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The palette of sights and sounds that reach the conscious mind are not

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The palette of sights and sounds that reach the conscious mind are not  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2018, 07:04
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The palette of sights and sounds that reach the conscious mind are not neutral perceptions that people then evaluate: they come with a value already tacked onto them by the brain‘s processing mechanisms. Tests show that these evaluations are immediate and unconscious and applied even to things people have never encountered before, like nonsense words: ―juvalamu‖ is intensely pleasing and ―bargulum‖ moderately so, but ―chakaka‖ is loathed by English-speakers. These conclusion come from psychologists who have developed a test for measuring the likes and dislikes created in the moment of perceiving a word, sound or picture. The findings, if confirmed, have possibly unsettling implications for people‘s ability to think and behave objectively. This is all part of preconscious processing, the mind‘s perception and organization of information that goes on before it reaches awareness—these judgments are lightning fast in the first moment of contact between the world and the mind.

Some scientists disagree with the claim that virtually every perception carries with it an automatic judgment, though they, too, find that such evaluations are made in many circumstances. These scientists believe that people don‘t have automatic attitudes for everything, but rather, for areas of interest.

In responding to a stimulus, a signal most likely travels first to the verbal cortex, then to the amygdala, where the effect is added, and then back. The circuitry involved can do all this in a matter of a hundred milliseconds or so, long before there is conscious awareness of the word. This creates an initial predisposition that gets things off on a positive or negative footing. These reactions have the power to largely determine the course of a social interaction by defining the psychological reality of the situation from the start.

The ―quick-and-dirty‖ judgment tends to be more predictive of how people actually behave than is their conscious reflection on the topic. This may represent a new, more subtle tool for research on people‘s attitudes, allowing scientists to assess what people feel without their having any idea of what exactly is being tested. You could detect socially sensitive attitudes people are reluctant to admit, like ethnic biases because these automatic judgments occur outside a person‘s awareness, as part of an initial perception. They are trusted in the same way senses are trusted, not realizing that seemingly neutral first perceptions are already biased.

Conclusions from both camps are based on a method that allows them to detect subtle evaluations made within the first 250 milliseconds—a quarter of a second—of perception of words. The measurement of liking can be made outside the person‘s awareness because if the first word is presented in less than a quarter of a second the reaction to it never registers in consciousness, though it can still be read.
1. According to the passage and with regards to words like bargulum, juvalamu, and chakaka, ―preconscious processing‖ (line 12) would most influence which of the following?
A. Subconscious memories concerning traumatic childhood events
B. Perception of a stranger on first sighting
C. Formulation of arguments after intense research
D. Thought processes involved in creating an intricate novel
E. Reuniting with one‘s children after a long trip overseas

2. Scientists that disagree with the idea that humans place a value on all perceptions would most likely agree with which of the following statements?
A. Most perceptions receive a value due to a familiarity with the stimulus.
B. The mind cannot possibly interpret information in an interval as short as a quarter of a second.
C. Preconscious processing would have no effect on behaviour patterns.
D. The senses are not used when placing a value on stimuli presented during an experiment.
E. Some perceptions are too valuable to actually put a value on

3. Based on information in the passage, in the author's view, which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. Information regarding external stimuli is processed so quickly that it
does not become part of our conscious awareness.
B. Automatic judgments occur on stimuli with which there is great
familiarity.
C. Nonsense words have little or no effect on a person‘s mood.
D. Ethnic biases may be influenced by attitudes of which we are
unaware.
E. The measurement of liking could be made outside of a person‘s
awareness


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Re: The palette of sights and sounds that reach the conscious mind are not  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2018, 07:05
1

Topic and Scope

- The author outlines a theory of human cognition: people have
unconscious biases towards words and ideas that influence later thought.

Mapping the Passage:


¶1 introduces the theory that the brain preconsciously assigns a value to all
perceptions.
¶2 describes an objection some scientists have to the theory.
¶3 outlines the physiological mechanism of processing and its implications on social
interactions.
¶4 discusses the potential applications for the theory.
¶5 describes the mechanisms used to test preconscious perceptions.
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The palette of sights and sounds that reach the conscious mind are not  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 23 Oct 2018, 20:20
1

Answers and Explanations


1)

Read the relevant lines to get a feel for what’s going on, which is made easier by the fact that the author defines the term immediately after using it. We’re looking for an answer choice that involves forming an opinion on something near-instantly. Choice (B) fits this perfectly.
(A): Distortion. A basic understanding of the difference between subconscious and preconscious (line 12) is crucial here.
(B): The correct answer
(C): Opposite. This would involve consciousness, not preconsciousness.
(D): Opposite. As above, this would primarily involve consciousness.
(E): Opposite. As above, this would primarily involve consciousness.

2)

How do these scientists fit into the author’s argument? They’re the ones disagreeing with it in ¶2. Look for a statement that would challenge the author’s point of view. Choice (A) would contradict the idea that values are placed automatically on things such as unfamiliar words.
(A): The correct answer
(B): Distortion. The author mentions in ¶5 that even the scientists who disagree rely on the idea that the mind can make interpretations in the first 250 milliseconds.
(C): Distortion. ¶2 states that the scientists who disagree admit that "such evaluations are made under many circumstances," just not all. Note that the phrase "no effect" makes this choice too extreme.
(D): Out of Scope. The passage doesn't discuss this.
(E): Out of Scope. The passage doesn't discuss this.

3)

Keep focused on the map when evaluating the answer choices. Look for three things that fit in with the author’s argument, keeping an eye out for one that might simply contradict the author’s point outright. In this case, (C) is unusually easy to spot: it contradicts the basic conclusion of the experiment the author cites in ¶1.
(A): Opposite. This is the author's main argument.
(B): Opposite. The wording "these evaluations are...applied even to things people have never encountered before" implies that they also apply to things with which people are familiar.
(C): The correct answer
(D): Opposite. ¶4 discusses this.
(E): Opposite. This can be inferred from the last paragraph.[/header3]

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Originally posted by GmatWizard on 23 Oct 2018, 07:08.
Last edited by GmatWizard on 23 Oct 2018, 20:20, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The palette of sights and sounds that reach the conscious mind are not  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2018, 19:07
saviofernanz wrote:

Answers and Explanations


1) Read the relevant lines to get a feel for what’s going on, which is made easier by the fact that the author defines the term immediately after using it. We’re looking for an answer choice that involves forming an opinion on something near-instantly. Choice (B) fits this perfectly.
(A): Distortion. A basic understanding of the difference between subconscious and preconscious (line 12) is crucial here.
(B): The correct answer
(C): Opposite. This would involve consciousness, not preconsciousness.
(D): Opposite. As above, this would primarily involve consciousness.
(E): Opposite. As above, this would primarily involve consciousness.
[header3]2)

How do these scientists fit into the author’s argument? They’re the ones disagreeing with it in ¶2. Look for a statement that would challenge the author’s point of view. Choice (A) would contradict the idea that values are placed automatically on things such as unfamiliar words.
(A): The correct answer
(B): Distortion. The author mentions in ¶5 that even the scientists who disagree rely on the idea that the mind can make interpretations in the first 250 milliseconds.
(C): Distortion. ¶2 states that the scientists who disagree admit that "such evaluations are made under many circumstances," just not all. Note that the phrase "no effect" makes this choice too extreme.
(D): Out of Scope. The passage doesn't discuss this.
(E): Out of Scope. The passage doesn't discuss this.

3)

Keep focused on the map when evaluating the answer choices. Look for three things that fit in with the author’s argument, keeping an eye out for one that might simply contradict the author’s point outright. In this case, (C) is unusually easy to spot: it contradicts the basic conclusion of the experiment the author cites in ¶1.
(A): Opposite. This is the author's main argument.
(B): Opposite. The wording "these evaluations are...applied even to things people have never encountered before" implies that they also apply to things with which people are familiar.
(C): The correct answer
(D): Opposite. ¶4 discusses this.
(E): Opposite. This can be inferred from the last paragraph.[/header3]


Hi,
For the explanation of question -2 - option A - how can the word 'most ' be justified here. I do understand that option A is the correct option but a little amused by the usage of word most here.
My take - From paragraph 2 - some scientists disagree with every perception such evaluations are made in many circumstances -Many/not for everything is not equal to most right?

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Re: The palette of sights and sounds that reach the conscious mind are not  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2018, 11:04
Passage summary:
1) Conscious mind receives already processed information. Some scientists believe that this is automatic.
2) Yet, other scientists claim that not all perception is biased. Information that is part of an individuals interests isn't objective.
3) Describes how that pre-conscious processing of information works, and thus why people may be unaware of their judgments.
4) Liking of information is as sensitive as human senses. Hence, a subconscious judgment can be a better indicator of human behaviour towards certain things than merely asking a person to speak his or her mind.
5) Both theories seem to agree that information can be processed beyond human's consciousness in 1/4 second


1. According to the passage and with regards to words like bargulum, juvalamu, and chakaka, ―preconscious processing‖ (line 12) would most influence which of the following?
Relevant text: This is all part of preconscious processing, the mind‘s perception and organization of information that goes on before it reaches awareness—these judgments are lightning fast in the first moment of contact between the world and the mind.
A. Subconscious memories concerning traumatic childhood events preconscious processing is not said to influence subconsciousness
B. Perception of a stranger on first sighting correct
C. Formulation of arguments after intense research that's conscious working
D. Thought processes involved in creating an intricate novel that's conscious working
E. Reuniting with one‘s children after a long trip overseas such information would be stored in an individuals memory

2. Scientists that disagree with the idea that humans place a value on all perceptions would most likely agree with which of the following statements?
A. Most perceptions receive a value due to a familiarity with the stimulus. correct - <...> people don‘t have automatic attitudes for everything, but rather, for areas of interest.
B. The mind cannot possibly interpret information in an interval as short as a quarter of a second. direct contradiction
C. Preconscious processing would have no effect on behaviour patterns. direct contradiction
D. The senses are not used when placing a value on stimuli presented during an experiment. their opinion on this isn't given
E. Some perceptions are too valuable to actually put a value on a stretch

3. Based on information in the passage, in the author's view, which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. Information regarding external stimuli is processed so quickly that it does not become part of our conscious awareness. if the first word is presented in less than a quarter of a second the reaction to it never registers in consciousness, though it can still be read.
B. Automatic judgments occur on stimuli with which there is great familiarity. <...> people don‘t have automatic attitudes for everything, but rather, for areas of interest.
C. Nonsense words have little or no effect on a person‘s mood. FALSE: Tests show that these evaluations are immediate and unconscious and applied even to things people have never encountered before, like nonsense words: ―juvalamu‖ is intensely pleasing and ―bargulum‖ moderately so, but ―chakaka‖ is loathed by English-speakers.
D. Ethnic biases may be influenced by attitudes of which we are unaware. You could detect socially sensitive attitudes people are reluctant to admit, like ethnic biases because these automatic judgments occur outside a person‘s awareness <...>
E. The measurement of liking could be made outside of a person‘s awareness This may represent a new, more subtle tool for research on people‘s attitudes, allowing scientists to assess what people feel without their having any idea of what exactly is being tested.
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Re: The palette of sights and sounds that reach the conscious mind are not  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2018, 11:15
notYet wrote:
saviofernanz wrote:

Answers and Explanations


1) Read the relevant lines to get a feel for what’s going on, which is made easier by the fact that the author defines the term immediately after using it. We’re looking for an answer choice that involves forming an opinion on something near-instantly. Choice (B) fits this perfectly.
(A): Distortion. A basic understanding of the difference between subconscious and preconscious (line 12) is crucial here.
(B): The correct answer
(C): Opposite. This would involve consciousness, not preconsciousness.
(D): Opposite. As above, this would primarily involve consciousness.
(E): Opposite. As above, this would primarily involve consciousness.
[header3]2)

How do these scientists fit into the author’s argument? They’re the ones disagreeing with it in ¶2. Look for a statement that would challenge the author’s point of view. Choice (A) would contradict the idea that values are placed automatically on things such as unfamiliar words.
(A): The correct answer
(B): Distortion. The author mentions in ¶5 that even the scientists who disagree rely on the idea that the mind can make interpretations in the first 250 milliseconds.
(C): Distortion. ¶2 states that the scientists who disagree admit that "such evaluations are made under many circumstances," just not all. Note that the phrase "no effect" makes this choice too extreme.
(D): Out of Scope. The passage doesn't discuss this.
(E): Out of Scope. The passage doesn't discuss this.

3)

Keep focused on the map when evaluating the answer choices. Look for three things that fit in with the author’s argument, keeping an eye out for one that might simply contradict the author’s point outright. In this case, (C) is unusually easy to spot: it contradicts the basic conclusion of the experiment the author cites in ¶1.
(A): Opposite. This is the author's main argument.
(B): Opposite. The wording "these evaluations are...applied even to things people have never encountered before" implies that they also apply to things with which people are familiar.
(C): The correct answer
(D): Opposite. ¶4 discusses this.
(E): Opposite. This can be inferred from the last paragraph.[/header3]


Hi,
For the explanation of question -2 - option A - how can the word 'most ' be justified here. I do understand that option A is the correct option but a little amused by the usage of word most here.
My take - From paragraph 2 - some scientists disagree with every perception such evaluations are made in many circumstances -Many/not for everything is not equal to most right?

Thanks


The scientists claim that not all preconscious processing leads to biased judgments, i.e. it isn't automatic for all cases. They claim that only some information gets biased, information that fits a persons interests. While the choice says that most, which means (50+1 to 100%), familiar information will lead to biased judgment because it will be likely processed subconsciously, familiarity with certain stimulus, according to the scientists, will lead to biased judgment 100%. So this suits the scope.

Hope this helps.
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Re: The palette of sights and sounds that reach the conscious mind are not &nbs [#permalink] 28 Oct 2018, 11:15
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The palette of sights and sounds that reach the conscious mind are not

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