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Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic

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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2016, 12:16
2
Responding to a PM:

1. Can you throw some light on sighted on vs sighted at usage in terms of meaning.
"Sighted on" can be used to refer to a surface, a line or a point. "Sighted at" can be used to refer to a location. Since poles / equator can be considered points/line or location, both the usages would be alright.
2. Why although usage is incorrect here in options.
As per the OE, "although" should be used to introduce a clause.
3. Sighted or have been sighted is mentioned as not a complete verb? Why? What does it need more?
"Sighted" is not a complete verb - since the usage is in passive voice, complete forms would be "is sighted", "was sighted" etc.
" Have been sighted" is definitely a complete verb. (passive -present perfect)
4. Is there no difference in between Sunspots visible as dark spots and Sunspots appear as dark spots?
In some cases the meaning can be different:
"Appear" may mean " to become visible" (i.e., something was not visible before, but now it is):
Madonna appeared on the stage.
"Visible" does not imply so:
She was visible because of her bright dress.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2016, 05:13
1
zoezhuyan wrote:
zoezhuyan wrote:
Hi experts,

I totally got the reason why eliminate D.
but I am still curious whether "having been sighted" can be an adjective ?
it might not be the point of this question but it can help me to understand "having" because I am sunk in "having" recently, I have no idea when "having" is correct, when incorrect.

and I have another question
OE wrote:
B) also, without punctuation, the phrase on the surface of the Sun the Sun’s poles or equator is ungrammatical and makes no sense.


It's hard for me to understand , genuinely want your help

thanks a lot
have a nice day
>_~



experts,
HELP PLEASE...

thanks a lot
have a nice day
>_~


As indicated in a response to another post of yours, here as well "having been sighted" is a perfect participle (in passive voice). The base verb is "sight". In passive it would be "to be sighted". The perfect participle is "having been sighted", which indicates a completed action of being sighted. This structure implies that the sighting has been completed.

Your second question is a statement, a correct statement - without comma, the structure makes no sense.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2016, 23:15
sayantanc2k wrote:
Your second question is a statement, a correct statement - without comma, the structure makes no sense.

Hi sayantanc2k,

Does it mean add a comma as following,
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun , the Sun’s poles or equator.

it confused me a lot if add comma like this,

so the part after the added comma is noun phrase, right?
in an another word, the surface of the sun is the same as the sun's poles or equator, hm.. feel strange,
that's my confusion and sorry for my implicit previous post.

thanks a lot
have a nice day
>_~
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2016, 15:01
3
2
zoezhuyan wrote:
Hi experts,

I totally got the reason why eliminate D.
but I am still curious whether "having been sighted" can be an adjective ?
it might not be the point of this question but it can help me to understand "having" because I am sunk in "having" recently, I have no idea when "having" is correct, when incorrect.

and I have another question
OE say: B) also, without punctuation, the phrase on the surface of the Sun the Sun’s poles or equator is ungrammatical and makes no sense.

It's hard for me to understand , genuinely want your help

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Hi sayantanc2k,

Does it mean add a comma as following,
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun , the Sun’s poles or equator.

it confused me a lot if add comma like this,

so the part after the added comma is noun phrase, right?
in an another word, the surface of the sun is the same as the sun's poles or equator, hm.. feel strange,
that's my confusion and sorry for my implicit previous post.

thanks a lot
have a nice day
>_~

Dear zoezhuyan,

I'm happy to respond. :-) I see that my brilliant colleague sayantanc2k already responded, but I will add a little more.

As sayantanc2k, the structure "having been sighted" is a perfect participle. Any participle can act as a noun or verb modifier. Be careful in your terminology, though: just because a participle acts as a noun modifier, we can't call it an "adjective." Technically, when a participle acts as a noun modifier, it is an "adjectival phrase"--that is a phrase that acts as a adjective--but it is not simply an "adjective."

The problem with (D) is the incorrect structure "although" + [participle]. The word "although" is a subordinate conjunction, designed to open a dependent clause: it is designed to have a full bonafide [noun] + [verb] clause after it. A participle cannot take the place of a full clause.

For (B), I think the OE gives only half the story. Part of the problem is that, when we have a list, we need commas: X, Y, or Z. That's one issue, but the deeper problem is the breech in logic. The prompt tells us quite clear: "Sunspots . . . are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun ..." Even if we know absolutely nothing about sunspots, we need to take that as an article of faith: sunspots are dark spots on the surface of the sun.
Given that, (B) makes the incredibly illogical statement: "Sunspots . . . never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun ..."
If sunspots are defined as dark spots on the surface of the sun, that implies that somebody had to see these dark spots on the surface of the sun at some point, and so the statement that they have never been seen on the surface of the Sun flies in the face of fact! That, I would say, is the real problem with (B).

My friend, do not be naive in trusting the OE given in the OG. The GMAT official questions, in the OG and in GMAT Prep, are among the best test questions on the planet: I am simply in awe of their high quality. By contrast, the OE vary wildly: some are good, some are mediocre, some leave out important things, and some every make incorrect statements. Every release questions has been on the GMAT: it had to undergo rigorous testing before appearing on the GMAT, and then it garnered mountains of data while it was on the GMAT. Every question in the OG or on GMAT Prep has hundreds of thousands of data points behind it, supporting its high quality. By contrast, when they wrote the OG, somebody (probably a starving grad student) had to write the explanations; perhaps they were proofread once or twice, but these have undergone absolutely no statistical feedback procedure. I write questions as part of my job. Of the hundreds of questions I have written, only a handful of my very best questions approach the quality of official question. By contrast, I and all the experts on GMAT Club regular give better explanations than those in the OG. Don't be surprised if the OE in the OG doesn't say everything or misses the point. Come here if you want high quality explanations.

My friend, does all this make sense?

Take very good care of yourself, my friend. :-)

Mike :-)
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2017, 05:40
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Quote:
C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at

(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at

D) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on


Use of 'although' in C and D: The subordinate conjunction 'although', when used at the end of a sentence can only be in the form of a clause with a full subject and verb and not in the form of phrase or modifier. 'Although never sighted', and 'although never having been sighted'' are not legitimate clauses. So, C and D can be omitted.

However, E is trickier. Even though one can apparently eliminate based on the wrong reference of which' 'to Sun's surface, still there is a strong argument that the relative pronoun indeed refers to the spots only.
According To Ron, E is wrong because that it implies that the same spots that appear on the surface of the Sun have not been sighted on the poles or the equator.

Of course, it understandable that spots do not travel.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2017, 10:55
I chose option C
appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
But the second part of option C is suspicious .
The second part of the sentence tells a universal fact , but the original sense of the sentence is not a universal fact .
Also what will come at the end of the sentence at or on?
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2017, 13:34
arvind910619 wrote:
I chose option C
appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
But the second part of option C is suspicious .
The second part of the sentence tells a universal fact , but the original sense of the sentence is not a universal fact .
Also what will come at the end of the sentence at or on?



Hello arvind910619,

I will be glad to help you with this one. :)

Use of although never sighted is incorrect in Choice C. The original sentence says that the Sunspots have not been seen so far on the Sun’s poles or equator. But the way Choice C is worded, it seems to convey that Sunspots never sighted anything on the equator.

Also, use of at is not correct. The preposition on should be used in the context of the sentence as the sentence says that Sunspots are visible on the surface of the Sun, but have not been seen on the Sun's poles.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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New post 06 Jul 2017, 05:36
Can 'have' and 'are' be parallel? They are brilliant but have never practiced the sport. Seems funny.
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New post 06 Jul 2017, 08:37
1
OreoShake wrote:
Can 'have' and 'are' be parallel? They are brilliant but have never practiced the sport. Seems funny.

Dear OreoShake,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, remember that parallelism is primarily a logical structure, and the grammar is secondary to the logic. Remember that we always can create parallel structures that are grammatically flawless and logically absurd.
I cooked dinner with fresh carrots, with enthusiasm, and with my friend Chris.

The short answer to your question is "yes"---of course "are" and "have" can be parallel. In fact, "is/are" can be parallel with any other verb. The caveat, as with all parallelism, is that the parallelism must be logically sound.
He is a brilliant scientist and has several honorary degrees from universities around the world.
She is an authority on submarine warfare and has written several award-winning books on the topic.


Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2017, 02:02
Hello GMATNinja - I solved this question for the second time and unfortunately got it wrong both the times. Your detailed analysis on this question would be highly appreciated.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2017, 02:30
1
ydmuley wrote:
Hello GMATNinja - I solved this question for the second time and unfortunately got it wrong both the times. Your detailed analysis on this question would be highly appreciated.


Hi ydmuley ,

Can I explain you please? :)

We have

Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equator.

Quote:
(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on


Okay, this sentence implies the sun spots were not seen in the past and not even now. But still they are visible as dark spots. Hence, Correct answer.

Quote:
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun


This choice is run on. Try to connect this choice with the original sentence. You will find the error as highlighted below:

Sunspots are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun the Sun’s poles or equator.

Did you notice what I am saying? Sun the Sun's poles?? What is this? Hence, Incorrect.

Quote:
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at


Okay, here is the catch. It says never sighted at. So, this happened in the past. Does that mean they are sighted now? We don't know, right?

Now, you could ask me which is the correct idiom "sighted at" or "sighted on". My answer will be I don't care about idioms unless I don't have any other option than to care about it. Technically, I believe sighted on means I have an object on which I am having something while sighted at means at some place? Again, I don't care about it.

Hence, it is not giving the intended meaning. Hence, out.

Quote:
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at


The usage of having been is incorrect here. Although should have a clause with it. But when I am saying 'never having been..', I am missing the correct usage.

Quote:
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on


It implies Surface of the sun have been sighted on the pole. Lol. This cannot happen. Hence, Incorrect.

Does that make sense?
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2017, 04:49
skim wrote:
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equator.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on


Let me try my hands on this one. :-)

INTENDED MEANING --
Sunspots are the vortices of gas associated with the strong electromagnetic activity. These sunspots are visible as dark spots on the surface of the sun but these sunspots are till date never sighted on the sun's poles or equator.

Quote:
(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on

The intended meaning is perfectly clear. Correct!
Plural verbs “are” and “have never been sighted” agree in number and make sense with the plural Subject “Sunspots”. The verbs are both logically and gramatically parallel.

Quote:
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun

There are overall 4 errors in this choice,
1. The VERB CONSTRUCTION -- "never have been sighted" is INCORRECT. (Note : Here, never is an adverb). The correct construction is -- "have never been sighted", which is not used in this choice though.
2. MEANING ERROR -- If the dark spots are never sighted on the surface of the sun, then how are these sunspots visible as dark spots. Therefore, the meaning implied in the current form of this option is NON-SENSICAL. Also, as per the intended meaning it was that those sunspots are never sighted at the sun's poles or equator but not the sun's surface.
3. There is NO CONTRAST MARKER (eg, but) in this choice, thus the intended contrast is lost in this choice.
4. The sentence construction is even awkward for this option choice, just notice at the last part of this choice and try to connect it with the non-underlined part of the sentence, it will be as follows,
Sunspots are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun the Sun’s poles or equator. This construction is ungrammatical.


Quote:
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at

This option choice is NOT as clear as option A. Also,
This option choice violates parallelism because the verb “appear” is not parallel to the adjective “sighted”. "sighted" is a VERB-ed modifier here, as the action of sighting is not performed by the sunspots themselves. INCORRECT.


Quote:
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at

The structure, "never having been" is incorrect. The correct structure is -- "having + never + been".
Also, the usage of "HAVING + Verb-ED" is incorrect in this choice. HAVING + VERBed is used to denote the previous of the two causally related actions but there is no need of such logical sequencing as per the intended meaning of the sentence. INCORRECT.


Quote:
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on

"Sun’s surface” has never been sighted is not what the sentence wants to convey. It’s the Sunspots that have never been sighted on the Sun’s surface. So the placement of clause “which have…” makes this choice incorrect. Also, there is NO CONTRAST MARKER present to show the intended contrast. INCORRECT.

NOTE : The usage of "although" is NOT wrong either in choice C or D. Its correct!
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Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 28 Feb 2019, 15:48
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Hello Everyone!

Let's take a closer look at this question, one issue at a time, and narrow it down to the correct choice! Before we dive in, here is the original question, with any major differences between each option highlighted in orange:

Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equator.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on

After a quick glance over the options, a couple major differences jump out:

1. How they begin: visible as / appear as
2. Verb tense: have been sighted / sighted / having been sighted


It's always a good idea to start with any issue that will eliminate 2-3 options at once. Let's start with #1 on our list because it'll eliminate the most options to get us started!

While it may seem that appear and visible are interchangeable terms, they do mean slightly different things:

Visible = The object already exists, is not moving, and you are able to see it. (The stop sign is visible from a distance of 200 yards.)
Appear = The object is created as you're looking, or it moves into your path of vision. (My dog appears at my feet when he's ready to go for a walk.)

It makes more sense in this context to say that sunspots are visible on the surface of the Sun. They already exist, and they aren't moving into your vision path - they are stationary. The sentence is merely stating that you are able to see them, not that they move around or are created in front of your very eyes.

Therefore, we can eliminate options C, D, and E because they use the more vague "appear," rather than the clearer term "visible."

Now that we have it narrowed down to only 2 options, let's take a closer look at the remaining options:

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on

This option is CORRECT! It uses the clear term "visible" to describe sunspots, and it makes logical sense to use "have never been sighted" to refer only to the poles and equator.

(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun

This is INCORRECT because it drastically changes the original meaning of the sentence! The original sentence states that we can see sunspots on the surface of the Sun, with the exception of the poles and equator. This sentence says they have never been sighted on the surface, which isn't true!


There you go - option A is the correct choice! It uses clear terminology and makes logical sense!

**************************************************************************************************************

Now, I'm sure you're wondering what would happen if we tackled #2 on the list instead. Here is how we could break down this question based on verb tenses:


(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on

This is CORRECT because it uses the correct verb tense (present perfect) to show that they weren't found in the past, and haven't been found in the present too.

(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun

While this sentence uses the correct verb tense, the location of the verb is wrong! In this case, it's referring to the surface of the Sun, which doesn't make sense - we CAN see sunspots on the surface! This is INCORRECT because it drastically changes the intended meaning, which is a big no-no on the GMAT!

(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at

This is INCORRECT because it uses past tense to show that the sunspots were not visible in the past, but says nothing about the present. The original sentence suggests that the sunspots are still not visible on the poles or equator today, so we need to use present perfect tense to show that.

(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at

This option is INCORRECT for a couple reasons. First, it doesn't make sense to say that sunspots aren't visible AT the poles or equator - it's clearer to say they aren't visible ON those areas. Second, it uses the wrong verb tense (past perfect) in passive voice, which changes the meaning somewhat. This states that sunspots were not visible on the poles and equator in the past, but doesn't say anything about the present!

(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on

This option does use the correct verb tense, but it is still INCORRECT because it uses the term "appear" rather than "visible," which is much clearer.

As you can see, starting your process with #2 on our list is much more complicated and doesn't help you eliminate large chunks of options easily. You can certainly answer a question this way, but it may take you MUCH longer to arrive at the correct answer!


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Originally posted by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 26 Sep 2018, 10:02.
Last edited by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 28 Feb 2019, 15:48, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2018, 07:28
Option A does not has a subject in the clause. Shouldn't it be wrong?
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2019, 11:58
skim wrote:
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equator.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on


This is Q14 of the OG 12th ed. (Q9 of the OG 11th ed) However:

1. I don't understand the OE of option (C), in that "sighted is not a complete verb".

2. I don't understand the OE of the top paragraph which states "The adjective visible is a complement and is parallel to the past particle sighted"

Would appreciate any form of explanation. Thanks

The New American Desk Encyclopedia - Page 1174
https://books.google.com.my/books?isbn=0452011094
Meridian, ‎Meridian Editors, ‎Concord Reference Staff - 1994

SUNSPOTS, apparently dark spots visible on the face of the sun. Vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, their dark appearance is merely one of contrast with the surrounding photosphere.

Attachment:
01.jpg

Attachment:
02.jpg


It's unidiomatic to say "sighted at", it should be "sighted ON" B,C and D are out.
Between A and E, using "which" in E makes the sentence illogical
Answer is A
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2019, 06:27
daagh wrote:
This is indeed not a test of //ism; rather it is about meaning and grammar. If you are thinking about the verb //ism here, there is only one // marker, namely, the fanboy conjunction but. The verbs on either sides of the ‘but’ are in present and present perfect tenses, which is acceptable.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on ---- correct choice.
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun ----- the vortices have been sighted on the surface; Choice says they never have been sighted; total reversal of the original meaning
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at ---- although never have been is a fragment; The subordinate conjunction’ although’ requires a subject and verb or minimum a verb’
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at – ‘although never having been sighted at’ is not a sub-clause; same problem as in C
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on – which flouts the relative pronoun touch rule

A is the choice



Hi
Do we need a comma before the FANBOYS?
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2019, 06:52
LevanKhukhunashvili wrote:
Hi
Do we need a comma before the FANBOYS?

Yes, but would suggest you don't select/reject an option just based on the presence or absence of comma before FANBOYS.
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New post 07 Jun 2019, 02:45
daagh wrote:
This is indeed not a test of //ism; rather it is about meaning and grammar. If you are thinking about the verb //ism here, there is only one // marker, namely, the fanboy conjunction but. The verbs on either sides of the ‘but’ are in present and present perfect tenses, which is acceptable.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on ---- correct choice.
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun ----- the vortices have been sighted on the surface; Choice says they never have been sighted; total reversal of the original meaning
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at ---- although never have been is a fragment; The subordinate conjunction’ although’ requires a subject and verb or minimum a verb’
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at – ‘although never having been sighted at’ is not a sub-clause; same problem as in C
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on – which flouts the relative pronoun touch rule

A is the choice


Could you please explain how did you eliminate E? And what is the relative pronoun touch rule? Thankyou :)
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2019, 00:55
My answer is A

Sunspots [S, plural], vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity [Noun phrase modifies S], are [Main V, plural] visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted [second main V in parallel with 1st main V, plural] on the Sun's poles or equator.

So,
A-> Seems to be correct -> Hold on and check other options
B - are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun -> Incorrect because the relative clause [that never...] modifying the noun [dark spots] distorts the meaning of the sentence. Besides, the phrase on the surface of the Sun on the Sun's poles or equator makes no sense
C - appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at -> Incorrect because even though the Verb [appear] is appropriate and the reduced subordinate clause [although the sunspots are never sighted.../ the sunspots have never been sighted ... shorten to (only when having the same S] although never sighted.../ although never having been sighted] used here is also correct, the problem is the preposition [at] that makes the whole subordinate clause is not parallel with the main clause
D - appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on -> Incorrect due to the similar mistake as B by using an unappropriate relative clause

Above is my understanding, please correct me if I made any mistake :)
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New post 28 Aug 2019, 01:13
My answer is A

Sunspots [S, plural], vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity [Noun phrase modifies S], are [Main V, plural] visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted [second main V in parallel with 1st main V, plural] on the Sun's poles or equator.

So,
A-> Seems to be correct -> Hold on and check other options
B - are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun -> Incorrect because the relative clause [that never...] modifying the noun [dark spots] distorts the meaning of the sentence. Besides, the phrase on the surface of the Sun on the Sun's poles or equator makes no sense
C - appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at -> Incorrect because even though the Verb [appear] is appropriate and the reduced subordinate clause [although the sunspots are never sighted.../ the sunspots have never been sighted ... shorten to (only when having the same S] although never sighted.../ although never having been sighted] used here is also correct, the problem is the preposition [at] that makes the whole subordinate clause is not parallel with the main clause
D - appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on -> Incorrect due to the similar mistake as B by using an unappropriate relative clause

Above is my understanding, please correct me if I made any mistake :)
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic   [#permalink] 28 Aug 2019, 01:13

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