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# The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely

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Intern
Joined: 21 Dec 2013
Posts: 4
The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely  [#permalink]

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21 Dec 2013, 08:00
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Question Stats:

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The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely related to whales and in fact include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to
be 30 feet long and is
famous for its aggressive hunting pods.

(A) include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and is

(B) include the animal known as the killer whale, growing as big as 30 feet long and

(C) include the animal known as the killer whale, growing up to 30 feet long and being

(D) includes the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow as big as 30 feet long and is

(E) includes the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and it is

For option (B)

Please correct me if I'm wrong some where

Clauses
Cl1 32 species make up the dolphin family
Cl2 32 species that.... family are closely related(Verb1) to whales & in fact
include (Verb 2) the animal know as the killer whale,

Now we know that for the Verb-ing modifier
S V Object , -ing
-ing modifies whole preceding clause (DESCRIBE/RESULT) and not the preceding noun or the subject

As per the explaination in the OG for choice B
"Changing the verb to the participial growing
introduces ambiguity, because it could refer
backto the subject of the sentence
{32
species)."

1) Please help to clarify how can -ing modify(thus create amiguity) the subject and not the whole clause

2) For choice B
CL2 : 32 species <are closely related ...> & <include .....whale>,

mod1 <growing upto 30 feet> :

If we consider only this mod. would it be correct to say that it(such an -ing modifier) can meaningfully describe about the CL2 as a whole ?
would it make any sense here

Because it becomes confusing in few questions in which -ing is used to modify the preceding clause (whereas it made more sense to modify preceding noun by using relative pronoun)
(i.e can such cases of modifier be considered as a DESCRIPTION of the preceding clause)

(if possible Please explain with an example for this doubt )
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Joined: 01 Sep 2010
Posts: 3280
Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely  [#permalink]

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21 Dec 2013, 09:36
Move the topic under the SC section.

Whenever you want to discuss a SC you must create a new topic under SC section NOT general Verbal Section
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Joined: 16 Jan 2013
Posts: 140
Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely  [#permalink]

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21 Dec 2013, 11:20
Let's check (B) include the animal known as the killer whale, growing as big as 30 feet long and
There are quite a few errors in option B incl. the construction 'as big as 30 feet long'

Your question is why 'growing' a participle? And why is it not acting like a verb -ing modifier?

Let's understand a basic difference between a verb modifier and a noun modifier. A verb modifier acts as a verb, and a noun modifier acts as a noun. As simple as that.

The species that ..... is a noun phrase ==> noun + noun clause, where species is the noun and 'that ...' is the clause.
Hence, growing is a noun modifier (grow + ing ==> present participle) modifying species.

The species that include the killer whale, growing as big as ...
is same as
Growing as big as..., the species that include the killer whale

Note: comma + verb -ing modifier modifies the preceding clause by either introducing additional description or presenting the result (of the preceding clause)

I hope I am correct with my expln. Experts, please correct me if I am wrong.
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What are modifiers ??

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Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2792
Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely  [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2013, 11:20
3
1
trunkz0711 wrote:
The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely related to whales and in fact include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to
be 30 feet long and is
famous for its aggressive hunting pods.

(A) include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and is

(B) include the animal known as the killer whale, growing as big as 30 feet long and

(C) include the animal known as the killer whale, growing up to 30 feet long and being

(D) includes the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow as big as 30 feet long and is

(E) includes the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and it is

For option (B)

Please correct me if I'm wrong some where

Clauses
Cl1 32 species make up the dolphin family
Cl2 32 species that.... family are closely related(Verb1) to whales & in fact
include (Verb 2) the animal know as the killer whale,

Now we know that for the Verb-ing modifier
S V Object , -ing
-ing modifies whole preceding clause (DESCRIBE/RESULT) and not the preceding noun or the subject

As per the explaination in the OG for choice B
"Changing the verb to the participial growing
introduces ambiguity, because it could refer
backto the subject of the sentence
{32
species)."

1) Please help to clarify how can -ing modify(thus create amiguity) the subject and not the whole clause

2) For choice B
CL2 : 32 species <are closely related ...> & <include .....whale>,

mod1 <growing upto 30 feet> :

If we consider only this mod. would it be correct to say that it(such an -ing modifier) can meaningfully describe about the CL2 as a whole ?
would it make any sense here

Because it becomes confusing in few questions in which -ing is used to modify the preceding clause (whereas it made more sense to modify preceding noun by using relative pronoun)
(i.e can such cases of modifier be considered as a DESCRIPTION of the preceding clause)

(if possible Please explain with an example for this doubt )

Hi there,

Thanks for posting your doubt here.

I am not sure what you mean to convey through the clause analysis. So here is how we would break the sentence with Choice B into clauses.

The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely related to whales and in fact include the animal known as the killer whale, growing as big as 30 feet long and famous for its aggressive hunting pods.

Cl. 1: The 32 species

Cl. 2: that make up the dolphin family

Cont. of Cl. 1: are closely related to whales and in fact include the animal known as the killer whale, growing as big as 30 feet long and famous for its aggressive hunting pods.

So as highlighted, the first clause has two verbs "are related" and "include", and the second clause has one verb "make up".

Now the comma + verb-ing modifier "growing" modifies the preceding clause "The 32 species... are related... and include...." One thing to always keep in mind about the verb-ing modifiers is that they denote some action. That's why we call them "verb-ing" modifiers. The action that they denote must have a doer. Generally, the doer of the action denoted bu the "comma + verb-ing" modifiers is teh Subject of the modified clause.

In this case. the Subject of the modified clause is "The 32 species". Now ask yourself, do the 32 species grow as big as 30 feet long? Certainly not. This answer is absolutely illogical. So we see here that the action denoted by the "comma + verb-ing" modifier does not make sense with the Subject of the modified clause. Hence, use of "comma + verb-ing" is incorrect in Choice B.

usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html

Hope this helps.
Wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year.
Thanks.
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely  [#permalink]

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31 Mar 2017, 18:51
Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely &nbs [#permalink] 31 Mar 2017, 18:51
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