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The Taft-Hartley Act, passed by the United States Congress in 1947, ga

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The Taft-Hartley Act, passed by the United States Congress in 1947, ga  [#permalink]

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 105, Date : 25-MAR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


The Taft-Hartley Act, passed by the United States Congress in 1947, gave states the power to enact “right-to-work” legislation that prohibits union shop agreements. According to such an agreement, a labor union negotiates wages and working conditions for all workers in a business, and all workers are required to belong to the union. Since 1947, 20 states have adopted right-to-work laws. Much of the literature concerning right-to-work laws implies that such legislation has not actually had a significant impact. This point of view, however, has not gone uncriticized. Thomas V Carroll has proposed that the conclusions drawn by previous researchers are attributable to their myopic focus on the premise that, unless right-to-work laws significantly reduce union membership within a state, they have no effect. Carroll argues that the right-to-work laws “do matter” in that such laws generate differences in real wages across states. Specifically, Carroll indicates that while right-to-work laws may not “destroy” unions by reducing the absolute number of unionized workers, they do impede the spread of unions and thereby reduce wages within right-to-work states. Because the countervailing power of unions is weakened in right-to-work states, manufacturers and their suppliers can act cohesively in competitive labor markers, thus lowering wages in the affected industries.

Such a finding has important implications regarding the demographics of employment and wages in right-to-work states. Specifically, if right-to-work laws lower wages by weakening union power, minority workers can be expected to suffer a relatively greater economic disadvantage in right-to-work states than in union shop states. This is so because, contrary to what was once thought, union tend to have a significant positive impact on the economic position of minority workers, especially Black workers, relative to White workers. Most studies concerned with the impact of unionism on the Black worker’s economic position relative to the White worker’s have concentrated on the changes in Black wages due to union membership. That is, they have concentrated on union versus nonunion groups. In a pioneering study, however, Ashenfelter finds that these studies overlook an important fact: although craft unionism increase the differential between the wages of White workers and Black workers due to the traditional exclusion of minority workers from unions in the craft sectors of the labor market, strong positive wage gains are made by Black workers within industrial unions. In fact, Ashenfelter estimates that industrial unionism decreases the differential between the wages of Black workers and White workers by about 3 percent. If state right-to-work laws weaken the economic power of unions to raise wages, Black workers will experience a disproportionate decline in their relative wage positions. Black workers in right-to-work states would therefore experience a decline in their relative economic positions unless there is strong economic growth in right-to-work states, creating labor shortages and thereby driving up wages.
Q1. The reasoning behind the “literature” (Highlighted), as that reasoning is presented in the passage, is most analogous to the reasoning behind which one of the following situations?

(A) A law is proposed that benefits many but disadvantages a few: those advocating passage of the law argue that the disadvantages to few are not so serious that the benefits should be denied to many.
(B) A new tax on certain categories of consumer items is proposed: those in favor of the tax argue that those affected by the tax are well able to pay it, since the items taxed are luxury items.
(C) A college sets strict course requirements that every student must complete before graduating; students already enrolled argue that it is unfair for the new requirements to apply to those enrolled before the change.
(D) The personnel office of a company designs a promotions become effective on January 1: the managers protest that such a policy means that they cannot respond fast enough to changes in staffing needs.
(E) A fare increase in a public transportation system does not significantly reduce the number of fares sold: the management of the public transportation system asserts, therefore, that the fare hike has had no negative effects.


Q2. According to the passage, which one of the following is true of Carroll’s study?

(A) It implies that right-to-work laws have had a negligible effect on workers in right-to-work states.
(B) It demonstrates that right-to-work laws have significantly decreased union membership from what it once was in right-to-work states.
(C) It argues that right-to-work laws have affected wages in right-to-work states.
(D) It supports the findings of most earlier researchers.
(E) It explains the mechanisms by which collusion between manufacturers and suppliers is accomplished.


Q3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which one of following about craft unions?

(A) Craft unions have been successful in ensuring that the wages of their members remain higher than the wages of nonunion workers in the same occupational groups.
(B) The number of minority workers joining craft unions has increased sharply in states that have not adopted right-to-work legislation.
(C) Wages for workers belonging to craft unions have generally risen faster and more steadily than wages for workers belonging to industrial unions.
(D) The wages of workers belonging to craft unions have not been significantly affected by right-to-work legislation, although the wages of workers belonging to industrial unions have been negatively affected.
(E) The wages of workers belonging to craft unions are more likely to be driven up in the event of labor shortages than are the wages of workers belonging to industrial unions.



Q4. Which one of the following best describes the effect industrial unionism has had on the wages of Black workers relative to those of White workers, as that effect is presented in the passage?

(A) Prior to 1947, industrial unionism had little effect on the wages of Black workers relative to those of White workers: since 1947, it has had a slight positive effect.
(B) Prior to 1947, industrial unionism had a strong positive effect on the wages of Black workers relative to those of White workers: since 1947, it has had little effect.
(C) Prior to 1947, industrial unionism had a negative effect on the wages of Black workers relative to those of White workers: since 1947, it has had a significant positive effect.
(D) Industrial unionism has contributed moderately to an increase in the wage differential between Black workers and White workers.
(E) Industrial unionism has contributed strongly to a 3 percent decrease in the wage differential between Black workers and White workers.


Q5. According to the passage, which one of the following could counteract the effects of a decrease in unions’ economic power to raise wages in right-to-work states?

(A) a decease in the number of union shop agreements
(B) strong economic growth that creates labor shortages
(C) a decrease in membership in craft unions
(D) the merging of large industrial unions
(E) a decline in the craft sectors of the labor market


Q6. Which one of the following best describes the passage as a whole?

(A) an overview of a problem in research methodology and a recommended solution to that problem
(B) a comparison of two competing theories and a suggestion for reconciling them
(C) a critique of certain legislation and a proposal for modification of that legislation
(D) a review of research that challenges the conclusions of earlier researchers
(E) a presentation of a specific case that confirms the findings of an earlier study



  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 6 (October 1992)
  • Difficulty Level: 650

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Originally posted by GmatWizard on 16 Jan 2019, 09:45.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 01 Oct 2019, 22:09, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (769).
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Re: The Taft-Hartley Act, passed by the United States Congress in 1947, ga  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2019, 05:48
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Why i am not able to comprehend this passage. I have read this passage twice but still i am not getting the primary purpose of this passage. Any experts?
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Re: The Taft-Hartley Act, passed by the United States Congress in 1947, ga  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2019, 06:46
+1 kudos to the posts containing answer explanations of all questions
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Re: The Taft-Hartley Act, passed by the United States Congress in 1947, ga  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2019, 14:27
navjot177 wrote:
Why i am not able to comprehend this passage. I have read this passage twice but still i am not getting the primary purpose of this passage. Any experts?

I don't think there is much to comprehend in this passage. It only share some details about effects of some past legislation on pay of union workers. Slowly and steady moves towards particular case of colored people.
The one thing that caught most of my attention is the contrast that it wants to present between previous research's conclusion and new assertion.
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Re: The Taft-Hartley Act, passed by the United States Congress in 1947, ga  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2019, 05:35
Purpose and Main Idea:

The author’s purpose is to examine a variety of studies, many of them in disagreement, about how (and indeed whether) right-to-work laws have impacted wages. This is done more in the manner of a survey than an argument; hence, the “main idea” is little more than the general statement in passage as:

Quote:
Such a finding has important implications regarding the demographics of employment and wages in right-to-work states.


that studies like Carroll’s (and the “pioneering” one of Ashenfelter) have “important implications,” most notably that Black workers’ wages may be depressed by right-to-work laws.


Hope it Helps

navjot177 wrote:
Why i am not able to comprehend this passage. I have read this passage twice but still i am not getting the primary purpose of this passage. Any experts?

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Re: The Taft-Hartley Act, passed by the United States Congress in 1947, ga  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2019, 05:45
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Q1. The reasoning behind the “literature” (Highlighted), as that reasoning is presented in the passage, is most analogous to the reasoning behind which one of the following situations?

Explanation

As if it weren’t bad enough that the section begins with a tough passage, the passage begins with one of the toughest question types, akin to Parallel Reasoning in the LR sections. On top of that, to get the answer, you have to reread a lot of context: Though the question stem’s “literature” (Highlighted), it’s not described until lines next 5 lines, by the critic of that literature, Mr. Carroll. He says that the researchers believe the right-to-work laws have minimal impact because they have simply looked at whether the laws have decreased union membership and said, “Hey, they haven’t, so there’s no impact.” In the same way, (E)’s transit system asserts that a fare hike has had no negative effects simply because ridership hasn’t decreased. In both cases, a look at sheer numbers prompts a hasty conclusion that may not be supported by other relevant data.

(A)’s conclusion weighs benefits and disadvantages and states one side’s argument for why a law should be passed. That’s a recommendation, not at all similar to the value judgment regarding the impact of right-to-work laws found in lines

"Much of the literature concerning right-to-work laws implies that such legislation has not actually had a significant impact. This point of view, however, has not gone uncriticized. Thomas V Carroll has proposed that the conclusions drawn by previous researchers are attributable to their myopic focus on the premise that, unless right-to-work laws significantly reduce union membership within a state, they have no effect."

(B) includes evidence that amounts to a value judgment (“The well-off can afford the tax”) but, similar to (A), concludes with a strongly implied recommendation suggested by the proponents: The tax should be passed. It doesn’t conclude that “X has had no impact”— which is what we need.

(C) The students pre- and post-curriculum change might seem to parallel the workers preand post- right-to-work laws. But nothing in lines above has a parallel to (C)’s charge of unfair treatment. (C) would work better if it went like so: “Since there are as many students since the curriculum change as there were before, the change has had no effect on the student body.”

(D), far from concluding that a phenomenon (the new policy) has had no effect, concludes that its effect has been major.


Hope it helps

Gagan0009 wrote:
Can anyone explain the very first question. Thanks in advance

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Re: The Taft-Hartley Act, passed by the United States Congress in 1947, ga  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2019, 22:43
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Took almost 13 mins including 5 mins 30 seconds to read as I misread a few lines. All correct

Para 1- Taft-Hartley Act- prohibits union shop agreements; Much of literature says right-to-work laws did not have a significant impact; Thomas V Carroll says otherwise-- union power reduces
Para 2- right-to-work laws--> decrease union power--> minority workers suffer more; Ashenfelter findings- craft vs industrial unionism

Q1. The reasoning behind the “literature” (Highlighted), as that reasoning is presented in the passage, is most analogous to the reasoning behind which one of the following situations?
(E) A fare increase in a public transportation system does not significantly reduce the number of fares sold: the management of the public transportation system asserts, therefore, that the fare hike has had no negative effects.- Correct

Thomas V Carroll has proposed that the conclusions drawn by previous researchers are attributable to their myopic focus on the premise that, unless right-to-work laws significantly reduce union membership within a state, they have no effect.

Specifically, Carroll indicates that while right-to-work laws may not “destroy” unions by reducing the absolute number of unionized workers, they do impede the spread of unions and thereby reduce wages within right-to-work states.

Q2. According to the passage, which one of the following is true of Carroll’s study?
(C) It argues that right-to-work laws have affected wages in right-to-work states.- Correct

Because the countervailing power of unions is weakened in right-to-work states, manufacturers and their suppliers can act cohesively in competitive labor markers, thus lowering wages in the affected industries.

Q3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which one of following about craft unions?
(A) Craft unions have been successful in ensuring that the wages of their members remain higher than the wages of nonunion workers in the same occupational groups.

although craft unionism increase the differential between the wages of White workers and Black workers due to the traditional exclusion of minority workers from unions in the craft sectors of the labor market

Q4. Which one of the following best describes the effect industrial unionism has had on the wages of Black workers relative to those of White workers, as that effect is presented in the passage?
(E) Industrial unionism has contributed strongly to a 3 percent decrease in the wage differential between Black workers and White workers.

Ashenfelter estimates that industrial unionism decreases the differential between the wages of Black workers and White workers by about 3 percent

Q5. According to the passage, which one of the following could counteract the effects of a decrease in unions’ economic power to raise wages in right-to-work states?
(B) strong economic growth that creates labor shortages

Black workers in right-to-work states would, therefore, experience a decline in their relative economic positions unless there is strong economic growth in right-to-work states, creating labor shortages and thereby driving up wages.

Q6. Which one of the following best describes the passage as a whole?
(A) an overview of a problem in research methodology and a recommended solution to that problem- incorrect; the problem in research methodology might be the one(Thomas V Carroll has proposed that the conclusions drawn by previous researchers are attributable to their myopic focus on the premise) stated by Caroll but no solution to that problem is recommended
(B) a comparison of two competing theories and a suggestion for reconciling them- incorrect; there are no competing theories and there is no reconciliation
(C) a critique of certain legislation and a proposal for modification of that legislation- incorrect; there is no proposal for modification
(D) a review of research that challenges the conclusions of earlier researchers- Correct
(E) a presentation of a specific case that confirms the findings of an earlier study- incorrect
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Re: The Taft-Hartley Act, passed by the United States Congress in 1947, ga  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2019, 21:59
Explanation


Q3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes which one of following about craft unions?

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

Craft unions are mentioned once and once only: as part of the “important fact,” cited by Ashenfelter, that minorities have been traditionally excluded from membership in such unions and that therefore craft unionism increases the gap between Black and White wages.

(A) paraphrases this idea that, through craft unions, more money is earned by members (largely White) than non-members (most Blacks).

(B) Nothing is said about increased membership in craft unions. If anything, the exclusion of a large number of workers would tend to depress the total.

(C) is a distortion of the comparison between craft and industrial unions. Yes, the latter have more minority members and tend to reduce the Black/White wage differential, but we never learn anything about the rate at which wages rise in different unions.

(D) We are told that right-to-work laws have a negative effect on wages of industrial workers, but we can infer that they would also affect the wages of craft union members who, as Ashenfelter reports, are mostly white.

(E) misinterprets the point made at the end of para 2 (which is rather far removed from the craft union reference). We know that a healthy economy can create a demand for workers and raise their wages. But there’s no way to tell from the info given which group—craft or industrial—would be more likely to experience wage increases under these circumstances. For all we know, the increase in wages brought on by labor shortages applies only to the industrial sector.

Answer: A


Hope it helps

vasuca10 wrote:
Total 5/6 correct .......Good Level of Passage

Can anyone please explain Q Three ?

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Re: The Taft-Hartley Act, passed by the United States Congress in 1947, ga   [#permalink] 14 Jul 2019, 21:59
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