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# The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local

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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2013, 00:36
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75% (hard)

Question Stats:

43% (01:08) correct 57% (01:20) wrong based on 157 sessions

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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached
the observer’s meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

A. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
B. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
C. which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
D. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
E. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

Source: 100 SC book

Confuse between D/E, why not D can be the answer as "Differed" also acts as "verb-ed" modifier as the case with "determined.Moreover,If E is correct what s wrong with choice (C).
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local ti [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2013, 01:26
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targetgmatchotu wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached
the observer’s meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

A. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
B. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
C. which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
D. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
E. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

Source: 100 SC book

Confuse between D/E, why not D can be the answer as "Differed" also acts as "verb-ed" modifier as the case with "determined.Moreover,If E is correct what s wrong with choice (C).

A, B and C are incorrect because "which" is modifying the noun "abolition".
D is incorrect because here "determined" is in participle form whereas "differed" is a verb.
In E, both "determined" and "differing" are in participle form and modify "local times".

An alternative approach:
verb-ed implies that the action is done ON the subject whereas verb-ing implies that work is done BY the subject.
So D implies that "local times" received the action to differ-illogical.

Hope that helps..
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local ti [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2013, 01:43
Marcab wrote:
targetgmatchotu wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached
the observer’s meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

A. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
B. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
C. which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
D. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
E. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

Source: 100 SC book

Confuse between D/E, why not D can be the answer as "Differed" also acts as "verb-ed" modifier as the case with "determined.Moreover,If E is correct what s wrong with choice (C).

A, B and C are incorrect because "which" is modifying the noun "abolition".
D is incorrect because here "determined" is in participle form whereas "differed" is a verb.
In E, both "determined" and "differing" are in participle form and modify "local times".

An alternative approach:
verb-ed implies that the action is done ON the subject whereas verb-ing implies that work is done BY the subject.
So D implies that "local times" received the action to differ-illogical.

Hope that helps..

Although your explanation is quite good ,still I am unable to decipher it.

Local times Determined By
Local times Differed from

What is wrong in the second one????

Local Times is doing the action of differing in the second one???
Locan times is determined by something else (Action done by something else)????

Rgds,
Saurabh
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local ti [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2013, 01:49
targetgmatchotu wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached
the observer’s meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

A. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
B. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
C. which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
D. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
E. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

Source: 100 SC book

Confuse between D/E, why not D can be the answer as "Differed" also acts as "verb-ed" modifier as the case with "determined.Moreover,If E is correct what s wrong with choice (C).

I have rejected first three options on the basis of the which was/ which were as being redundant,,,,can any one tell me if I'm right in POE....??? Then between D and E i fell in to the trap of D...

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local ti [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2013, 02:04
Hii Saurabh.
Do notice the usage of "determined" as verb in A, B and C and as "participle" in D and E.
Since there is a parallel marker "and" in the modifying clause, hence the two sides present on either side of the "and" must be parallel in terms of
1)logic
2)phrase

By logic I mean that both should modify the same noun "local times" and both the phrases must be of the same construction. If "determined" is used as a participle, then "differing" must also be used as a participle.
In D the logic is: Something(determined) is done on "local times" and "local times" does something. Not at all parallel. "Local times" is receiving the action of being determined and then it does some task.
If it were something like- "Something is done on "local times" and on "bla bla" OR "Local times does X and Y", then it would have been parallel.
Remember- each and every participle in a modifying phrase has to modify the same Subject otherwise the phrase would not remain parallel.

Hope this time I am able to express myself.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local ti [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2013, 02:48
Marcab wrote:
Hii Saurabh.
Do notice the usage of "determined" as verb in A, B and C and as "participle" in D and E.
Since there is a parallel marker "and" in the modifying clause, hence the two sides present on either side of the "and" must be parallel in terms of
1)logic
2)phrase

By logic I mean that both should modify the same noun "local times" and both the phrases must be of the same construction. If "determined" is used as a participle, then "differing" must also be used as a participle.
In D the logic is: Something(determined) is done on "local times" and "local times" does something. Not at all parallel. "Local times" is receiving the action of being determined and then it does some task.
If it were something like- "Something is done on "local times" and on "bla bla" OR "Local times does X and Y", then it would have been parallel.
Remember- each and every participle in a modifying phrase has to modify the same Subject otherwise the phrase would not remain parallel.

Hope this time I am able to express myself.

Thanks for the explanation , my only doubt pertains to the question is "Why (Differed) is not a Verb-Ed Modifier" here ????? so that "Differed" would be || to "Determined" !!!!!

Rgds,
Saurabh
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local ti [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2013, 02:59
1
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It is because of the usage.
If you replace "determined" with "differed", then in that case "differed" will act as participle and not as a verb.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local ti [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2013, 02:55
targetgmatchotu wrote:

Thanks for the explanation , my only doubt pertains to the question is "Why (Differed) is not a Verb-Ed Modifier" here ????? so that "Differed" would be || to "Determined" !!!!!

Rgds,
Saurabh

Here is my little advice in making you see this:

Whatever is following local times is modifying local times in the sentence. Now, let's just split your option D:
1. Local times determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian
2. Local times differed from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Option 1 & 2 are not parallel because 2 is a clause with a subject and verb (LT differed from x to y ... ), while 1 is a noun phrase (LT modified by determined .... )
To make 1 & 2 parallel, we need both of them to be adjectives and they can be adjectives when we turn differed to differing.

You may review OG12 Q42 (Interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by and extending for). Though this question is removed from OG13 I believe but nevertheless, modifier usage is quiet heavily tested.

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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13 Feb 2014, 13:37
D is incorrect because it places "determined", which is a participle being used as an adjective, parallel with "differed", which is being used as a past tense verb. These two forms cannot be placed parallel to one another.

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local   [#permalink] 04 Feb 2016, 18:45
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