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# The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and

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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
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A number of important errors that are found throughout Sentence correction should be noted here (see bold-face explanations below each answer):

The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.

A. The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably
The fact of... "of some fraternal twins" is a prepositional phrase that inadequately describes "the fact". The fact is not simply "of twins," for a "fact of twins doesn't mean anything. What is needed is a relative clause: "The fact that twins resemble..." to define what the fact really is. BE CAREFUL!!! THE SC OFTEN CHANGES RELATIVE CLAUSES INTO INADEQUATE PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES!

B. That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary considerably
For those of you uncomfortable with this structure:
"It was fortunate that Bob showed up." = "That Bob showed up was fortunate."
A relative clause starting with "that" can be a subject for a verb.

C. With some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar, it highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely considerable variation
Note! The sentence opens with a prepositional phrase-- "With some twins..." The prepositional phrase (which is a kind of description) has nothing to describe! Prepositional phrases must do the grammatical work of describing something in the sentence. Also, "it" in "it highlights" has no referent, meaning that in the sentence there is NO WRITTEN NOUN to which the "it" refers

D. With some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar, it is a fact that highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely a considerable variation
Same as C

E. Because some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly and others look quite dissimilar, this fact highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably
To "hear" the error in logic better, try switching the dependent and independent clauses: "This fact highlights a feature because twins resemble eachother."
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
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Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-
GMATMadeeasy wrote:
The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.

(A) The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably

(B) That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary considerably

(C) With some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar, it highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely considerable variation

(D) With some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar, it is a fact that highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely a considerable variation

(E) Because some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly and others look quite dissimilar, this fact highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably

Meaning is crucial to solving this problem:
Understanding the intended meaning is key to solving this question; the intended meaning of this sentence is that the fact that some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs; this feature is that they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.

Concepts tested here: Meaning + Tenses + Pronouns

• In a “phrase + comma + noun” construction, the phrase must correctly modify the noun; this is one of the most frequently tested concepts on GMAT sentence correction.
• Statements of universal fact are best conveyed through the simple present tense.

A: This answer choice incorrectly uses the present participles ("verb+ing") "resembling" and "looking" to refer to statements of universal fact; please remember, statements of universal fact are best conveyed through the simple present tense.

B: Correct. This answer choice uses the phrase "That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar", avoiding the modifier error seen in Options C and D and conveying the intended meaning - that the fact that some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs; this feature is that they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness. Further, Option B correctly uses "That" as a placeholder pronoun, avoiding the pronoun error seen in Options C and D. Additionally, Option B correctly uses the simple present tense verbs "resemble" and "look" to refer to statements of universal fact.

C: This answer choice incorrectly uses "With some fraternal twins...dissimilar" to modify "it", leading to an incoherent meaning; the intended meaning is that - the fact that some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs; this feature is that they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness; remember, in a “phrase + comma + noun” construction, the phrase must correctly modify the noun. Further, Option C suffers from a pronoun error, as the pronoun "it" has no clear referent. Additionally, Option C incorrectly uses the present participles ("verb+ing") "resembling" and "looking" to refer to statements of universal fact; please remember, statements of universal fact are best conveyed through the simple present tense.

D: This answer choice incorrectly uses "With some fraternal twins...dissimilar" to modify "it", leading to an incoherent meaning; the intended meaning is that - the fact that some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs; this feature is that they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness; remember, in a “phrase + comma + noun” construction, the phrase must correctly modify the noun. Further, Option D suffers from a pronoun error, as the pronoun "it" has no clear referent. Additionally, Option D incorrectly uses the present participles ("verb+ing") "resembling" and "looking" to refer to statements of universal fact; please remember, statements of universal fact are best conveyed through the simple present tense.

E: This answer choice alters the meaning of the sentence through the phrase "Because some fraternal twins...quite dissimilar"; the use of "Because" illogically implies that the fact that some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly and others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs because some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly and others look quite dissimilar; the intended meaning is that that some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar, and this is a fact that highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs.

Hence, B is the best answer choice.

To understand the concept of "Phrase Comma Subject" and "Subject Comma Phrase" on GMAT, you may want to watch the following video (~1 minute):

All the best!
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A. The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably

Incorrect usage

B. That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary considerably

The usage of the phrase "that some fraternal twins" is very much legit and acceptable.

C. With some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar, it highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely considerable variation

with some......, it highlights : improper usage; what is "it" pointing to ?

D. With some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar, it is a fact that highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely a considerable variation

same reason as D

E. Because some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly and others look quite dissimilar, this fact highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably

because x happens y happens is how a sentence needs to be framed.
because x happens, this fact ? again, "this" is hanging in the air.

Hope that helped.

Why each answer is wrong? describe issue in each sentence especially E .
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dkverma wrote:
The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.

The qstn is more than parallelism. - I believe

A. The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably
B. That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary considerably
C. With some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar, it highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely considerable variation
D. With some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar, it is a fact that highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely a considerable variation
E. Because some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly and others look quite dissimilar, this fact highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably

All the pronouns lack proper antecedent and A out for Idiom.
Parallelism is maintained in every choice I believe
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Ya B it is .... +1 for metallicafan ... I understand how one feels when you dont have any " kudos" in ones kitty ...cheers !!
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
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mailnavin1 wrote:
E. Because some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly and others look quite dissimilar, this fact highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably

Can't "this fact" be the combined observation of "ressemble and dissimilar twins" at the same time? Therefore "this fact" isn't incorrect per se.
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
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If you use this fact, you need a period(maybe semicolon or hyphen) before it, not a comma
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ajit257 wrote:
The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.

A. The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably
B. That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary considerably
C. With some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar, it highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely considerable variation
D. With some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar, it is a fact that highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely a considerable variation
E. Because some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly and others look quite dissimilar, this fact highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably

Hi!

I'm not sure exactly what your question is, but we can review the entire thing.

Right off the bat, we know that the original is no good - "The fact of" is idiomatically incorrect; we'd have to say "The fact that" to even have a shot of correctness. Further, even "the fact that" is likely to lead to modification and style problems. Eliminate (A).

Scanning the beginning of the remaining choices, we also quickly dump (C) and (D). While you can, in theory, start a sentence with "with some", a quick peek after the comma in both choices tells us the next part of the sentence begins with "it highlights" and "it is a fact". "It highlights" is almost certainly going to introduce a passive construction - bad style on the GMAT. Similarly, "it is a fact" is passive and can be ruled out. Eliminate (C) and (D).

(B) looks good at a first glance, to let's move to (E). It's acceptable to begin a sentence with "because", but (E) has the same after-the-comma issue as (C) and (D) - "Because X, this fact highlights" makes no sense. Eliminate (E).

Only (B) remains - choose it confidently, do a happy dance and move on to the next question.
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You can begin a sentence with "that" if "that" introduces the clause that's the subject of the sentence.

For example:

That Bobby would ace the GMAT was never in doubt.

The syntax will generally be:

That [fact that's the subject of the sentence] [predicate] [result].

However, just because it's grammatically correct doesn't mean that it's stylistically great - it's a fairly formal construction that most people don't use (you're far more likely to see it in "fancy" writing than in everyday prose).
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
That' right, gmat1220. B is the answer. However, I am not able to eliminate E. Here, 'this' is acting as an adjective, modifying 'fact'.
Had it been 'this highlights an interesting....', option E would have easily been removed.
Would you like to shed some light on it?
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I will give you three reasons to eliminate E

gmat will try to trap you by hinting "this" is correct. But it is rarely correct. The problem with written english it is 100% unambiguous - if you have a doubt, keep the choice aside.

because + the fact = redundant. Once you write "because" it exemplifies "evidence". The fact is pretty much redundant.

B also wins bcos of - that parallelism.

WarriorAjay wrote:
That' right, gmat1220. B is the answer. However, I am not able to eliminate E. Here, 'this' is acting as an adjective, modifying 'fact'.
Had it been 'this highlights an interesting....', option E would have easily been removed.
Would you like to shed some light on it?
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
I have found B as an answer by elimination of others. But, for last part, isn't it a run-on sentence?

B. That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary considerably

Also, it seems there is no subject for the last part. Could someone explain that issue?
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espa wrote:
I have found B as an answer by elimination of others. But, for last part, isn't it a run-on sentence?

B. That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary considerably

Also, it seems there is no subject for the last part. Could someone explain that issue?

Hi espa.

For your first question. This is not a run-on sentence because the adverb "namely" connect two parts of the sentence correctly. Please note that run-on sentences are sentences that lack punctuation; they can be long, but they can also be short.
The syntax: "That...ABC...., namely that... XYZ....." is correct.

That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary considerably.............

Hope that helps.

The second part has the subject - they, which refers to "some fraternal twins".
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The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.
INCORRECT PORTIONS HIGHLIGHTED...
A. The fact ofsome fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably
B. That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary considerably
C.Withsome fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar,it
highlights
an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely
considerable variation
D. With some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar,it isa fact that highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely a considerable variation
E. Because some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly and others look quite dissimilar, this fact highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably

KUDOS IF YOU PLEASE.........
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The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar
highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary
considerably
on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.

A. The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably
Issues
1) Instead of "Of some" -> that is preferred
2) We need a verb here. Looking is not a verb
3) Instead of "and" , a contrast word is required. But/while can be used.

B. That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they
vary considerably

This is the least of the devils. I didn't like sentence starting with "That". That is relative pronoun and should replace something.
if the sentence starts with
"The fact that some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary considerably" would be perfect.

C. With some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar, it highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely considerable variation
it cannot be a placeholder as we have a modifier starting with "with". We need a noun that makes sense with the previous clause
"fact that" makes perfect sense as it is of the form of noun + noun modifier and can modify the whole preceding clause.

D. With some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar, it is a fact that highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely a considerable variation

"It is a" - Placeholder is not required.

E. Because some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly and others look quite dissimilar, this fact highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably
"Because" -> presents a causal relationship and it is not required. "This" is not a proper usage.

Overall, I am not convinced that it is a good question.
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The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.

Meaning Analysis : (breaking it into different parts)
1. The fact highlights something ( Something - they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness)
2. whatever fact highlighted is both interesting and Often Overlooked.
3. The fact is "some fraternal twins resembling each other (fraternal twins) greatly and others looking quite dissimilar"

Error Analysis :
1. SV agreement - Subject (The fact) and verb (highlights) both are matching in number. We dont have any dual subject - single verb or Single verb dual subject error. - Correct
2. Modifier - "Namely .... " modifies "feature of fraternal-twin pairs" - Logically correct meaning - Correct
3. Construction "resembling and Looking" - we know that Fact has to be present in simple present and anything other than Simple present (for presenting fact, universal truth) is wrong in GMAT - Incorrect
4. Idiom error - "The fact of" is not correct, it should be "fact that" - "that" modifies the fact. In The "fact of" "Of" is preposition and needs noun say "Facts of Gmat"

A. The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably
Incorrect - Reasons discussed above.

B. That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary considerably
Subject is silent "That .... Dissimilar" acting as subject and match perfectly with singular verb "Highlights"
"Resemble and look" correctly present Facts in simple present tense.
No error But looks awkward. So lets see if we can find any better option.

C. With some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar, it highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely considerable variation
Pronoun error - "it" does not have any clear antecedent.
the phrase "With some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar" -- what it is trying to Modify. It is just there in sentence does not seems to have any impact on anything - Incorrect

D. With some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar, it is a fact that highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely a considerable variation
Incorrect - Similar error as option C

E. Because some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly and others look quite dissimilar, this fact highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they vary considerably
"this" - What this is referring to.
Illogical meaning "Because of some facts" this fact highlights
Incorrect.

Since we other options have some or other string errors, Option B even though awkward but stands correct.
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Choice E is rather colloquial. ‘This’ as a demonstrative pronoun could be relevant in informal conversations with someone when we can physically point out to something visible. In formal writing, it is rare to find it as a correct usage.
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