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Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies

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Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2018, 11:27
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Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant investment, copper has been the country’s top commodity, quadrupling the production of its next biggest competitors, China and the United States.

A. Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant investment, copper has been the country’s top commodity,
B. Since Chile adopted free market economic policies in the 1980s that attracted significant economic investment, it has produced more copper than any country,
C. Chile attracted significant economic investment in the 1980s by adopting free market economic policies, and ever since then, it has produced more copper than has any other country,
D. Copper has been Chile’s top commodity since the 1980s, when free market economic policies attracted significant investment,
E. After Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant economic investment in the 1980s, it has produced more than any other country,
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Re: Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2018, 11:49
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Generally, the modifier, "quadrupling the production of its next biggest competitors" gives room to contend that Chile adopted the policies to enhance and quadruple the production of its competitors. The author probably meant to say 'over' its competitors' but stated 'of' instead.
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Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2018, 13:06
Max.MayankG wrote:
Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant investment, copper has been the country’s top commodity, quadrupling the production of its next biggest competitors, China and the United States.

A. Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant investment, copper has been the country’s top commodity,
B. Since Chile adopted free market economic policies in the 1980s that attracted significant economic investment, it has produced more copper than any country,
C. Chile attracted significant economic investment in the 1980s by adopting free market economic policies, and ever since then, it has produced more copper than has any other country,
D. Copper has been Chile’s top commodity since the 1980s, when free market economic policies attracted significant investment,
E. After Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant economic investment in the 1980s, it has produced more than any other country,


Generally, COMMA + VERBing serves to modify the agent of the nearest preceding action.
The OA implies the following:
Chile...has produced more copper than has any other country, quadrupling the production of its next biggest competitors.
Here, COMMA + quadrupling seems to modify any other country -- the agent of the nearest preceding action in blue -- implying that ANY OTHER COUNTRY is QUADRUPLING the production of ITS COMPETITORS.
This meaning is nonsensical.

None of the answer choices is viable.
I would ignore this SC.
What is the source?
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Re: Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2018, 04:20
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GMATGuruNY : Indeed the source is Manhatan Prep. I got this question in one of my MGMAT CATs.
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Re: Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2018, 05:31
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Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant investment, copper has been the country’s top commodity, quadrupling the production of its next biggest competitors, China and the United States.

A. Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant investment, copper has been the country’s top commodity, --> subject/doer of "quadrupling" should make sense i.e. it should be "Chile"
B. Since Chile adopted free market economic policies in the 1980s that attracted significant economic investment, it has produced more copper than any country, --> "Chile has produced more copper than any country" : compare copper w/ country doesn't make sense
C. Chile attracted significant economic investment in the 1980s by adopting free market economic policies, and ever since then, it has produced more copper than has any other country, --> correct
D. Copper has been Chile’s top commodity since the 1980s, when free market economic policies attracted significant investment,
E. After Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant economic investment in the 1980s, it has produced more than any other country, --> same as B
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Re: Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2018, 08:20
Max.MayankG wrote:
Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant investment, copper has been the country’s top commodity, quadrupling the production of its next biggest competitors, China and the United States.

A. Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant investment, copper has been the country’s top commodity,
B. Since Chile adopted free market economic policies in the 1980s that attracted significant economic investment, it has produced more copper than any country,
C. Chile attracted significant economic investment in the 1980s by adopting free market economic policies, and ever since then, it has produced more copper than has any other country,
D. Copper has been Chile’s top commodity since the 1980s, when free market economic policies attracted significant investment,
E. After Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant economic investment in the 1980s, it has produced more than any other country,



In order to solve the question keep an eye on the comparisons and comma subject rule.
1. than any country is wrong as it includes chile as well so any other country
2. the main subject of the sentence should be chile as the non uderlined adjective phrase quadrupling.. should modify chile not copper.

A. Incorrect subject is copper.
B. any country.. Incorrect
C. Seems OK keep it
D.Subject Change Incorrect.
E.it has produced more than any other country ...wrong comparison verb missing in the any other country (does) Incorrect.
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Re: Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2018, 14:10
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Max.MayankG wrote:
Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant investment, copper has been the country’s top commodity, quadrupling the production of its next biggest competitors, China and the United States.

A. Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant investment, copper has been the country’s top commodity,
B. Since Chile adopted free market economic policies in the 1980s that attracted significant economic investment, it has produced more copper than any country,
C. Chile attracted significant economic investment in the 1980s by adopting free market economic policies, and ever since then, it has produced more copper than has any other country,
D. Copper has been Chile’s top commodity since the 1980s, when free market economic policies attracted significant investment,
E. After Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant economic investment in the 1980s, it has produced more than any other country,


A. It seems like after Chile adopted new policies copper has become a top commodity - it sounds a bit strange.
But the most important part is that in this option "quadrupling" that comes afrter an underlined part is not in the correct place. And it can not be true, because it is not underlined.
Quadrupling is about producing of copper, not about copper itself. So out.

B. First of all lets mention the usual GMAT trap: "any country" is wrong, because it contains Chile as well and production pf copper in Chile can not quadruple production of copper in Chile.
We have to use such construction: "any other country".
Moreover. "it has produced more copper than any country" - it is a wrong comparison. We can not compare production of copper with country. Out.

D. I would say, here is the same problem as in A. Out.

E. Again. Can not compare production with country. Out.

C. Chile attracted significant economic investment in the 1980s by adopting free market economic policies, and ever since then, it has produced more copper than has any other country
All mistakes mentioned above are avoided. Sounds good.
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Re: Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2018, 08:55
Original: Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant investment, copper has been the country’s top commodity, quadrupling the production of its next biggest competitors, China and the United States.

Correct: C. Chile attracted significant economic investment in the 1980s by adopting free market economic policies, and ever since then, it has produced more copper than has any other country,

Hasn't the meaning of the first part of the sentence changed from the original? I interpreted the original as saying Chile adopted free market economic policies in 1980s and "significant investment" came after (could be in 1980s, could be in 1990s - it was not specified).

The answer flagged as correct pegged "significant investment" as coming in the 1980s, which seems different to me. What am I missing here?
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Re: Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2018, 10:13
Hello,
I am a bit confused with the option C because nowhere is it stated that Chile has become the largest producer in the original sentence, so how do we arrive at this?
Thanks
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Re: Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2018, 11:12
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(1) Take a First Glance (5 seconds)

All five sentences start differently, so be aware of changes to the Sentence Structure. The split between since and after indicates that the sentence may change the order of events. Make sure any verbs match the time marker used in that sentence.



(2) Read for Meaning

The sentence says that, ever since Chile enacted policies that attracted economic investment, copper has been its top commodity; in other words, Chile produces more copper than it does any other commodity (for example, silver). Separately, Chile also produces more copper than any other country does; Chile’s copper production is quadruple the production of China and the United States combined. Note that, just because copper is Chile’s top commodity, this doesn’t guarantee that Chile will also be the top copper producer worldwide.

As written, quadrupling modifies copper has been the country’s top commodity, but the fact that Chile produces more copper than other countries does not describe how Chile produces more copper than it does any other commodity. Rather, the quadrupling figure should describe how much more copper Chile is able to produce compared to other countries. Eliminate answer choice (A).



(3) Find a Starting Point

Start with any difference that seems easiest to you, then move to the next easiest issue, and so on. Stop when you have one answer or you aren’t sure how to address the remaining differences. All errors for each choice are detailed in the next section.



(4) Eliminate (and Repeat)

(A) The fact that Chile produces more copper than other countries does not describe how Chile produces more copper than it does any other commodity. The quadrupling figure should describe how much more copper Chile is able to produce compared to other countries.

(B) This sentence says that Chile produced more copper than any country, but Chile is a country, too, so this ought to say that Chile has produced more copper than any other country. Chile can’t produce more copper than Chile!

(C) CORRECT. The modifier quadrupling properly modifies [Chile] has produced more copper than has any other country. It describes how much more copper Chile has produced than its closest competitors (other countries).

(D) In this sentence, quadrupling modifies free market economic policies attracted significant investment, but quadrupling production does not describe how free market economic policies attracted significant investment. Rather, quadrupling production quantifies how much more copper Chile produces compared to other countries.

(E) The modifier quadrupling properly modifies [Chile] has produced more [copper] than any other country. However, the shift from since to after changes the required tense from present perfect (an action that began in the past and is still happening) to regular past tense. The sentence should read as follows: After Chile adopted certain policies, it produced more (copper). This choice incorrectly uses has produced.
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Re: Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2019, 23:07
generis The one you were looking for.

The Comma+VERBing form of question.

waiting for some great explanation from you.
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Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2019, 23:24
Max.MayankG wrote:
Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant investment, copper has been the country’s top commodity, quadrupling the production of its next biggest competitors, China and the United States.

A. Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant investment, copper has been the country’s top commodity,

B. Since Chile adopted free market economic policies in the 1980s that attracted significant economic investment, it has produced more copper than any country,

C. Chile attracted significant economic investment in the 1980s by adopting free market economic policies, and ever since then, it has produced more copper than has any other country,

D. Copper has been Chile’s top commodity since the 1980s, when free market economic policies attracted significant investment,

E. After Chile adopted free market economic policies that attracted significant economic investment in the 1980s, it has produced more than any other country,

warrior1991 wrote:
generis The one you were looking for.

The Comma+VERBing form of question.

waiting for some great explanation from you.

warrior1991 , the only explanation, great or not, for this question?
It is flawed in the non-underlined part. On the GMAT, none of these answers would be correct.

Quadrupling is incorrect:
(1) it does not modify the previous clause or any nouns or verbs in that clause; and
(2) its direct object, what got quadrupled, is production of copper in China and the U.S.

The question is not official. I will tag it Poor Quality. I would not spend another minute on this question.
I suspect that the author meant to use the word quadruple. See below.

• Intended meaning = four times as much as
-- The sentence is supposed to mean that Chile produced four times as much copper as China and the U.S. produced.

-- four times as much as = adjective = quadruple
-- On Black Friday, the demand for stupid but well-marketed devices was quadruple the supply for those devices.

• Quadrupling, part of speech?

-- [i]quadrupling
is the present participle of the verb to quadruple
-- to quadruple means to become four times as big as (intransitive, no object), or to multiply an amount by 4 (transitive, object)
The stock's price rose rapidly, quadrupling in one year alone.

• The question is grammatically incorrect and logically incoherent
"Quadrupling" incorrectly acts upon copper production in other countries.
Quadrupling in this case means a fact that has quadrupled

Quadrupling has a direct object. The logic is absurd[/color][/b]
Chile quadruples China's production of copper? No.

-- the direct objects of "quadrupling," the things that got quadrupled, are
(1) the production of China and (2) the production of the United States. Not correct.

• The sentence should use the word quadruple

-- Chile has produced more [copper] than any other country, quadruple the amount produced by China or the U.S.

• Participial modifiers / comma + verbING

-- comma + verbING can modify nouns, verbs, and entire clauses, but even the latter structure will not work in this case.

-- Quadrupling cannot modify Chile, copper, or any other country. Chile, the country, was not quadrupled.
Copper, the metal, was not quadrupled. Any other country was not quadrupled.

-- Quadrupling could modify the whole previous clause if the words that followed were something that referred to Chilean production, this way:
[Chile] has produced more copper than has any other country, quadrupling its exported tonnage of the metal, [something about the U.S. and China]

But as the sentence stands, the logic is absurd.
The fact that Chile produced more copper than any other country
increases the amount of copper produced by China and the U.S.? No.

The question is flawed.

Hope that helps.
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Since the 1980s, when Chile adopted free market economic policies   [#permalink] 29 Jan 2019, 23:24
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