these results, Fildes and Whitaker used an innovative plating technique using pile fabrics

Hope this answers your query.
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2018, 09:30
3min 58 sec for passage
3 min 24 sec for 3 questions
got ques 2 wrong , 2/3 correct :?
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2018, 09:52
2
abhimahna wrote:
8 mins. DBC

Can someone please explain how can we reject choice E in question 2?


May be its not required now - as you have already passed this phase.


By using this replica plating method, Fildes and Whitaker demonstrated
that the mutants were in fact genetically present or preadapted, as the locations of the mutant strains of bacteria on the replica plates were identical to the locationsof the mutant strains on the original agar plate.


Means => mutant did not develop after the transfer=> mutants were in fact genetically present or preadapted
B says this -> no new mutant strains developed after transfer from the original agar plate.

Lets see E-> It establishes that the original agar culture contained the necessary metabolites for bacterial reproduction.
outside info.


Anyways correct me- if you think my reasoning is wrong.
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2018, 07:50
Can someone explain why answer choice E is wrong for question 3?

In first paragraph - Earlier researchers had grown the bacteria in
a medium somewhat deficient in tryptophan and observed the growth of mutant strains of the bacteria which did not need tryptophan in order to reproduce.

Fildes and Whitaker argue that the withholding of tryptophan did not induce these mutant strains of bacteria. Rather, these mutants were already present in the original sample of bacteria typhosum....


Later Fildes & Whitaker used innovative techniques to prove their point..
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2018, 11:14
SWAT09 wrote:
Can someone explain why answer choice E is wrong for question 3?

In first paragraph - Earlier researchers had grown the bacteria in
a medium somewhat deficient in tryptophan and observed the growth of mutant strains of the bacteria which did not need tryptophan in order to reproduce.

Fildes and Whitaker argue that the withholding of tryptophan did not induce these mutant strains of bacteria. Rather, these mutants were already present in the original sample of bacteria typhosum....


Later Fildes & Whitaker used innovative techniques to prove their point..


The answer to your question is probably that Fildes and Whitaker did not challenge the technique used by the previous researchers,
they challenged the result or conclusion of that experiment.

Overall the answer choices are controversial for the third question, I hope someone will explain it more thoroughly.
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2018, 21:11
5 minutes: all correct

1. D
Because of the possibility that the lack of uniformity of the agar cultures had in fact trained mutant strains
2. B
Fildes and Whitaker demonstrated that the mutants were in fact genetically present or preadapted
this means no new mutant strains were developed after transfer from the original agar plate. hence B
3. C
The passage begins by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenging the older theory and subsequent passages explores more into their scientific approach and challenging the old theory
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2018, 03:36
7:32 min total
2 out of 3 correct
Can any one explain 2 Qn ?
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2018, 08:31
mayursurya wrote:
7:32 min total
2 out of 3 correct
Can any one explain 2 Qn ?


Check Highlighted Part of Passage-2 and Passage-3. YOU will get answer of questions-2.

From these experiments, Fildes and Whitaker conclude that the mutants are of genetic origin and are not induced by environmental training. They asserted that the concentration of tryptophan is unrelated to the appearance of these mutants in the bacteria.

To confirm these results, Fildes and Whitaker used an innovative plating technique using pile fabrics, such as velvet or velveteen, to accurately imprint the growth found on an original agar plate to a series of replica agar plates. The process entails taking the original agar plate, inverting it onto the velvet while using light finger pressure to transfer growth, and then imprinting the fabric, with its pattern of growth, on the new agar plates. By using this replica plating method, Fildes and Whitaker demonstrated that the mutants were in fact genetically present or preadapted, as the locations of the mutant strains of bacteria on the replica plates were identical to the locations of the mutant strains on the original agar plate.
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2019, 10:27
Can somebody please explain why is Q3 E not correct?
Based on the last para of the first passage. It is indeed challenging the scientific technique used by the previous researchers.
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2019, 04:41
7 minutes 2 out 3 incorrect. Please explain no 2 and no 3 question.
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2019, 06:04
Could someone explain why not E in question 3.
The first para commences with research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker challenges the theory through the previous technique ,
Second para continues why they challenge the research and
Third presents their experiment and results
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Re: New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2019, 03:15
GMATNinja Skywalker18 generis

in the first paragraph F and K challenge a theory...in that they take a particualr case and in doing that they chalenge the study done by the ealrier reseaches and try to experiment on their own and present the result..in the last para the passage explicitly states that F and K "demonstrated" :
" Fildes and Whitaker demonstrated that the mutants were in fact genetically present or preadapted,"..

so F and K challenge a theory by challenging a study (Which is in-line with the theory) and demonstrate that bla bla bla..

3. Which of the following most accurately states the purpose of the passage?

C. To present the results of an experiment designed to test an established theory
- if the passage explicitly states that F and K DEMONSTRATED that there was no "training" ..then they successfully challenged the earlier research...and in doing so they even challenged...we cannot say they were uccessfull in that too or not...but we can NOW certainly doubt the credibility right?? then how can we say that the theory was "Established" ....??

E. To challenge a scientific technique used to prove a questionable theory
This seemed more plausible...because F and W did challenge the ealry research.. the only problem with this choice was "We do no know that the research done by early researches was USED TO PROVE the theor" ...the adjective "questionable" is also credible becasue of the fact of the succeffull demonstration by f and W

please share your views..thankyou
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New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2019, 19:45
1
Quote:
3. Which of the following most accurately states the purpose of the passage?

A. To defend a scientific hypothesis from attack by an innovative technique
B. To describe a process by which bacteria can be trained to mutate
C. To present the results of an experiment designed to test an established theory
D. To argue against an established protocol on the grounds that it is outdated
E. To challenge a scientific technique used to prove a questionable theory

Quote:
Can somebody please explain why is Q3 E not correct?

souvikgmat1990 , arvindmurugapan , and AdityaHongunti ,

Option E is an easier call than it appears to be.
Compare options C and E.

C. To present the results of an experiment designed to test an established theory

E. To challenge a scientific technique used to prove a questionable theory

Answer E is incorrect for a few reasons. The big problems:

1. The main thrust is not about F and W challenging a technique.
Their work challenges the theory.


The results of F and K's experiments -- what they found, what they concluded --
are mentioned three times in the passage
The main narrative is:
THEORY exists . . .
F and W experiment . . .
the results of their experiments challenge the theory.
(E) fails to mention those results.

2. The theory is not questionable. The theory is established.

****

• (1) This passage is not about challenging a technique, but rather is about experimental results that challenge a theory

F and W did not challenge a technique. They challenged a theory.
The very first sentence says that
"New research by F and W challenges the theory that
strains of bacteria can be 'trained' to mutate by withholding a metabolite necessary for their regular function."

That sentence opens the passage.

We must not be distracted by mentions of "innovative technique"
or excruciatingly detailed descriptions of experimental steps.

If a technique or an experiment is mentioned, the mention is
connected to or in the context of results that challenge the theory.
(See below. I discuss textual support for C.)

E's emphasis on the other scientists' technique goes too far and is too specific
If the main purpose were to challenge to a scientific technique,
the passage would contain a lot more information
about the other scientists' technique,
probably some challenge to their method and methodology,
and much less mention of the theory's content.

There is not much criticism.

One sentence indicates that "catching" the already-present mutants is difficult.
That statement is not an indictment of or challenge to technique, but rather,
a matter-of-fact reason that F and W
did other experiments . . .

. . . all of whose results are mentioned,
and all of whose results challenge the theory, not a scientific technique.

"Technique" has very little to do with the main thrust of the passage.

The passage is about experimental results that challenge the theory.

References to the theory are numerous (repeating or alluding to the first sentence)
-- First sentence of Paragraph 2:
Fildes and Whitaker argue that the withholding of tryptophan did not induce these mutant strains of bacteria.

-- Last two sentences of Paragraph 2:
Fildes and Whitaker conclude that the mutants are of genetic origin and are not induced by environmental training.
They asserted that the concentration of tryptophan is unrelated to the appearance of these mutants in the bacteria.

-- First sentence of Paragraph 3:
To confirm these results (that contradict the theory)
[these results = last two sentences of Paragraph 2: the mutants were already present] . . .

-- One part of the last sentence of Paragraph 3:
F and W demonstrated that the mutants were in fact genetically present or preadapted

F and W's purpose? To test the theory. Results challenged the theory.

-- F and W figured out that the other scientists who tested this bacterium
had missed an important detail that was easy to miss.
Two times F and W simply tested whether they could locate the easy-to-miss markers.
They did so through experiments described in paragraph two.
Then they used an innovative technique described in the last paragraph to confirm their conclusion that
the mutation was already present, not created by environmental stress.

But the point of first finding and then confirming the prior existence of
already-mutated genes was to challenge the theory,
not to challenge the technique that the other scientists used.

The experiments and techniques were means to an end,
means by which F and W draw this theory-challenging conclusion:

Fildes and Whitaker conclude that the mutants are of genetic origin
and are not induced by environmental training.

They asserted that the concentration of tryptophan is unrelated
to the appearance of these mutants in the bacteria.

Those sentences challenge the theory. Not a technique.

• (2) The theory is not questionable. In fact, the theory is established.

First line of the passage:
New research by Fildes and Whitaker challenges the theory that
strains of bacteria can be “trained” to mutate by XYZ.

In particular, they consider the case [ONLY ONE CASE] of
bacteria typhosum that needs tryptophan in order to reproduce.
Earlier researchers [conducting an experiment in line with THE THEORY]
had grown the bacteria in a medium somewhat deficient in tryptophan.
Result: mutant strains grew.
[Wrong] conclusion: the mutant strains that did not need tryptophan to grow were created by withholding tryptophan.

In their own experiment, F and W proved that in this one case,
gene mutation was not caused by "training," as per the theory.

Now the theory, as paragraph one states, is challengED.

A theory introduced with "the" that has been challenged by the results of one experiment
is not "questionable."
Questionable implies "probably not correct."

One example that does not fit the theory
does not make a theory questionable in that sense.

The theory has been challenged. It may need to be tweaked.
It may need to be abandoned altogether after a critical mass of experiments. We do not know.

But the verb is challenges.
The article is definite: THE theory.

In one case, two researches proved that a certain bacterium
under certain conditions was not "trained" to mutate.
The bacterium already had mutated.

F and W ran experiments to determine whether
mutant genes were detectable (yes) prior to environmental stress
and whether the genes were already mutated (yes).
Those results challenge the theory.

Option (C) is correct.
Option E is too narrow, too focused, and does not agree with the very first sentence of the passage.

Hope that helps.
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New research by Paul Fildes and K. Whitaker   [#permalink] 27 Feb 2019, 19:45
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