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# The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and

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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
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A rapid-fire fix: The most important aspect of this question is to contrast between two dimensions of a particular phenomenon of the fraternal twins' looks, for which the use of a change - direction transition marker of contrast is essential. In this context, B is the only choice that depicts the conjunction 'while' to mark the contrast. All other choices simply use 'and', a same-direction conjunction. Hence, they are all incorrect.
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
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I find it extremely dissatisfying that the credited response is a sentence starting with "that" I've been told through out my education not to start a sentence with that. Can someone please elaborate why it is right to start a sentence with "that"
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
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Hey soun12!

There are two reasons you were taught this. First is that it's difficult to make sure that you are creating a grammatically sound sentence if you're starting your sentence with the word that. The reason for this is the same reason that this question works: the word "that" signals the beginning of a dependent clause. (Note that in this question you could rearrange the sentence so that the word "that" and the clause after it comes after the verb. It's the predicate of the sentence!)

The second reason you were taught this "rule" is that starting sentences with the word "that" is generally a sign of weak writing and wordiness (even if it often isn't technically wrong), especially if "that" is being used to point to a previously mentioned topic.

Consider the pair of sentences "Jimmy was reluctant to sell the car. That made him make unwise decisions." Did the car make Jimmy make unwise decisions? Was it his reluctance? Slightly better would be "Jimmy was reluctant to sell the car. That reluctance made him make unwise decisions." Again, better but kind of redundant. Good writing would sound more like "Jimmy's reluctance to sell the car led him to make bad decisions."

So, TL;DR: you may have learned this in secondary/high school. If you did, it's because your teacher was trying to save you from bad writing. The word "that" at the beginning of sentences isn't always wrong, but is a) easy to get wrong used one way and b) is often a symptom of bad writing used the other way.
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
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@
daagh wrote:
A rapid-fire fix: The most important aspect of this question is to contrast between two dimensions of a particular phenomenon of the fraternal twins' looks, for which the use of a change - direction transition marker of contrast is essential. In this context, B is the only choice that depicts the conjunction 'while' to mark the contrast. All other choices simply use 'and', a same-direction conjunction. Hence, they are all incorrect.

In option A and B, what does 'they' refer too? I eliminated both the options thinking that they can refer to either twins or fraternal-twin pairs, hence there is ambiguity in the usage. Can you please help? daagh
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
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techloverforever wrote:
@
daagh wrote:
A rapid-fire fix: The most important aspect of this question is to contrast between two dimensions of a particular phenomenon of the fraternal twins' looks, for which the use of a change - direction transition marker of contrast is essential. In this context, B is the only choice that depicts the conjunction 'while' to mark the contrast. All other choices simply use 'and', a same-direction conjunction. Hence, they are all incorrect.

In option A and B, what does 'they' refer too? I eliminated both the options thinking that they can refer to either twins or fraternal-twin pairs, hence there is ambiguity in the usage. Can you please help? daagh

techloverforever, Let's break the sentence down to its core:

(B) That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary considerably.
Subject-Verb Pair -
That Notion highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs,
namely that they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.

Notion: "some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar." - This notion is an independent clause. Thus it requires singular verb: highlights

The heart of the sentence:
Though in terms of visual appeal, some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while other others look different, in reality, they DO vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.
The thought echos: Even though the twins LOOK similar/dissimilar, the twins DO differ considerably, in reality, on a genetic level of relatedness.
- The statement highlights a contrast between how the fraternal twins LOOK and how they actually ARE on the spectrum of genetic relatedness.
Between X and Y -
X: how the fraternal twins LOOK
Y: how they actually ARE on the spectrum of genetic relatedness

We have two antecedents for 'they' - fraternal twins AND fraternal-twin pairs.
Let's substitute and analyze each option:
They ----> fraternal-twin pairs
Even though the fraternal twins LOOK similar/dissimilar, fraternal-twin pairs vary considerably on a genetic level of relatedness.
The different fraternal-twin PAIRS (,i.e, the pool of different pairs ) vary amongst themselves on a genetic level of relatedness.
Meaning: - One fraternal-twin pair VARY from another pair
The contrast is NOT among different pairs BUT between fraternal twins.
It does NOT highlight the contrast, which the sentence intends to imply.
- The statement highlights a contrast between how the fraternal twins LOOK and how they actually ARE on the spectrum of genetic relatedness.

They ----> fraternal twins
Even though the fraternal LOOK similar/dissimilar, the fraternal twins VARY considerably on a genetic level of relatedness.
Aha! The sentence perfectly makes sense.

TakeAway:
During the 700-level of the exam, An aspirant is more likely to see NOT what is the best answer BUT what is the least bad of all the given answer choices.
If you face such a convoluted sentence during the GMAT exam, Congrats! You are moving in the right direction.
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
(B) That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.

(B) That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.

Hi AndrewN

Could you please throw some light on the usage of namely?
Namely is adverb so it can modify previous noun, adjective, verb etc.

In Option B
1. If we remove that , the sentence would still be grammatically correct?
1b. Namely sounds more like i.e. ( but we don't use that after i.e. , so why in B we still use that after namely?

2. After namely, Can we have sub-ordinate clause, independent clause, phrase, noun, adjective, adverb etc. in general? please suggest with some example

Thanks! Sir
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
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Hello again, imSKR. I will respond below, in-line.

imSKR wrote:
(B) That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.

(B) That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.

Hi AndrewN

Could you please throw some light on the usage of namely?
Namely is adverb so it can modify previous noun, adjective, verb etc.

In Option B
1. If we remove that , the sentence would still be grammatically correct?
1b. Namely sounds more like i.e. ( but we don't use that after i.e. , so why in B we still use that after namely?

If that were removed from the latter part of the sentence, the sentence would no longer be correct, unless you used additional punctuation:

That some fraternal twins... feature of fraternal-twin pairs; namely, they vary considerably...

In the original sentence, that serves to subordinate what would otherwise be an independent clause. The that clause in its entirety serves as a noun to define what is an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs. You asked about the role of namely. It effectively serves in the capacity of a colon here, one that would indicate that a definition of a term was about to follow. You cannot use both a colon (in this capacity) and namely: doing so would create a redundancy.

That some fraternal twins... feature of fraternal-twin pairs: they vary considerably...

imSKR wrote:
2. After namely, Can we have sub-ordinate clause, independent clause, phrase, noun, adjective, adverb etc. in general? please suggest with some example

Thanks! Sir

Yes, if you think of what may follow a colon—a single word, a phrase, or either a dependent or independent clause—you will appreciate how flexible namely allows the rest of the sentence to be. By the way, touching on 1b above, namely is a derivative of the Latin phrase videre licit, which is often translated as it is permitted to see. Over time, the phrase got mashed together into videlicet and abbreviated in writing as viz (sometimes with a period). The most common translations of this abbreviation are, in modern terms, namely or that/which is to say.

I hope that helps. Please let me know if you have further questions, and thank you for seeking my opinion on this one. I always love delving into arcane linguistic matters.

- Andrew
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
Hi,

can we add also that the usage of "and" is incorrect but "while" is proper since the context reflects a negation/ contradiction post "and"?
some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar

VeritasPrepBrian wrote:
Hey guys,

This thread is a perfect example of the dangers of the "never pick _________" philosophy (which I think started with the word "being"). There's a correct application of any word in the dictionary, so those always/never rules that I see discussed on here are typically pretty problematic. The key is to understand the situations that work/don't work for certain words or constructions.

"That" as the beginning of a sentence here is correct, and even if it feels awkward the other choices are so woefully incorrect (as Stuart described above).

"It" in C and D is a pronoun without an antecedent (there isn't a clear prior noun to take its place), so they're incorrect. E is illogical - to say that "Because of gravity, this fact means..." would be an awfully illogical sentence - a fact can't be dependent upon itself.

A is also illogical in addition to being unidiomatic. Using the present-tense verbs "resembling" and "looking" doesn't logically work as a scientific fact - choice B, with the more-logical indicative tense "twins resemble...and look" states a clear fact worthy of proving or highlighting a scientific phenomenon. The present-tense verbs in A suggest a temporary situation. A also features a structural error at the end: "...feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely they" requires a spacer such as "that" to set up the pronoun "they" as a subject.

Most importantly here, remember that the same types of errors are tested repeatedly - pronouns, verb tenses, etc. - so let those be your decision points before you try to eliminate sentences based on one-off idiomatic rules. Idioms are tricky in that they're often quite situational ("i before e except after c..."), so train yourself to look for the more-systematic decision points first.
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
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MI83 wrote:
Hi,

can we add also that the usage of "and" is incorrect but "while" is proper since the context reflects a negation/ contradiction post "and"?
some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar

Hello, MI83. That is a keen observation, one that I might use to favor (B), but not one that I would use as a basis for elimination. A fact or observation might have two branches, so to speak, so I could be talking about one overarching observation if I were to say,

Some people in the neighborhood speak Yiddish and others speak English.

That is, I could be reporting an observation pertaining to the languages people speak in an area (languages A and B). So, while I might prefer while, I cannot call and incorrect. I would turn to other, less nuanced considerations to weigh up each answer choice.

- Andrew
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
AndrewN wrote:
Hello again, imSKR. I will respond below, in-line.

imSKR wrote:
(B) That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.

(B) That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, namely that they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.

Hi AndrewN

Could you please throw some light on the usage of namely?
Namely is adverb so it can modify previous noun, adjective, verb etc.

In Option B
1. If we remove that , the sentence would still be grammatically correct?
1b. Namely sounds more like i.e. ( but we don't use that after i.e. , so why in B we still use that after namely?

If that were removed from the latter part of the sentence, the sentence would no longer be correct, unless you used additional punctuation:

That some fraternal twins... feature of fraternal-twin pairs; namely, they vary considerably...

In the original sentence, that serves to subordinate what would otherwise be an independent clause. The that clause in its entirety serves as a noun to define what is an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs. You asked about the role of namely. It effectively serves in the capacity of a colon here, one that would indicate that a definition of a term was about to follow. You cannot use both a colon (in this capacity) and namely: doing so would create a redundancy.

That some fraternal twins... feature of fraternal-twin pairs: they vary considerably...

imSKR wrote:
2. After namely, Can we have sub-ordinate clause, independent clause, phrase, noun, adjective, adverb etc. in general? please suggest with some example

Thanks! Sir

Yes, if you think of what may follow a colon—a single word, a phrase, or either a dependent or independent clause—you will appreciate how flexible namely allows the rest of the sentence to be. By the way, touching on 1b above, namely is a derivative of the Latin phrase videre licit, which is often translated as it is permitted to see. Over time, the phrase got mashed together into videlicet and abbreviated in writing as viz (sometimes with a period). The most common translations of this abbreviation are, in modern terms, namely or that/which is to say.

I hope that helps. Please let me know if you have further questions, and thank you for seeking my opinion on this one. I always love delving into arcane linguistic matters.

- Andrew

Hi AndrewN sir

You said
Quote:
Yes, if you think of what may follow a colon—a single word, a phrase, or either a dependent or independent clause—

Quote:
That some fraternal twins... feature of fraternal-twin pairs: they vary considerably..

Q: If we replace namely with colon then the sentence is correct with or without that ?
1. That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs: that they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.
2. That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs: they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.
3. That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, that is to say that they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.

Note: At least this time, the meaning is clear to me that modifier after comma is referring to overlooked feature.

Thanks
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
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imSKR wrote:
Hi AndrewN sir

You said
Quote:
Yes, if you think of what may follow a colon—a single word, a phrase, or either a dependent or independent clause—

Quote:
That some fraternal twins... feature of fraternal-twin pairs: they vary considerably..

Q: If we replace namely with colon then the sentence is correct with or without that ?
1. That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs: that they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.
2. That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs: they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.
3. That some fraternal twins resemble each other greatly while others look quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs, that is to say that they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.

Note: At least this time, the meaning is clear to me that modifier after comma is referring to overlooked feature.

Thanks

Hello, imSKR. Either of the first two sentences above could work, although I would expect to see the less casual number 1 on the actual test. There is a misconception that that after a colon is redundant, but there is at least one official question that uses such a construct, so a colon followed by that is fine. Meanwhile, the third sentence creates a comma splice, two independent clauses joined by nothing more than a comma (i.e. without a conjunction), so that one is definitely incorrect. You could change the part in question to a dependent which is to say that, but even then, it would be suboptimal, since it achieves nothing in the way of clarity that the shorter versions lack.

I hope that helps. Thank you for following up with me.

- Andrew
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
Experts please share on your thought what is the role if this?
namely that they vary considerably

What these modifies?
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
[A] In options-C & D, structure: [with] + [Noun] + [participle] is incorrect; one can refer following link for detailed understanding: https://magoosh.com/gmat/with-noun-part ... orrection/

Takeaway: If the sentence makes sense without participle phrase, that is, just “with” + [noun], then the structure is OK

[B] In option-A, Two independent clauses(IC),

IC1: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and others looking quite dissimilar highlights an interesting and often overlooked feature of fraternal-twin pairs
,namely
IC2: they vary considerably on a spectrum of genetic relatedness.

are connected using ",namely". The correct structure would include
1) either - Conjunction (FANBOYS)
2) or - : namely, (notice colon with comma)
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
HiEducationAisle

In option B, second part of the sentence "Namely that they vary considerably" is playing what part? Is it an adverbial modifier, If so how can we have clause "They vary considerably" joined just by a comma?
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
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Hi Mayank, without getting too deep into grammar, "namely" is generally used to provide detailed additional information about a particular aspect of the sentence.

For example:

One group of citizens seems to be often neglected, namely senior citizens.

While studying, Peter was hardly aware of the challenge facing him, namely, to find himself a job.
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Re: The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
it is hard to see how choice e is wrong though we dislike it immediately
choice e means

because fact A happens, fact A hightlight X

this is wordy. the meaning is that fact A hightlight X. we dont need because- clause
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The fact of some fraternal twins resembling each other greatly and [#permalink]
Hi avigutman

QQ on the pronoun "they" in A, B and E

Isnt 'they' genuinely ambigous in all three answer choices ? 'they' could be referring to fraternal twins OR fraternal-twin pairs. Aren't both legitimate antecedents or do you think only one antecedent makes sense ?

I think i am 50 - 50 between fraternal-twin pairs and fraternal twins

Another post here is claiming that the antecedent makes sense with fraternal twins ONLY

I thought (C) and (D) got rid of this problem by just dropping 'they' completely

I understand (C) and (D) have other problems but i thought (A), (B) and (E) had this glaring pronoun error.

Originally posted by jabhatta2 on 30 May 2022, 09:09.
Last edited by jabhatta2 on 30 May 2022, 09:36, edited 11 times in total.
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