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The 2010 discoveries of Denisovans, the 2012 findings of archaic Afric

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The 2010 discoveries of Denisovans, the 2012 findings of archaic Afric  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 13 Aug 2017, 04:30
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The 2010 discoveries of Denisovans, the 2012 findings of archaic African DNA, and the additional 2012 genetic sequencing of Denisovans are part of a longer trajectory dating to the discovery of fossil Neandertals. Ever since the fossil Neandertal discoveries in the 19th century, debates have raged about who they were. Were Neandertals direct ancestors to modern humans? A completely different species? Or a sub-species, like a race? And now what should we do with the Denisovans?

Anthropology can now confidently report that Neandertals, Denisovans, and others labeled archaic are in fact an interbreeding part of the modern human lineage. We are the same species. There has been extensive admixture across modern humans for tens of thousands of years, and at least some admixture across several archaic groups. Neandertals, Denisovans, and other archaics may be the best example of a true human race or sub-species. They are also fully part of the human lineage, with almost all contemporary humans showing genetic admixture with archaics in our genetic signatures.

Still, there have been some problematic aspects to welcoming Neandertals and Denisovans into the human family. Several very wrongheaded interpretations of Denisovans, Neandertals, and archaic admixture have emerged. Because the dominant paradigm has been the replacement hypothesis rather than gene flow across a wide range, contributions from Neandertals and Denisovans are seen as affecting only specific peoples. Since most analyses are carried out in genetic language within a society convinced of genetic determinism, the Neandertal contribution is seen as adding a set of genetic resources other groups do not share.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) evaluate the findings of a research
(B) summarize the history of a research area
(C) report new research findings
(D) reinterpret old research findings
(E) reconcile conflicting research findings


2. Which of the following,if found true, most clearly strengthens the idea discussed in the second paragraph that Neandertals, Denisovans and humans are the same species?

(A) Neanderthals, Denisovans, and modern humans are all descended from the ancient human Homo heidelbergensis.

(B) By comparing the genomes of apes, Denisovans, Neanderthals, and modern humans, scientists hope to identify DNA segments unique to the different groups.

(C) Early results already suggest modern humans underwent genetic changes involved with brain function and nervous system development, including ones involved in language development, after splitting from Neanderthals and Denisovans.

(D) The scientists found the genetic overlap between the Denisovan genome and that of some present-day east Asians.

(E) The fact that Denisovans were discovered in Siberia but contributed to the genomes of modern humans living in Southeast Asia suggests the species ranged widely across Asia.

3.Which of the following, if discovered, may help resolve some of the puzzles that the 2010-2012 discoveries raised?

A.The common ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans spread across Europe and Asia over half a million years ago.

B.The new Neanderthal skeletal reconstruction suggests that the interbreeding between Neanderthals and Denisovans occurred at a much earlier period, some 100,000 to 60,000 years ago, before the modern human populations of Europe and East Asia split.

C.Recently, scientists compared the gene sequences of three human groups – modern Africans, Neanderthals, and Denisovans, and have found that the Neanderthal lineage separated from that of the mysterious Denisovans about 744,000 years ago.

D.Neanderthals and Denisovans were human populations that separated from the modern lineage early in the Middle Pleistocene.

E.Extensive DNA sequence data have made it possible to reconstruct human evolutionary history in unprecedented detail.


Originally posted by DHAR on 13 Aug 2017, 04:21.
Last edited by broall on 13 Aug 2017, 04:30, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The 2010 discoveries of Denisovans, the 2012 findings of archaic Afric  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2017, 22:23
Whats the source of this passage, seems difficult.
Can someone please explain the OA's it seems one should have lot of knowledge on the topic
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Re: The 2010 discoveries of Denisovans, the 2012 findings of archaic Afric  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2017, 08:48
1) A , 2) A , 3) B

Can someone please shed some light on the explanation of Question #3 ?
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Re: The 2010 discoveries of Denisovans, the 2012 findings of archaic Afric  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2018, 03:27
Dkingdom wrote:
1) A , 2) A , 3) B

Can someone please shed some light on the explanation of Question #3 ?


This is my reasoning.

There have been some problematic aspects to welcoming Neandertals and Denisovans into the human family.

-> This is the puzzles. We have to solve this.
It means that Neandertals and Denisovans have different aspects, so it is hard to say both are human family.
To resolve this, we have to say both Neandertals and Denisovans are human family.

(B) It tries to solve the problem between Neanderthals and Denisovans.
Not solve the problem between human and (Neanderthals and Denisovans)
So wrong.
(D) correct
(D) can solve the problem because (D) said Neanderthals and Denisovans were human populations

I hope this is helpful.
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Re: The 2010 discoveries of Denisovans, the 2012 findings of archaic Afric  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2018, 00:21
KanakGarg wrote:
Whats the source of this passage, seems difficult.
Can someone please explain the OA's it seems one should have lot of knowledge on the topic


I dont think you need any extensive knowledge to answer RCs in Gmat. the passages provided will be self sufficient to answer all the questions.
From what i know we need to comprehend and make a passage map to understand the gist of passage .
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Re: The 2010 discoveries of Denisovans, the 2012 findings of archaic Afric  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jan 2018, 05:39
1
1
Below is my reasoning for the questions:

The 2010 discoveries of Denisovans, the 2012 findings of archaic African DNA, and the additional 2012 genetic sequencing of Denisovans are part of a longer trajectory dating to the discovery of fossil Neandertals. Ever since the fossil Neandertal discoveries in the 19th century, debates have raged about who they were. Were Neandertals direct ancestors to modern humans? A completely different species? Or a sub-species, like a race? And now what should we do with the Denisovans?

Anthropology can now confidently report that Neandertals, Denisovans, and others labeled archaic are in fact an interbreeding part of the modern human lineage. We are the same species. There has been extensive admixture across modern humans for tens of thousands of years, and at least some admixture across several archaic groups. Neandertals, Denisovans, and other archaics may be the best example of a true human race or sub-species. They are also fully part of the human lineage, with almost all contemporary humans showing genetic admixture with archaics in our genetic signatures.

Still, there have been some problematic aspects to welcoming Neandertals and Denisovans into the human family. Several very wrongheaded interpretations of Denisovans, Neandertals, and archaic admixture have emerged. Because the dominant paradigm has been the replacement hypothesis rather than gene flow across a wide range, contributions from Neandertals and Denisovans are seen as affecting only specific peoples. Since most analyses are carried out in genetic language within a society convinced of genetic determinism, the Neandertal contribution is seen as adding a set of genetic resources other groups do not share.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) evaluate the findings of a research -Correct
(B) summarize the history of a research area -The passage doesn't summarise the history
(C) report new research findings -We don't know whether the research is a new research or existing one
(D) reinterpret old research findings -Old research is not talked about here
(E) reconcile conflicting research findings -Passage talks only about 1 research


2. Which of the following,if found true, most clearly strengthens the idea discussed in the second paragraph that Neandertals, Denisovans and humans are the same species?

(A) Neanderthals, Denisovans, and modern humans are all descended from the ancient human Homo heidelbergensis. -Clear answer

(B) By comparing the genomes of apes, Denisovans, Neanderthals, and modern humans, scientists hope to identify DNA segments unique to the different groups. -Hope to identify doesn't strengthen anything

(C) Early results already suggest modern humans underwent genetic changes involved with brain function and nervous system development, including ones involved in language development, after splitting from Neanderthals and Denisovans. -This is a weakener

(D) The scientists found the genetic overlap between the Denisovan genome and that of some present-day east Asians. -This option doesn't talk about Neanderthals

(E) The fact that Denisovans were discovered in Siberia but contributed to the genomes of modern humans living in Southeast Asia suggests the species ranged widely across Asia. -Incorrect

3.Which of the following, if discovered, may help resolve some of the puzzles that the 2010-2012 discoveries raised?

--The puzzle is mentioned in the first passage: "Ever since the fossil Neandertal discoveries in the 19th century, debates have raged about who they were. Were Neandertals direct ancestors to modern humans? A completely different species? Or a sub-species, like a race? And now what should we do with the Denisovans?". So we need an option that helps us tell who Neanderthals and Denisovans were.

A.The common ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans spread across Europe and Asia over half a million years ago. -Doesn't answer the question.

B.The new Neanderthal skeletal reconstruction suggests that the interbreeding between Neanderthals and Denisovans occurred at a much earlier period, some 100,000 to 60,000 years ago, before the modern human populations of Europe and East Asia split. -Doesn't answer the question

C.Recently, scientists compared the gene sequences of three human groups – modern Africans, Neanderthals, and Denisovans, and have found that the Neanderthal lineage separated from that of the mysterious Denisovans about 744,000 years ago. -Doesn't answer the question

D.Neanderthals and Denisovans were human populations that separated from the modern lineage early in the Middle Pleistocene. -Correct

E.Extensive DNA sequence data have made it possible to reconstruct human evolutionary history in unprecedented detail. -Doesn't answer the question


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Re: The 2010 discoveries of Denisovans, the 2012 findings of archaic Afric &nbs [#permalink] 30 Jan 2018, 05:39
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The 2010 discoveries of Denisovans, the 2012 findings of archaic Afric

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