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The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu

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The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2008, 03:18
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The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

(A) The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

(B) The United States petroleum industry’s cost by the end of the decade to meet environmental regulations is estimated at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.

(C) By the end of the decade, the United States petroleum industry’s cost of meeting environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.

(D) To meet environmental regulations, the cost to the United States petroleum industry is estimated at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

(E) It is estimated that by the end of the decade the cost to the United States petroleum industry of meeting environmental regulations will be ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2017, 16:53
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akshayk wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
Seeing a fresh request for an expert reply here... but Verbal Bot is the only one who has posted in the past 5 years, and I don't think that Mr. or Ms. Bot made the request. If you have a specific question, please let us know! Otherwise, please refer to some of the excellent explanations above.


I think the Verbal Bot had an intuition that I'd have a query on this question.

Q1) What is this question testing?
The only thing I could point to during my quick scan is 'by the end of the decade' is moving around implying whatever this prepositional phrase is modifying should make sense.

Q2) How can we eliminate answer choices in this Q?
I got the right answer - E - by using my ear => eliminating bad sounding answer choices, and I do not want to rely on my ear as I know how GMAC plays with people's ear to get you to choose the wrong answer.

Thanks Ninja Man.

Lol. I'm glad that the verbal bot could bring us together...? :lol:

This question is mostly about meaning -- like many of our questions of the day. A lot of the time, when something "sounds funny", it's because there's something illogical -- and that may be hard to pin down.

Quote:
(A) The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

The timeline is really confusing on this one, and I'm struggling to figure out what, exactly, it's saying. "The U.S. petroleum industry's cost... is projected at 10% of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade." That last part is really messy, mostly because the "by the end of the decade" isn't anywhere near the thing that it should be modifying. It's really confusing to have "is projected" in the present tense at the beginning of the sentence... and then this whole "at the end of the decade" seems to come out of nowhere at the end. Sure, the cost will reach 10% by the end of the decade, but that meaning is pretty badly obscured here. (A) is out.

Quote:
(B) The United States petroleum industry’s cost by the end of the decade to meet environmental regulations is estimated at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.

This isn't totally awful, but the verb tense is a little bit weird: wouldn't we want to talk about the cost in the future tense here? I guess we could argue that the estimation itself happens in the present, but it would still be clearer to express it using the future tense. I also don't love the fact that the word "cost" is a long way from the phrase "to meet environmental regulations", but I guess I'm splitting hairs.

To be honest, I would be conservative and keep (B) on the first pass through. But we'll see in a minute that (E) conveys the meaning just a little bit more clearly.

Quote:
(C) By the end of the decade, the United States petroleum industry’s cost of meeting environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.

I don't like the use of "projected at" here. More importantly, I don't think the verb tenses make sense. "By the end of the decade... the cost is projected at..." Huh? If this is happening by the end of the decade, then the cost would need to be expressed in the future tense. (C) is out.


Quote:
(D) To meet environmental regulations, the cost to the United States petroleum industry is estimated at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

The placement of "by the end of the decade" suffers from the same problem as (A). And if we're being strict and literal, the meaning is really funky at the beginning of the sentence, too. "To meet environmental regulations" is modifying the subsequent clause, "the cost is estimated at 10% of the price..." This is subtle, but it basically sounds like the cost estimation itself is being conducted in order to meet environmental regulations... and that doesn't make sense. (D) is gone.

Quote:
(E) It is estimated that by the end of the decade the cost to the United States petroleum industry of meeting environmental regulations will be ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.

Yeah, this one is better. We finally have the costs in the future tense, and that makes much more sense than (B) (which is admittedly tempting!) or any of the others. The modifiers are in better spots, too.

So yeah: (E) probably also "sounds better" than the other answer choices. But in a perfect world, it's good to try to figure out how, exactly, the meaning gets tweaked by the crappier answer choices.

I hope this helps!
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2010, 18:26
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tonebeeze wrote:
The SC problem below is a tough modifier problem. I was able to narrow down the choices to (c) or (e). The "cost to the United States...of" dissuaded me against option (e) for some unknown reason. Why is (e) a preferable answer choice to (b)? Also, I've noticed that in modifier problems where the entire passage is underlined, the GMAT likes to contrast possessive subjects or possessive collective nouns (such as in answer choices (a), (b), (c)), with placeholder "it" subjects (such as in question (e) ).

I would appreciate any analysis or advice anyone has on this problem and on my modifier problem observation. Thanks!


The United States petroleum industry's cost to meet environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

a. The United States petroleum industry's cost to meet environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

b. The United States petroleum industry's cost by the end of the decade to meet environmental regulations is estimated at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.

c. By the end of the decade, the United States petroleum industry's cost of meeting environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.

d. To meet environmental regulations, the cost to the United States petroleum industry is estimated at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

e. It is estimated that by the end of the decade the cost to the United States petroleum industry of meeting environmental regulations will be ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.


Hi!

I quickly arrived at (E) because of the improperly used idioms "projected at" and "estimated at" - in both cases, "to be" should be used instead of "at".

Since A, B, C and D all have "at", and E has "is estimated that... [it] will be", which is also fine, that's the choice that immediately jumped out at me.

"The cost to X of Y is Z" is an acceptable phrase.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2008, 09:57
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E for me.
Assuming there is an apostrophe (industry's)
A,B,C - The United States petroleum industry's cost
industry's cost incorrectly implies that it is the cost of the industry. But it is cost to the industry.
D has a misplaced modifier problem.
E is fine. ( Though I have mixed feelings about the Cost to ....industry of meeting) {industry of meeting??}
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2008, 10:06
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Quote:
The United States petroleum industrys cost to meet environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.

A. The United States petroleum industrys cost to meet environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.
B. The United States petroleum industrys cost by the end of the decade to meet environmental regulations is estimated at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.
C. By the end of the decade, the United States petroleum industrys cost of meeting environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.
D. To meet environmental regulations, the cost to the United States petroleum industry is estimated at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.
E. It is estimated that by the end of the decade the cost to the United States petroleum industry of meeting environmental regulations will be ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.

A - Wrong - By end of decade at the end makes the sentence clumsy
B - 'to meet' looks tempting. By end of decade is again used incorrectly. Wrong. The given sentence has projected. so I will stick with projected.
C - CORRECT. Though I still have doubt with 'of meeting'
D - Modifier error at the start
E - I stick to Projected. So estimated is wrong.
bsd OA please ?
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2010, 20:10
Why is "estimated at" unidiomatic? Its used all the time!? I mean surely the GMAT can't have a problem with "estimated at" or "projected at"? Is "estimated/projected at" grammatically wrong?

The direct economic value the Internet provides to the rest of the U.S. economy is estimated at $175 billion. http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6268.html

Thanks.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2010, 20:57
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gmat1011 wrote:
Why is "estimated at" unidiomatic? Its used all the time!? I mean surely the GMAT can't have a problem with "estimated at" or "projected at"? Is "estimated/projected at" grammatically wrong?

The direct economic value the Internet provides to the rest of the U.S. economy is estimated at $175 billion. http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6268.html

Thanks.


Hi,

when you're talking about the present, "estimated at" is fine; when you're projecting to the future, "estimated to be" (or, even better, changing the sentence to use the future "will be") is correct.

For idioms, it's all about what the GMAT considers correct - that's the "fun" thing about idioms, there are no rules, it's just what "is" correct.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2010, 07:38
its quiet straight forward question. as petroleum industry has to meet the regulation but not the industry's cost. hence the answer E is correct. pls correct me if i am wrong.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2010, 09:54
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tirupatibalaji wrote:
its quiet straight forward question. as petroleum industry has to meet the regulation but not the industry's cost. hence the answer E is correct. pls correct me if i am wrong.


After further review, you can certainly arrive at the answer in under 60 seconds:
(1) If you identify the improper idioms "estimated at" & "projected at"

(2) You have a firm grasp of the concept of possessives. Possessive cases (- ‘s) is used only with the names of living things.

We don't say:
Table's legs...
Industry's cost...

We say:
Legs of the table...
Cost to the industry...
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2010, 17:19
tonebeeze wrote:
tirupatibalaji wrote:
We don't say:
Table's legs...
Industry's cost...

We say:
Legs of the table...
Cost to the industry...


Actually, it's perfectly OK to use possessives with inanimate objects (or even intangibles).

"The table's legs are uneven", "the industry's costs are high this year" and "the plan's advantages are clear" are all well constructed sentences.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 15 May 2011, 23:34
projected at and estimated that | to be are correct usage of idioms.

Also, petroleum industrys cost of meeting environmental ... in C is not a correct usage.

Cost to is preferred usage as in E. Hence E.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2011, 08:03
amit2k9 wrote:
projected at and estimated that | to be are correct usage of idioms.

Also, petroleum industrys cost of meeting environmental ... in C is not a correct usage.

Cost to is preferred usage as in E. Hence E.


Can you plz tell y option E is worng? is it because the modifer To meet environmental regulations, should be follwed by a noun or.......?
And every time a modifer should be follwed by what?
Iam really confused of this,thanks a lot to explain
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Oct 2011, 05:18
When GMAC’s psychometrician remarked about removing the idioms from the database, he must have certainly meant including this one. However, I got interested in this because the title said it is a tough modifier problem. Which modifier?
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2012, 12:58
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E for me.

(A) The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.
(B) The United States petroleum industry’s cost by the end of the decade to meet environmental regulations is estimated at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.
(C) By the end of the decade, the United States petroleum industry’s cost of meeting environmental regulations is projected at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.========
(D) To meet environmental regulations, the cost to the United States petroleum industry is estimated at ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum by the end of the decade.
(E) It is estimated that by the end of the decade the cost to the United States petroleum industry of meeting environmental regulations will be ten percent of the price per barrel of refined petroleum.

I think for A and B the "end of the decade" is poorly positioned and does not clearly link to the objective.
C I believe is an incorrect idiom, D same as A.

E sounded most fluid.

More experienced sentence correction peeps can chime in with better reasons why A-D wont work.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2017, 10:31
Seeing a fresh request for an expert reply here... but Verbal Bot is the only one who has posted in the past 5 years, and I don't think that Mr. or Ms. Bot made the request. If you have a specific question, please let us know! Otherwise, please refer to some of the excellent explanations above.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2017, 03:25
GMATNinja wrote:
Seeing a fresh request for an expert reply here... but Verbal Bot is the only one who has posted in the past 5 years, and I don't think that Mr. or Ms. Bot made the request. If you have a specific question, please let us know! Otherwise, please refer to some of the excellent explanations above.


I think the Verbal Bot had an intuition that I'd have a query on this question.

Q1) What is this question testing?
The only thing I could point to during my quick scan is 'by the end of the decade' is moving around implying whatever this prepositional phrase is modifying should make sense.

Q2) How can we eliminate answer choices in this Q?
I got the right answer - E - by using my ear => eliminating bad sounding answer choices, and I do not want to rely on my ear as I know how GMAC plays with people's ear to get you to choose the wrong answer.

Thanks Ninja Man.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2017, 11:42
tonebeeze wrote:
After further review, you can certainly arrive at the answer in under 60 seconds:
(1) If you identify the improper idioms "estimated at" & "projected at"

(2) You have a firm grasp of the concept of possessives. Possessive cases (- ‘s) is used only with the names of living things.

We don't say:
Table's legs...
Industry's cost...

We say:
Legs of the table...
Cost to the industry...


Not true.

In response to tonebeeze's point, actually possessiveness can be applied to nonliving things so long as they are tangible nouns. You can't say, "The incident highlights safety's importance in the workplace," but "The incident highlights the importance of workplace safety" works just fine. I think "industry," the way it's used here, would count as intangible, therefore the usage of "industry's cost" in A, B, and C is wrong.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2017, 22:56
There is no problem with "it is estimated" it is placeholder IT but was confused by "industry of meeting environmental regulations" in E.
That is why selected C
I consider meaning clearness and avoiding ambiguity is a priority in GMAT SC. Is that right?
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2017, 11:58
Regarding the choice between C and E. I narrowed it down to those two also, however, I chose E simply because the "By the end of the decade" was offset by the "," from the rest of the sentence and that to me was problematic. I couldn't explain clearly but will try- the decade time frame seemed critical to the "projection (or estimate in choice E)" and therefore couldn't be a superfluous part of the sentence. A beginning phrase in answer choice C to me would seem like something that the sentence would normally exist without, but if you take that part out you loose the time frame. Is this reasoning off basis?

Also, I wasn't at all happy with answer choice E either. the "meeting" really bothered me as did the "to the United States petroleum industry" structure of the choice. Great discussion on this, thanks everyone.
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2017, 22:23
mymba99 wrote:
E for me.
Assuming there is an apostrophe (industry's)
A,B,C - The United States petroleum industry's cost
industry's cost incorrectly implies that it is the cost of the industry. But it is cost to the industry.
D has a misplaced modifier problem.
E is fine. ( Though I have mixed feelings about the Cost to ....industry of meeting) {industry of meeting??}


I think it would read by inverting the phrase

cost of meeting environmental regulations to the United States petroleum industry

instead of

cost to the United States petroleum industry of meeting environmental regulations
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Re: The United States petroleum industry’s cost to meet environmental regu   [#permalink] 09 Aug 2017, 22:23

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