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# The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its

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The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its  [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2016, 09:28
Source: OG13

The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
A. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
B. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
C. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
D. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
E. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen

My problem in this question is I agree that profits vs it filters A and B.
with phrase filters D and E leaving C.
but i could not understand after falling over last two years part. Can someone explain?
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4485
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24 Oct 2016, 14:51
Nevernevergiveup wrote:
The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
A. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
B. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
C. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
D. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
E. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen

My problem in this question is I agree that profits vs it filters A and B.
with phrase filters D and E leaving C.
but i could not understand after falling over last two years part. Can someone explain?

Dear Nevernevergiveup,

I'm happy to respond.

First of all, I am going to mention several pieces of etiquette about posting questions.
1) When you post a SC question, always always always underline the relevant portion. I did that for you here.
2) Always cite the source as a specifically as possible. This is from the OG13, SC #90.
3) When you discuss the text in your question, always set off words from the text in quote mark. For clarity, I prefer to use quote marks and a different color.

For #3, here's what I mean. You wrote:
My problem in this question is I agree that profits vs it filters A and B.
with phrase filters D and E leaving C.
but i could not understand after falling over last two years part. Can someone explain?

That is extremely hard to understand because you did not punctuate correctly. Here's how it should look:
My problem in this question is I agree that "profits" vs "it" filters A and B.
"with" phrase filters D and E leaving C.
but i could not understand "after falling over last two years" part. Can someone explain?

You see, it's actually considered rude to ask someone a question but then make mistake that requires the person helping you to expend additional effort. When you are asking for help, it's appropriate to be as respectful and as accommodating as possible.

Finally, I am going to say that your question is a poor question, simply because it is not clear. Any question that says no more than "I don't understand X" is not a thoughtful question. You did tell me what you understood about the rest of the SC question: that's good. What about the phrase "after falling over last two years" do you not understand? What do you think it means? How do you think it ought to be said? Are you asking for the meaning? Are you asking for the grammatical form and why it's right? What exactly is your question?

I will suggest this blog:
Asking excellent question is one of the habits of excellence that will accelerate your GMAT studies.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)
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24 Oct 2016, 22:12
Nevernevergiveup wrote:
The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
A. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
B. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
C. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
D. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
E. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen

I agree the profits is the subject which increases/decreases here and is a plural word. Therefore pronoun it cannot refer to to profits as per subject-verb rule. thereby options A and B are incorrect.

with phrase is appropriate here removing options D and E leaving out C as the remaining correct choice.

but in option C, I could not understand how we can define a past event(that too which happened before profits increased in verb+ing form i.e., present continuous tense form)
Is there anything specific regarding time period mentioned as over last two years.

Now did you understand my query? Sorry for troubling you earlier.
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4485
Re: The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its  [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2016, 10:51
Nevernevergiveup wrote:
Nevernevergiveup wrote:
The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell over the last two years.
A. which increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it fell
B. which had increased five percent during the first three months of this year after it had fallen
C. which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after falling
D. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after falling
E. with a five percent increase during the first three months of this year after having fallen

I agree the profits is the subject which increases/decreases here and is a plural word. Therefore pronoun it cannot refer to to profits as per subject-verb rule. thereby options A and B are incorrect.

with phrase is appropriate here removing options D and E leaving out C as the remaining correct choice.

but in option C, I could not understand how we can define a past event(that too which happened before profits increased in verb+ing form i.e., present continuous tense form)
Is there anything specific regarding time period mentioned as over last two years.

Now did you understand my query? Sorry for troubling you earlier.

Dear Nevernevergiveup,

Thank you! Now I understand your question.

This is a subtle point about the present particle, the -ing participle. If there is a main verb and then a phrase with a present participle modifies this main clause, the action in the present participle is understood to occur at the same time as the main verb.
1) Obama serves as US President, enacting policies to benefit citizens.
All in the present.
2) Grant served as US President, enacting policies to benefit citizens.
Grant's service was in the past (1869-1877), and the "enacting" matches this, also in the past.
3) Mike McGarry will serve as US President, enacting policies to benefit citizens.
In this extremely unlikely scenario, my hypothetical service is in the future, and the "enacting" matches this, also in the future.

Thus, the "present participle" is not always present--it is "present" to the time of the main verb, and thus can represent a past or future action.

Now, if we want to indicate that the secondary action took place at a time other than the time of the main verb, we would have to use a perfect participle (e.g. "having enacted") or use a subordinate clause rather than a participle.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

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The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its  [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2017, 05:13
Dear Mike,

after reading your reply in the thread, I would like to know, whether in the choice C "which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after had been falling" would be grammatically more correct, as the increase is occurring in a period after the period in which the profits were falling.

Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4485
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16 Aug 2017, 15:17
oderebek wrote:
Dear Mike,

after reading your reply in the thread, I would like to know, whether in the choice C "which have increased five percent during the first three months of this year after had been falling" would be grammatically more correct, as the increase is occurring in a period after the period in which the profits were falling.

Dear oderebek,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, your question indicates some confusions on a few issues. The distinction of tenses, say past vs. present perfect vs. past perfect, is a distinction among full verbs. Full verbs and only full verb have the complete range of tenses.

In order for the "-ing" form of a verb to function as a full verb, it would have to be accompanied by some auxiliary verb
is falling = present progressive
was falling = past progressive
has been falling = present perfect progressive
had been falling = past perfect progressive
Those are all full verbs: any of them could be the main verb of an independent clause.

When "falling" appears by itself, without an auxiliary verb, it is NOT a full verb. It is participle or a gerund. There are present and past participles: present participles are alway active (e.g. buying, selling, hearing, seeing, etc.) and past participles are passive (e.g. bought, sold, heard, seen, etc.) The issue with tenses and participles is subtle, because the "present" participle actually can take on the tense of the main verb.
He entered town, driving well above the speed limit. (The "driving" is a past action.)
He is entering town right now, driving well above the speed limit. (The "driving" is a present action.)
I predict that he will enter town, driving well above the speed limit. (The "driving" is a future action.)

For GMAT purposes, gerunds don't have tense at all.

In this sentence, in the phrase "after falling," the word "after" is a preposition, and the object of a preposition has to be a noun or something acting in a noun-role. The form of a verb that acts in a noun-roll is a gerund, so "falling" here is a gerund, an grammatical form that inherently has no tense at all.

In your question, you asked if we start with a gerund, something that has absolutely no tense, can we add auxiliary verbs to it to give it a tense. With all due respect, my friend, do you see how what you were asking is grounded in multiple misunderstandings? Among other things, you were misunderstanding one part of speech, a gerund, for an entirely different part of speech, a full verb.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)
Re: The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its   [#permalink] 16 Aug 2017, 15:17
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