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The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a

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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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New post 09 Dec 2013, 12:25
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abhijitmoholakar wrote:
The widely accepted big bang theory holds that the
universe began in an explosive instant ten to twenty
billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.


In the e- gmat application file -1, a similar question is asked. and it is told that if "since" is there in the sentence ,"past/present perfect" is correct choice. However, in the question above , the present perfect continuous tense is used. I do understand that meaning of sentence intends a continuous action, however, "ever since" also tells us that action is started in past and continues in present. this is perfect case for present perfect tense. then why presnt perfect is not correct answer choice.
Also clarify whether the present perfect as well as present perfect continious are both right forms of tense that should be used in sentence like the one above.


Hi Abhijit,

Thanks for posting your query here. :-)

The present perfect tense is used to refer to an action that is complete, while the present perfect continuous tense is used to refer to an action that is not yet complete.

For example:

1. She has written a book.
2. She has been writing a book.


The first means that she has finished writing the book, and the second means that she is still writing the book.

In this question, the meaning is not that the universe has finished expanding, but that it is still expanding. So, we need the present perfect continuous tense.

Both forms of tense are correct and should be used in accordance with the intended meaning of the sentence.

I hope this helps to clarify your doubt!

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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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nookway wrote:
The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.
A. that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding
B. that the universe had begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and had been expanding
C. that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that has expanded
D. the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that is expanding
E. the universe to have begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding

Please do not respond by just saying the answer is __. Please try to provide a reason why a given choice is correct or incorrect.



Like most of my strategies for RC, I approach this SC question with "what is the intended meaning of the statement?" Clearly, the author is trying to explain what some theory says about something related to the universe. If you take a "meaning" approach, you need to make some assumptions, in this case about the subject at hand: properties of the universe.

A) began properly modifies "the universe" and "AND has been" properly modifies "the universe", if we understand the intended meaning, we know that the author wants to tell us that the universe is, in fact, STILL expanding. Thus, "the universe" is properly modified.

B) An initial assesment cannot rule out that "had begun" correctly modifies "the universe", but as we read further we notice that "AND had been expanding" inproperly modifies the universe such that the meaning now is "whatever happened THEN is not happening NOW". As we are using a "meanings" strategy, and we know that what this option implies is NOT the intended meaning of the sentence, we know that this option is wrong.

C) "beginning of" modifies "the universe" in such a way that it focuses the sentence around the universe's specific point of inception. Have this in mind as you read the rest of the sentence. "that has expanded" wrongly omits AND, thus "that has expanded" modifies "an explosive instant" and NOT "the universe", and clearly this goes against the intended meaning of the sentence. Also, "that has expanded" uses past tense in the wrong way anyway, given the intent of the sentence. All in all, C) specifically focuses on the inception of the universe and explains an explosion that is related to the inception, this is not the intended meaning of the author.

D) The usage of "to have been" makes it seem as if the beginning of the universe actually was an explosive instant.. This is not the intended meaning of the author. The universe began in an explosive instant but the beginning in itself was NOT an explosive instant. Also, the option once again omits "AND", thus "is expanding" modifies instant and not universe.. This is wrong according to the intended meaning of the author.

E) "to have begun" is not the correct way to modify "the universe", since universe is singular and not plural. If we're going to use such an expression, we use "HAD begun". So this answer choice is faulty from a gramatical point of view and not necessarily a "meanings" POV.

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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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New post 17 Feb 2014, 00:52
The universe began in an explosive instant. That instant was 10-20 billion years ago. The specific time of the event is known. Hence, simple past. You cannot use perfect tense here for the reason that no other event predates the beginning of the universe. It is both gramatically and logically wrong.

And regd. the present perfect continuous, you are right. It is an ongoing event.
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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.
A. that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding
B. that the universe had begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and had been expanding
C. that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that has expanded
D. the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that is expanding
E. the universe to have begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding

Intended meaning:
Big bang started some time in distance past and universe expansion is still continue...
A. correctly demonstrates the meaning.
B.had been expanding...means expansion is over...Incorrect.
C.has expanded...means expansion is over...Incorrect.
D.illogically suggests that beginning is expanding, not the universe....Incorrect.
E.have begun and has been expanding are not parallel....Incorrect.

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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2014, 03:04
I appreciate inputs on the below query.

The widely accepted big bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.
(D)the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago that is expanding
I have a question regarding the option D.

Can a "that" modifier modify the noun inside a prepositional phrase? Because, if that's is true then that modifies explosive instant.
As per my knowledge , i haven't come across any rule which says it cant.

According to OE "illogically suggests that beginning is expanding, not the universe". So as per OE , the modified entity here is "beginning.

Regards.
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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2014, 15:58
JarvisR wrote:
I appreciate inputs on the below query.

The widely accepted big bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.
(D)the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago that is expanding
I have a question regarding the option D.

Can a "that" modifier modify the noun inside a prepositional phrase? Because, if that's is true then that modifies explosive instant.
As per my knowledge , i haven't come across any rule which says it cant.

According to OE "illogically suggests that beginning is expanding, not the universe". So as per OE , the modified entity here is "beginning.

Regards.


Hi JarvisR,

Thanks for posting your doubt.

Yes, a relative pronoun modifier can very well modify a noun in a prepositional phrase, and this construction is way too common in official sentences.

Well, in choice D, "that" may refer to "an explosive instant" as well. But both the modifications lead to illogical meaning.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
SJ
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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2014, 11:49
nookway wrote:
The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.
A. that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding
B. that the universe had begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and had been expanding
C. that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that has expanded
D. the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that is expanding
E. the universe to have begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding

Please do not respond by just saying the answer is __. Please try to provide a reason why a given choice is correct or incorrect.



My thoughts:

A - winner :evil: universe began - past tense used correctly ... has been expanding ever since ... ever since means its happening still & requires present perfect cont tense.

B- had begun - past perfect tense used then there should be a simple past but according to the sentence it wont work. again had been expanding is wrong

C - meaning problem.. beginning of the universe was an explosive instant .. second that could refer to closest noun "explosive instant".

D - same as C.. present perfect tense is wrong here.

E - :2gunfire: if we read with the non underlined sentence then u wont read after 5 or 6 words. meaning problem...

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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2014, 14:13
Answer: A
A. that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding
Uses correct tenses "began" and "has been expanding"
B. that the universe had begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and had been expanding
had begun is ok but had been expanding is wrong, you cannot use past tense to something that is still happening
C. that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that has expanded
i think this one is pretty easy to eliminate
D. the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that is expanding
easy to eliminate
E. the universe to have begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding
easy to eliminate

nookway wrote:
The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.
A. that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding
B. that the universe had begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and had been expanding
C. that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that has expanded
D. the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that is expanding
E. the universe to have begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding

Please do not respond by just saying the answer is __. Please try to provide a reason why a given choice is correct or incorrect.

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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2015, 04:31
The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.

look at non underline part ever since --used for present --also we are talking something happen in past and it's prevalent effect in Present --->present perfect --reaching to option 'A'

hope this helps :-D
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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2016, 22:28
Also, should the right wording be --> The widely accepted big-bang theory holds THAT the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and THAT IT has been expanding ?
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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2016, 19:16
Lets draw the time line. at last ever since is given. means it is still going on. so ' has been expending' will be correct. B,C and D eliminate.


A. that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding - correct.
B. that the universe had begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and had been expanding - means expending stopped wrong
C. that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that has expanded - means one time expended, wrong
D. the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that is expanding wrong
E. the universe to have begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding. very wrong sentence .holds the universe ??
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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2016, 01:40
nookway wrote:
The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.
A. that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding
B. that the universe had begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and had been expanding
C. that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that has expanded
D. the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that is expanding
E. the universe to have begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding

Please do not respond by just saying the answer is __. Please try to provide a reason why a given choice is correct or incorrect.


The Universe is still expanding = YES

So the correct tense form will be "is/has" +"Expanding"

B,C, are out. Both uses wrong tense. had been expanding & has expanded

A,D,E remaining.

D is out because it says "explosive instant that is expanding"....wrong the universe is expanding. "That " is incorrectly modifying "explosive instant" rather than "universe". D also has passive voice. Not preferred when you can use a concise active voice.

E is out because of passive voice. Past participle "to have begun" can be avoided .
Option A remains which is perfect and error free
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Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 25 Jul 2016, 23:03, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2016, 16:07
velozjose wrote:
Hi, hope you're doing great

I agree that the best answer is the A because it express the intended meaning of the sentence.

But, the clause *and has been expanding ever since* is an independent clause, and hence we need a subject such as "it" in order to refer to the universe?

Thanks for your kind help

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Please note that "and" (without a comma before it) joins two verbs and coma + "and" joins two clauses. Consider the following examples:

I went home and slept... correct.
I went home, and slept.... wrong.
I went home, and I slept.... correct.
I went home and I slept.... wrong.

Now consider option A:
The Universe began and has been expanding.
There is no comma before "and"; hence two verbs (not two clauses) are joined. Hence we do not need another subject.

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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2016, 14:36
Top Contributor
velozjose wrote:
Hi, hope you're doing great

I agree that the best answer is the A because it express the intended meaning of the sentence.

But, the clause *and has been expanding ever since* is an independent clause, and hence we need a subject such as "it" in order to refer to the universe?

Thanks for your kind help

Bests


Sent from my iPhone using GMAT Club Forum mobile app


Hi dear,

*and has been expanding ever since* is not an independent clause since it does not include any independent subject.

What happened here is actually parallelism:A conjugated verb can be paralleled(begun) with another verb (has been expanding)without referring to its referent(As you said,""it" in order to refer to the universe") again

It is logical to say first the universe begun(in the past) and it has been expanding ever since then

Thanks
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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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New post 08 Feb 2017, 08:44
nookway wrote:
The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.
A. that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding
B. that the universe had begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and had been expanding
C. that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that has expanded
D. the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that is expanding
E. the universe to have begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding

Please do not respond by just saying the answer is __. Please try to provide a reason why a given choice is correct or incorrect.


B. that the universe had begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and had been expanding
- Use to "past prefect" and "past perfect continuous" in seat of "past" and "present continuous" makes the sentence illogical

C. that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that has expanded
- This option has meaning issue indicating that the beginning was an explosion which is non-sensical.

D. the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that is expanding
- Missing that; without it the sentence has meaning issue i.e. "big bang theory holds the beginning"

E. the universe to have begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding
- Missing that; without it the sentence has meaning issue i.e. "big bang theory holds the universe"

A. that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding
- This version has proper structure and meaning. theory holds that universe began .. and has been expanding ....

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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2017, 06:17
The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.

theory.......holds
universe........began and has been expanding

'that' is used as a connector here.
The subject universe has two verbs and are in different tenses but are correct as they logically convey the sequence of the events.

Universe began and since then it has been expanding. This means that the event is not over as the universe is still expanding and will continue to do so.

No error.
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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2017, 07:46
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2017, 00:43
Someone please explain usage of that in this sentence

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Re: The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in a [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2017, 04:03
The widely accepted big-bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.

(A) that the universe began in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding - Correct

(B) that the universe had begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and had been expanding - use of past perfect had is incorrect ; use of past perfect continuous “had been expanding” is incorrect

(C) that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that has expanded - “that has expanded” either modifies “years” or, at a stretch, “instant”. Either of these modifications will yield an illogical meaning.

(D) the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago that is expanding - present continuous tense in “that is expanding” is incorrect

(E) the universe to have begun in an explosive instant 10 to 20 billion years ago and has been expanding - Parallelism issue - “has been expanding” and “to have begun” both attach with “the universe” but are not parallel to each other.

Answer A
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