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# Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu

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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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31 Mar 2016, 02:36
The comma before "And" does not necessarily suggest that the last item in the parrallel list be "Independent clause"

AND - is used to join entities

X, & Y - If X is IC then Y needs to be IC to maintain parallelism.

In this case, X,Y, Z, & A - The last element is not parallel with the remaining 3 elements. The last element is out of sync. So, it needs to be removed.

The correct option (C) - does the same. X - Have reduced sickness , Y - Have reduced sleeping, Z - Have reduced fatigue,
A - contrast (represented by While) - Raising production efficiency.

But why not D? I thought D put the sentence in parallel construction.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2016, 07:10
1
1
maiara wrote:
The comma before "And" does not necessarily suggest that the last item in the parrallel list be "Independent clause"

AND - is used to join entities

X, & Y - If X is IC then Y needs to be IC to maintain parallelism.

In this case, X,Y, Z, & A - The last element is not parallel with the remaining 3 elements. The last element is out of sync. So, it needs to be removed.

The correct option (C) - does the same. X - Have reduced sickness , Y - Have reduced sleeping, Z - Have reduced fatigue,
A - contrast (represented by While) - Raising production efficiency.

But why not D? I thought D put the sentence in parallel construction.

As per option D, the "equations" have done 3 things (depicted by 3 verbs):
1. reduced 2 things (sickness and sleeping on job).
2. lowered fatigue.
3. raised production.

In such construction, please note that the 1st part should be ......reduced sickness AND sleeping on the job. The conjunction "and" is missing between sickness and sleeping in option D. Therefore option D is wrong.

Now for the correct option C:
Shift-work equations have reduced 3 things: 1. sickness, 2.sleeping on job, and 3. fatigue.
However, the equations have increased 1 thing: production
The contrast between increase and decrease is better depicted by the contrast marker "while" rather than "and".

Nonetheless, using "and" could be grammatically correct, if that constructional error mentioned above were not there in option D.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2016, 21:26
Dear R26, I guess you mean the comma after the word “job”. When I look at the sentence, it seems not to be underlined. However, I don’t think you need to worry about this comma. The equations have reduced three things. The second and third thing must be separated by “and”. Whether there is a comma there or not doesn’t matter. Eliminate A, B and D. As mentioned, “was lowered” in E is redundant. Choose C. Fortunately, the GMAT is not a test of punctuation!
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2016, 21:44
The sentence is in two parallel parts. The first part says "shift-work equations" has 1."reduced sickness", 2. "sleeping on the job",and 3."fatigue.". The second part of the sentence is the result of 1,2, and 3 which is raising production efficiency. Hence raising is the result of these three actions. Hence it should be in " ing " form. The answer therefore cannot be "B" and is "C."
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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09 May 2016, 03:16
I know it changes the meaning, but would a sentence like this be correct?

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and production efficiency in various industries.

Honestly I can't understand the rule used to arrive to choice C... There seem to be 10 different opinions and I couldn't see a solid rule that could be applied in all cases (99% of cases)

Can we have a list with, say 10 elements? "I like 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, and 10" ? There is no limit to the number of elements in a list, since they are all parallel, right?

Another one, somebody used this way to see it and this one does make sense to be a solid rule:

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, have reduced sleeping on the job, have reduced fatigue among shift workers, and have reduced have raised production efficiency in various industries. -> Wrong, doesn't make sense, need to change.

Is this way to analyse it correct?

Thank you!
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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09 May 2016, 05:45
iliavko wrote:
I know it changes the meaning, but would a sentence like this be correct?

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and production efficiency in various industries.

To say that this sentence changes the meaning, would be too mild. This sentence is actually not making any sense. This is suggesting that recently implemented "shift-work equations" have reduced four things:

i) sickness
ii) sleeping on the job,
iii) fatigue among shift workers and
iv) production efficiency

The reason this does not make sense, is because if sickness, sleeping, and fatigue are reduced, there is no reason why production efficiency should also reduce.

Quote:
Another one, somebody used this way to see it and this one does make sense to be a solid rule:

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, have reduced sleeping on the job, have reduced fatigue among shift workers, and have reduced have raised production efficiency in various industries. -> Wrong, doesn't make sense, need to change.

Is this way to analyse it correct?

Absolutely. In fact, our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses the parallelism philosophy through a simplified XYZ deconstruct, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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09 May 2016, 06:23
yes, yes I understand it makes no sense, but for example purposes, imagine that it does make sense for some reason, then the list would be correct? Is there a limit to the number of elements you can list? No, right?..
But it seems that on Gmat they like to use "1,2 and 3"-lists, so 3elements in parallel and then something else happens.

Let's make the example sentence more logical:

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and labor accidents in various industries. -> would this be correct? Here I don't like the (comma)-And formation, wouldn't it require an Independent clause? I'm a bit confused with this...

And good to know that the XYZ analysis works. Its good to have a checker-rule!

Thank you.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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09 May 2016, 08:42
1
iliavko wrote:
yes, yes I understand it makes no sense, but for example purposes, imagine that it does make sense for some reason, then the list would be correct? Is there a limit to the number of elements you can list? No, right?..

Correct.

Quote:
Let's make the example sentence more logical:

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and labor accidents in various industries. -> would this be correct?

Yes.

Quote:
Here I don't like the (comma)-And formation, wouldn't it require an Independent clause? I'm a bit confused with this...

It's just a list (more than 2 elements), and hence, there is a comma. Another officially correct sentence:

Twenty-two feet long and 10 feet in diameter, the AM-1 is one of the many new satellites that are part of a 15-year effort to subject the interactions of Earth's atmosphere, ocean, and land surfaces to detailed scrutiny from space.

Notice the comma before and land surfaces.

Having said that, the presence or absence of comma before and should not be a reason for you to select/ignore an option.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2016, 07:57
One question. Raising is not parallel with have reduced. I think the correct answer would have been: and fatigue among shift workers while they have raised...

Am I right???
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2016, 06:26
1
Mariwa wrote:
One question. Raising is not parallel with have reduced. I think the correct answer would have been: and fatigue among shift workers while they have raised...

Am I right???

Consider "while" not as a parallelism marker, but as a contrast marker.

Consider the sentence this way:

Independent clause, present participle modifier (modifying the entire clause preceding it):
Equations have reduced fatigue, (while) raising the efficiency.

Since the modification is to show a contrast, "while" is added before the present participle.

Since this is an official question, it can be inferred that GMAC accepts such use of "while", though I do agree that the sentence you have mentioned is better.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2018, 00:27
skim wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 233
Page: 690

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Spoiler: :: OE
The best answer, C, grammatically states that the equations... have reduced x, y, and i. and have raised efficiency. Choices A and B fail to use and to signal that fatigue among shift workers completes the series begun by have reduced, and so produce awkward and unclear sentences. Both D and E fail to use and to introduce the last item in the list, which is sleeping in these constructions. In E, while raising has no logical referent, producing only the absurd statement that fatigue has raised efficiency.

This is question #134 of the 12th ed OG. I don't understand why in option (D), the OE states: "lowered before fatigue illogically suggests that fatigue actually increased"

On a separate note, what is the difference between "among" and "amongst" in GMAT context? Is there any particular rule pertaining to these two words?

GMATNinja , egmat , VeritasKarishma , MartyMurray

I am finding it difficult to accept C as the answer choice. As per my understanding, "while" is a subordinator and required a bonafide verb which is clearly missing here in option C. Can anybody please help me understand?
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2018, 12:29
1
Prateek176 wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

I am finding it difficult to accept C as the answer choice. As per my understanding, "while" is a subordinator and required a bonafide verb which is clearly missing here in option C. Can anybody please help me understand?

"While" can be used in two ways.

It can be used to start a clause. In such cases "while" is similar to "whereas," and the clause so begun is a subordinate clause.

"While" can also be used to convey, simply, "at the same time", without the connotations of the word "whereas." When used in this way, "while" can be used to begin a clause, but what follows "while" that means "at the same time" does not have to be a clause.

Consider the following examples:

"While" Begins Clause: While the guests were enjoying the sunset, the band set up.

The above sentence conveys that the band set up as the guests were enjoying the sunset.

"While" Without Clause: While setting up, the band members discussed the song list.

This above sentence conveys that, as they were setting up, the band members discussed the song list.

"While Without Clause: My uncle Harry would sing opera while skiing in the Alps.

Notice, in this last sentence, there is no comma before "while". When "while" means "when", you don't need a comma before it. When "while" means "whereas" and begins a clause, the clause has to be separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma.

Here's another example without a comma:

We ran around town while our parents were shopping for bicycles.

The fact that "while" is not preceded by a comma confirms that, in this case, it does not mean "whereas".
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 09 Sep 2018, 13:03
souvik101990 wrote:
Illustration: When we provide a list of items using commas we must maintain the
following structure.
A, B, C and D.
This is a proper parallel structure concerning items in a list, and this structure needs to be maintained in a clause. Another thing of importance in this sentence is the contrast that is presented.

Hi souvik101990,
As far I know that there must have a COMMA (,) before the final AND if the items in a list. So, can you make clear me about my statement?
Thanks

Originally posted by Asad on 09 Sep 2018, 12:50.
Last edited by Asad on 09 Sep 2018, 13:03, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2018, 13:19
EducationAisle wrote:

Having said that, the presence or absence of comma before and should not be a reason for you to select/ignore an option.

I'm a bit confused about the red part.
So, do you think that GMAC sometimes makes the list of 3 things by putting COMMA before the final AND and sometimes GMAC does make the list of 3 things by NOT putting any COMMA before the final AND.
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2018, 22:47
Prateek176 wrote:
skim wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 233
Page: 690

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

Spoiler: :: OE
The best answer, C, grammatically states that the equations... have reduced x, y, and i. and have raised efficiency. Choices A and B fail to use and to signal that fatigue among shift workers completes the series begun by have reduced, and so produce awkward and unclear sentences. Both D and E fail to use and to introduce the last item in the list, which is sleeping in these constructions. In E, while raising has no logical referent, producing only the absurd statement that fatigue has raised efficiency.

This is question #134 of the 12th ed OG. I don't understand why in option (D), the OE states: "lowered before fatigue illogically suggests that fatigue actually increased"

On a separate note, what is the difference between "among" and "amongst" in GMAT context? Is there any particular rule pertaining to these two words?

GMATNinja , egmat , VeritasKarishma , MartyMurray

I am finding it difficult to accept C as the answer choice. As per my understanding, "while" is a subordinator and required a bonafide verb which is clearly missing here in option C. Can anybody please help me understand?

An adverb clause can be reduced to an adverbial phrase if it has the same subject as the main clause.

While I was skiing, I saw ...
is same as
While skiing, I saw ...

It reflects that the two happened "at the same time".

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" ... have reduced A, B, and C while raising production efficiency ...

is same as

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" ... have reduced A, B, and C while they are raising production efficiency ...
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2018, 04:13
I have two questions:

1. Is option B, "fatigue among shift workers, and raised," incorrect because 'but' should be for 'and?'

2. Had there been an option (F) and fatigue among shift workers but raised, was it correct?
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2018, 10:47
egmat wrote:
IanSolo wrote:
pinchharmonic wrote:
I have another problem with this question entirely. There appears to be a problem which is not even part of the underlined portion.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

in the mgmat guide for advanced parallelism, it strictly mentions to never parallel a simple gerund phrase with an action now. Only a complex gerund phrase.

I believe "sleeping on the job" is a simple gerund phrase, since I can say "was sleeping on the job"

But let's say they changed it to a complex gerund phrase, "the sleeping on the job", which sounds weird to me btw. It STILL doesn't work because the other two nouns are action nouns.

So then what if they changed "sleeping on the job" to "sleep on the job", a noun entirely? Well that STILL doesn't work because "sleep" is an action noun whereas sickness/fatigue are concrete nouns (at least i think so, because they don't seem to be verb derived.

and mgmat says that you should not parallel action / concrete nouns.

I get your same question.. In this sentence the three factors can't be parallel following the MGMAT rule.

Is it allowed use two different verb tense in two parallel clauses? have reduced... and raising ?!?! :

Hi there,

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

There is no problem in the parallelism of the entities in the list because all the three entities are noun entities are grammatically parallel.

Yes, “sleeping on the job” is a gerund – a noun that denotes an action. However, “sickness” and “fatigue” are not Concrete Nouns. They are “Abstract Nouns”.

By definition, Concrete Nouns are those nouns that are perceivable through five senses whereas the Abstract Nouns are those nouns that can only be experienced or felt.

There is no problem in a gerund being parallel to other abstract noun phrases. Frankly speaking, we need not even get to these grammatical complications of these entities.

Remember, this is an official question. These entities, at least “sickness” and “sleeping on the job”, are in the non-underlined portion of the sentence. Hence, rather than asking whether usage is correct or not, we must learn such usages from these sentences as they ARE correct.

Also, “raising production…” is not a verb. Note that the verb-ing word by itself cannot be a continuous/progressive verb. It must be preceded by such helping verb as is/am/are/was/were etc. to function as a verb. For example:

1. I am writing a letter.
2. He was playing soccer.
3. They are going to school.

Hence, in the correct answer choice, there is just one verb – “have reduced”.

e-gmat concept Parallelism – Helpful Tips lists out the entities that can be parallel and that cannot be parallel.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

I am sorry but I do not understand why B is wrong here . Why we cannot have "HAVE REDUCED AND RAISED" form
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2018, 22:15
1
Cbirole
When we state a list all thing have to be parallel and logical. Lets put option B in original sentence.

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, have reducedsleeping on the job, have reducedfatigue among shift workers, and have reducedraised production efficiency in various industries.

See the highlighted part, in the list last part doesn't make logical sense( have reduced raised).
While when u do the same exercise on C it perfectly makes sense.

Hope it helps
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Re: Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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06 May 2020, 02:44
Quote:
skim wrote:
Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries.

(A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised

(B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising

(D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised

(E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

AjiteshArun GMATNinja,

I have a questions here.
Need support to eliminate option A. I am not satisfied with mentioned answers.
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Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu  [#permalink]

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06 May 2020, 03:34
Harsh2111s wrote:
AjiteshArun GMATNinja,

I have a questions here.
Need support to eliminate option A. I am not satisfied with mentioned answers.
Hi Harsh2111s,

Let's take a look at the list:

Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced
(a) sickness,
(b) sleeping on the job,
(c) fatigue among shift workers,
and
(d) have raised production efficiency

The first three are nouns, and make sense with have reduced (have reduced sickness, have reduced sleeping, have reduced fatigue), but after that, we run into a verb phrase (have raised...) instead of a noun, and we end up with have reduced have raised production efficiency as the final element in the list.
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Recently implemented "shift-work equations" based on studies of the hu   [#permalink] 06 May 2020, 03:34

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