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The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a

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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2016, 14:36
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velozjose wrote:
Hi, hope you're doing great

I agree that the best answer is the A because it express the intended meaning of the sentence.

But, the clause *and has been expanding ever since* is an independent clause, and hence we need a subject such as "it" in order to refer to the universe?

Thanks for your kind help

Bests


Sent from my iPhone using GMAT Club Forum mobile app


Hi dear,

*and has been expanding ever since* is not an independent clause since it does not include any independent subject.

What happened here is actually parallelism:A conjugated verb can be paralleled(begun) with another verb (has been expanding)without referring to its referent(As you said,""it" in order to refer to the universe") again

It is logical to say first the universe begun(in the past) and it has been expanding ever since then

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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Feb 2017, 08:44
nookway wrote:
The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.
A. that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding
B. that the universe had begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and had been expanding
C. that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that has expanded
D. the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that is expanding
E. the universe to have begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding

Please do not respond by just saying the answer is __. Please try to provide a reason why a given choice is correct or incorrect.


B. that the universe had begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and had been expanding
- Use to "past prefect" and "past perfect continuous" in seat of "past" and "present continuous" makes the sentence illogical

C. that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that has expanded
- This option has meaning issue indicating that the beginning was an explosion which is non-sensical.

D. the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that is expanding
- Missing that; without it the sentence has meaning issue i.e. "big bang theory holds the beginning"

E. the universe to have begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding
- Missing that; without it the sentence has meaning issue i.e. "big bang theory holds the universe"

A. that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding
- This version has proper structure and meaning. theory holds that universe began .. and has been expanding ....
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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2017, 04:03
The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.

(A) that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding - Correct

(B) that the universe had begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and had been expanding - use of past perfect had is incorrect ; use of past perfect continuous “had been expanding” is incorrect

(C) that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that has expanded - “that has expanded” either modifies “years” or, at a stretch, “instant”. Either of these modifications will yield an illogical meaning.

(D) the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that is expanding - present continuous tense in “that is expanding” is incorrect

(E) the universe to have begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding - Parallelism issue - “has been expanding” and “to have begun” both attach with “the universe” but are not parallel to each other.

Answer A
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The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2018, 17:43
Hello Everyone!

Let's take an in-depth look at this question to determine how to best get to the right answer! First, here's the original question with any major differences between each option highlighted in orange:

The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.

(A) that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding
(B) that the universe had begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and had been expanding
(C) that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that has expanded
(D) the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that is expanding
(E) the universe to have begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding

After a quick glance over the options, a couple major differences jump out:

1. How they begin (the universe began / the beginning of the universe was)
2. How they end (has been expanding / had been expanding / has expanded / is expanding)


Since verb tenses tend to be easier problems for test takers to spot, let's start with #2 on our list. The writer is trying to convey that the Big Bang started in the past, and the universe started to expand then and is still expanding today. That means we need to find options that use present perfect progressive tense! Let's see which options best convey this meaning with the correct verbs:

(A) that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding --> present perfect progressive = OK
(B) that the universe had begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and had been expanding --> past perfect progressive = WRONG (This suggests that the expansion stopped at some point in the past, which isn't true.)
(C) that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that has expanded --> past perfect = WRONG (This suggests the expansion happened before some other past event, which doesn't make sense.)
(D) the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that is expanding --> present tense = WRONG (This doesn't properly show that the expansion started in the past - it just happens in the present, which isn't right.)
(E) the universe to have begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding --> present perfect progressive = OK

We can eliminate options B, C, and D because they don't use the correct verb tense to convey the intended meaning clearly.

Now that we're left with only options A & E, let's take a closer look to figure out which is the better choice:

(A) that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding

This is CORRECT! It uses the clearest and most accurate verb tenses to convey meaning. It uses past tense to say that the Big Bang "began" in the past, and it "has been expanding" ever since.

(E) the universe to have begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding

This option is INCORRECT because it uses the past perfect "have begun" instead of just using plain past tense to show that the Big Bang happened in the past. There is no other past event in the sentence that happened and ended later, so there's no need for past perfect tense.

There you go - option A was the correct choice all along!


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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Apr 2019, 01:12
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Quote:
The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.

(A) that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding
(B) that the universe had begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and had been expanding
(C) that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that has expanded
(D) the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that is expanding
(E) the universe to have begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding


The appropriate algorithm for solving this question is:

1. Remove choices C and D for flouting the pronoun touch rule--- 10 to 20 billion years ago, that has expanded, /that is expanding---. The restrictive relative pronoun that wrongly refers to what God only knows.
2. Remove E for using bad parallelism around the conjunction 'and".
3. The word 'since', used as an adverb, implies sometimes from the past till now. The past perfect 'had been expanding' in B is inconsistent with the sequential chronology of the event.
4. Only A is left and one can see it is devoid of any errors stated above

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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a   [#permalink] 20 Apr 2019, 01:12

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