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The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan

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The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2014, 06:01
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The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan were trained to respect simplicity, be austere, and ritualized code of observed behavior.

(A) to respect simplicity, be austere, and ritualized code of observed behavior
(B) to respect simplicity, be austere, and observe a ritualized code of behavior
(C) that they should respect simplicity, be austere, and observe a ritualized code of behavior
(D) that they should respect simplicity, austerity, and a code of behavior that was ritualized and observed
(E) in order to respect simplicity, austerity, and a code of behavior that was ritualized and observed

Hi, I want to know how do we know about the main verb and object noun, please.
I put my question in spoiler as it will expose the answer choice.

How can we know that the main verb is "observe" and the object is "a ritualized code of behaviour", please.
For the object " a ritualised code", I presume that we do not change it from the original sentence, and this leaves us "ritualised code of" as one word.
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Re: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2014, 11:17
Respect is main verb. Why will be trained? and to do what? to respect ritualized code of behavior. Ritualized code of behavior is object.
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Re: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2014, 12:51
Hi Baten80,
Thank you of that.

How can we know that the main verb is "observe" and the object is "a ritualized code of behaviour", please.
For the object " a ritualised code", I presume that we do not change it from the original sentence, and this leaves us "ritualised code of" as one word.
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Re: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2014, 04:36
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I believe the main verb in this sentence is “were”. “to respect”, “to be austere” and “to observe” are “infinitives”; and infinitives are not verbs.

Clearly there are a lot of “logically similar” elements here (three to be precise). So, the intent of the sentence is to convey that the military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan were trained to do 3 things:
i) respect simplicity
ii) be austere
iii) observe ritualized code of behavior

Hence, these 3 elements should be structurally similar. Let’s look at A. Suppose we “deconstruct” this as: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan were trained to X,Y, and Z. Then:
i) X=respect simplicity
ii) Y=be austere
iii) Z=ritualized code of observed behavior

The issue is that the “common portion” of the sentence (outside the XYZ structure) makes sense with X and Y, but does not make sense with Z.
i) … were trained to respect simplicity - Correct
ii) … were trained to be austere - Correct
iii) … were trained to ritualized code of observed behavior - Incorrect

However, with B, everything falls in place. The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan were trained to X,Y, and Z. Then:
i) X= respect simplicity
ii) Y= be austere
iii) Z= observe a ritualized code of behavior

The “common portion” of the sentence (outside the XYZ structure) now makes sense with X, Y and Z:
i) … were trained to respect simplicity - Correct
ii) … were trained to be austere - Correct
iii) … were trained to observe a ritualized code of behavior - Correct

This is the simple technique I have learnt from the book I am currently referring to, and seems to work quite well in these kind of questions.
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Re: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2014, 12:12
Hi ayushman,

Thanks for going through this question!
If you don't mind, can I ask which book you are referring to, please?
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Re: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2014, 19:41
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This is a classic problem that tests parallelism. The "to" is distributed among each of the terms so that an infinitive is made.

The verb is not "respect" but "were trained." This is a passive construction, so "military governors and samurai warriors" are the objects. The objects receive the action, or have something done to them, as did the governors and warriors. If you can answer - Is the object in the subject position? Can I add "by someone"? - then it is passive. Thus, there is no subject.
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Re: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2014, 11:54
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The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan were trained to respect simplicity, be austere, and ritualized code of observed behavior.

the list is
1) to respect simplicity
2) to be austere
3) to observer a ritualized code of behavior

(A) to respect simplicity, be austere, and ritualized code of observed behavior
(B) to respect simplicity, be austere, and observe a ritualized code of behavior -> Correct
(C) that they should respect simplicity, be austere, and observe a ritualized code of behavior
(D) that they should respect simplicity, austerity, and a code of behavior that was ritualized and observed
(E) in order to respect simplicity, austerity, and a code of behavior that was ritualized and observed
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Re: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2014, 20:51
goodyear2013 wrote:
Hi ayushman,

Thanks for going through this question!
If you don't mind, can I ask which book you are referring to, please?

Sorry looks like I forgot to answer. I am reading "EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana".

You can PM me if you want any more details.
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Re: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2016, 23:58
The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan were trained to respect simplicity, be austere, and ritualized code of observed behavior.

(A) to respect simplicity, be austere, and ritualized code of observed behavior
(B) to respect simplicity, be austere, and observe a ritualized code of behavior
(C) that they should respect simplicity, be austere, and observe a ritualized code of behavior
(D) that they should respect simplicity, austerity, and a code of behavior that was ritualized and observed
(E) in order to respect simplicity, austerity, and a code of behavior that was ritualized and observed

Mike Mc Garry Sir,

This is GMAT Prep Question Pack 1 SC question.
OA: B

I have no issue in arriving at the correct answer, but I still do not have a grammatical reasoning to understand why C and D are wrong, specially, why the usage of that is wrong here in terms of grammatical reasoning.

I also clearly do not understand the official explanation. http://screencast.com/t/8wkzuWiALkx

Thanks!
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Re: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2016, 17:02
crunchboss wrote:
The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan were trained to respect simplicity, be austere, and ritualized code of observed behavior.

(A) to respect simplicity, be austere, and ritualized code of observed behavior
(B) to respect simplicity, be austere, and observe a ritualized code of behavior
(C) that they should respect simplicity, be austere, and observe a ritualized code of behavior
(D) that they should respect simplicity, austerity, and a code of behavior that was ritualized and observed
(E) in order to respect simplicity, austerity, and a code of behavior that was ritualized and observed

Mike Mc Garry Sir,

This is GMAT Prep Question Pack 1 SC question.
OA: B

I have no issue in arriving at the correct answer, but I still do not have a grammatical reasoning to understand why C and D are wrong, specially, why the usage of that is wrong here in terms of grammatical reasoning.

I also clearly do not understand the official explanation. http://screencast.com/t/8wkzuWiALkx

Thanks!

Dear crunchboss,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

As always, the official questions are of exceptionally high quality, but the official explanations leave a lot to be desired.

One thing I'll say is that the clearest way to demonstrate purpose in a variety of context is to use the infinitive of purpose. The OA, (B), uses this quite effectively. It's also quite idiomatic to say, "to train [someone] to do X." That is an extremely naturally phrasing. The verb "to train" very naturally takes an infinitive and doesn't take a "that" close.

The tricky thing about (C) & (D) is that they are 100% grammatically correct. It's closer to say that they are idiomatically incorrect. They are awkward in a way that is hard for me to explain. I believe it's just an idiom. The verb "to train" idiomatically takes an infinitive of purpose to show the object of the training, and never takes a "that" clause. It's idiom. I think that's the best explanation I can give.

Does this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2016, 20:43
respect, be, observe are parallel only in option B

I go with B
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The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2017, 02:53
The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan were trained to respect simplicity, be austere, and ritualized code of observed behavior.

(A) to respect simplicity, be austere, and ritualized code of observed behavior
(B) to respect simplicity, be austere, and observe a ritualized code of behavior
(C) that they should respect simplicity, be austere, and observe a ritualized code of behavior
(D) that they should respect simplicity, austerity, and a code of behavior that was ritualized and observed
(E) in order to respect simplicity, austerity, and a code of behavior that was ritualized and observed

GMATNinjaTwo Why we need "be" before the adjective "austere"?
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The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2017, 07:16
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hazelnut wrote:
The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan were trained to respect simplicity, be austere, and ritualized code of observed behavior.

(A) to respect simplicity, be austere, and ritualized code of observed behavior
(B) to respect simplicity, be austere, and observe a ritualized code of behavior
(C) that they should respect simplicity, be austere, and observe a ritualized code of behavior
(D) that they should respect simplicity, austerity, and a code of behavior that was ritualized and observed
(E) in order to respect simplicity, austerity, and a code of behavior that was ritualized and observed

GMATNinjaTwo Why we need "be" before the adjective "austere"?


This sentence is saying they were trained
1. to respect simplicity.
2. to be austere.
3. to observe some code.

"be austere" signifies the behavior/nature that they should have.

Consider it like this:

I want to be happy.

I want to happy.

Which one do you think is correct?

So, in a similar way, "they were trained to be austere" has been used.

In short, "they were trained to be austere" means they were trained how to be strict in their attitude.

I hope that makes sense.
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Re: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan [#permalink]

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New post 21 May 2017, 07:43
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Apart from the reasons of poor style and flow that Mike has pointed out, C and D are structurally delinquent, in that they are using the suggestive or recommendatory 'should' in a subjunctive mood.
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Re: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan [#permalink]

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New post 22 May 2017, 09:19
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hazelnut wrote:
The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan were trained to respect simplicity, be austere, and ritualized code of observed behavior.

(A) to respect simplicity, be austere, and ritualized code of observed behavior
(B) to respect simplicity, be austere, and observe a ritualized code of behavior
(C) that they should respect simplicity, be austere, and observe a ritualized code of behavior
(D) that they should respect simplicity, austerity, and a code of behavior that was ritualized and observed
(E) in order to respect simplicity, austerity, and a code of behavior that was ritualized and observed

GMATNinjaTwo Why we need "be" before the adjective "austere"?

daagh wrote:
Apart from the reasons of poor style and flow that Mike has pointed out, C and D are structurally delinquent, in that they are using the suggestive or recommendatory 'should' in a subjunctive mood.

Thanks daagh and abhimahna!

hazelnut, if we eliminate the "be" before "austere" in choice (B), we'll have a parallelism issue: "trained to {verb}, {adjective}, and {verb}". As is, the parallel structure in choice (B) is correct: "trained to {verb}, {verb}, and {verb}".
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Re: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan [#permalink]

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New post 22 May 2017, 21:54
hazelnut wrote:
Why we need "be" before the adjective "austere"?

Hi hazelnut, let us remove the be in option B. So, the sentence would be:

The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan were trained to respect simplicity, austere, and observe a ritualized code of behavior.

Since this sentence obviously uses parallelism (the presence of and is an indication), we need to figure out which parts of a sentence are logically similar. A handy technique is the XYZ deconstruct. Clearly, from the intended meaning of the sentence, you would deconstruct the sentence as:

The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan were trained to X, Y, and Z.

Where:

X: respect simplicity
Y: austere
Z: observe a ritualized code of behavior.

The common portion (the portion of the sentence outside the XYZ deconstruct) of the sentence is:

The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan were trained to

Rule: After doing the XYZ deconstruct, the common portion should make sense individually with X, with Y, and with Z.

Let's see if this is the case:

i) Common portion with X: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan were trained to respect simplicity (makes sense)

ii) Common portion with Y: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan were trained to austere (does not make sense; as you can see, the sentence should be: were trained to be austere)

iii) Common portion with Z: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan were trained to observe a ritualized code of behavior (makes sense)

In fact, this simple XYZ deconstruct is a very handy tool to analyze most of the parallelism related questions.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses the XYZ deconstruct, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan [#permalink]

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New post 10 May 2018, 18:41
Hello

Can anyone shed some light why E is wrong?
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Re: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan [#permalink]

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New post 10 May 2018, 20:06
Rocket7 wrote:
Can anyone shed some light why E is wrong?

Hi Rocket7, in my mail above, I have discussed the XYZ deconstruct.

If you apply that XYZ deconstruct to option E, you can easily figure out why E is not correct.

If something is still not clear, let me know.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses XYZ deconstruct, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: The military governors and samurai warriors who ruled Japan   [#permalink] 10 May 2018, 20:06
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