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Three basic adaptive responses—regulatory, acclimatory, and developmen

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Three basic adaptive responses—regulatory, acclimatory, and developmen  [#permalink]

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 232, Date : 27-Jul-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Three basic adaptive responses—regulatory, acclimatory, and developmental—may occur in organisms as they react to changing environmental conditions. In all three, adjustment of biological features (morphological adjustment) or of their use (functional adjustment) may occur. Regulatory responses involve rapid changes in the organism’s use of its physiological apparatus—increasing or decreasing the rates of various processes, for example. Acclimation involves morphological change—thickening of fur or red blood cell proliferation—which alters physiology itself. Such structural changes require more time than regulatory response changes. Regulatory and acclimatory responses are both reversible.

Developmental responses, however, are usually permanent and irreversible: they become fixed in the course of the individual’s development in response to environmental conditions at the time the response occurs. One such response occurs in many kinds of water bugs. Most water-bug species inhabiting small lakes and ponds have two generations per year. The first hatches during the spring, reproduces during the summer, then dies. The eggs laid in the summer hatch and develop into adults in late summer. They live over the winter before breeding in early spring. Individuals in the second (overwintering) generation have fully developed wings and leave the water in autumn to overwinter in forests, returning in spring to small bodies of water to lay eggs. Their wings are absolutely necessary for this seasonal dispersal. The summer (early) generation, in contrast, is usually dimorphic—some individuals have normal functional (macropterous) wings; others have much-reduced (micropterous) wings of no use for flight. The summer generation’s dimorphism is a compromise strategy, for these individuals usually do not leave the ponds and thus generally have no use for fully developed wings. But small ponds occasionally dry up during the summer, forcing the water bugs to search for new habitats, an eventuality that macropterous individuals are well adapted to meet.

The dimorphism of micropterous and macropterous individuals in the summer generation expresses developmental flexibility; it is not genetically determined. The individual’s wing form is environmentally determined by the temperature to which developing eggs are exposed prior to their being laid. Eggs maintained in a warm environment always produce bugs with normal wing, but exposure to cold produces micropterous individuals. Eggs producing the overwintering brood are all formed during the late summer’s warm temperatures. Hence, all individuals in the overwintering brood have normal wings. Eggs laid by the overwintering adults in the spring, which develop into the summer generation of adults, are formed in early autumn and early spring. Those eggs formed in autumn are exposed to cold winter temperatures, and thus produce micropterous adults in the summer generation. Those formed during the spring are never exposed to cold temperatures, and thus yield individuals with normal wing. Adult water bugs of the overwintering generation brought into the laboratory during the cold months and kept warm, produce only macropterous offspring.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) illustrate an organism’s functional adaptive response to changing environmental conditions

(B) prove that organisms can exhibit three basic adaptive responses to changing environmental conditions

(C) explain the differences in form and function between micropterous and macropterous water bugs and analyze the effect of environmental changes on each

(D) discuss three different types of adaptive responses and provide an example that explains how one of those types of responses works

(E) contrast acclimatory responses with developmental responses and suggest an explanation for the evolutionary purposes of these two responses to changing environmental conditions


2. The passage supplies information to suggest that which one of the following would happen if a pond inhabited by water bugs were to dry up in June?

(A) The number of developmental responses among the water-bug population would decrease.
(B) Both micropterous and macropterous water bugs would show an acclimatory response.
(C) The generation of water bugs to be hatched during the subsequent spring would contain an unusually large number of macropterous individuals.
(D) The dimorphism of the summer generation would enable some individuals to survive.
(E) The dimorphism of the summer generation would be genetically transferred to the next spring generation.


3. It can be inferred from the passage that if the winter months of a particular year were unusually warm, the

(A) eggs formed by water bugs in the autumn would probably produce a higher than usual proportion of macropterous individuals
(B) eggs formed by water bugs in the autumn would probably produce an entire summer generation of water bugs with smaller than normal wings
(C) eggs of the overwintering generation formed in the autumn would not be affected by this temperature change
(D) overwintering generation would not leave the ponds for the forest during the winter
(E) overwintering generation of water bugs would most likely form fewer eggs in the autumn and more in the spring


4. According to the passage, the dimorphic wing structure of the summer generation of water bugs occurs because

(A) the overwintering generation forms two sets of eggs, one exposed to the colder temperatures of winter and one exposed only to the warmer temperatures of spring
(B) the eggs that produce micropterous and macropterous adults are morphologically different
(C) water bugs respond to seasonal changes by making an acclimatory functional adjustment in the wings
(D) water bugs hatching in the spring live out their life spans in ponds and never need to fly
(E) the overwintering generation, which produces eggs developing into the dimorphic generation, spends the winter in the forest and the spring in small ponds


5. It can be inferred from the passage that which one of the following is an example of a regulatory response?

(A) thickening of the plumage of some birds in the autumn
(B) increase in pulse rate during vigorous exercise
(C) gradual darkening of the skin after exposure to sunlight
(D) gradual enlargement of muscles as a result of weight lifting
(E) development of a heavy fat layer in bears before hibernation


6. According to the passage, the generation of water bugs hatching during the summer is likely to

(A) be made up of equal numbers of macropterous and micropterous individuals
(B) lay its eggs during the winter in order to expose them to cold
(C) show a marked inability to fly from one pond to another
(D) exhibit genetically determined differences in wing form from the early spring-hatched generation
(E) contain a much greater proportion of macropterous water bugs than the early spring-hatched generation


7. The author mentions laboratory experiments with adult water bugs (lines 63-66) in order to illustrate which one of the following?

(A) the function of the summer generation’s dimorphism
(B) the irreversibility of most developmental adaptive responses in water bugs
(C) the effect of temperature on developing water-bug eggs
(D) the morphological difference between the summer generation and the overwintering generation of water bugs
(E) the functional adjustment of water bugs in response to seasonal temperature variation


8. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the passage?

(A) Biological phenomena are presented, examples of their occurrence are compared and contrasted, and one particular example is illustrated in detail.
(B) A description of related biological phenomena is stated, and two of those phenomena are explained in detail with illustrated examples.
(C) Three related biological phenomena are described, a hypothesis explaining their relationship is presented, and supporting evidence is produced.
(D) Three complementary biological phenomena are explained, their causes are examined, and one of them is described by contrasting its causes with the other two.
(E) A new way of describing biological phenomena is suggested, its applications are presented, and one specific example is examined in detail.



  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 2 (October 1991)
  • Difficulty Level: 700

Originally posted by sarasjain20 on 23 May 2018, 07:07.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 30 Jul 2019, 01:39, edited 5 times in total.
Updated.
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New post 31 May 2018, 01:22
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Hello Nick,

First thing I would like to convey I was completely unaware whether it is from LSTAT passages or from somewhere else. I simply have a DOC file which comprises RC collection.
And whatever ANSWERs were given in source material I have posted away. So this my course of action was not to mislead anyone..and I am very wwell aware about my responsibilities related to post.
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New post 31 May 2018, 04:50
broall wrote:
I have corrected the questions and OAs. Enjoy :)

Thanks a lot broall!

This is a very tough, yet interesting passage. LSAT material is really apt to study for the GMAT as well.

It took me ~11 minutes but I only answered one question incorrectly :-)
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New post 27 Jul 2019, 11:46
+1 Kudos to posts containing answer explanation of all questions
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New post 29 Jul 2019, 03:54
can anyone explain the answer of question 4? I can't understand it.
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New post 29 Jul 2019, 10:42
Just out of curiosity, is the format of the RC section of the LSATs structured the same way as the GMAT? Or was this passage just taken for content purposes and adapted into GMAT form?
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New post 29 Jul 2019, 11:29
Hello brianshepherd

The format of LSAT RC resembles GMAT Long passages and at the same time it is the good source to practice for RC, its writing style and its reasoning for OA is flawless.


brianshepherd wrote:
Just out of curiosity, is the format of the RC section of the LSATs structured the same way as the GMAT? Or was this passage just taken for content purposes and adapted into GMAT form?

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New post 29 Jul 2019, 11:37
SajjadAhmad wrote:
Hello brianshepherd

The format of LSAT RC resembles GMAT Long passages and at the same time it is the good source to practice for RC, its writing style and its reasoning for OA is flawless.


brianshepherd wrote:
Just out of curiosity, is the format of the RC section of the LSATs structured the same way as the GMAT? Or was this passage just taken for content purposes and adapted into GMAT form?


Cool! Thanks for confirming that. It really does feel like great practice!
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New post 30 Jul 2019, 00:06
Can someone explain why in Q4 C is wrong and in Q7 E is wrong?
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New post 30 Jul 2019, 01:48
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Hello Hea234ven
DiyaDutta

here is q#4

Explanation


4. According to the passage, the dimorphic wing structure of the summer generation of water bugs occurs because

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

Last para reveal that eggs produced in autumn are exposed to the cold “and thus produce micropterous adults in the summer generation,” while those eggs produced in the spring are not exposed to cold “and thus yield individuals with normal wings” (i.e., macropterous individuals). And there you have it: the dimorphic wing structure displayed by the summer generation.

(B) The eggs are exactly the same; it’s the different temperatures to which they are exposed that leads to the morphological difference in adult water bugs.

(C) No, seasonal changes lead to a developmental morphological response that affects wing structure. See how they keep trying to drag in “acclimatory”?

(D) No, the reason that the summer generation includes individuals with both wing structures is that sometimes summer generation water bugs must fly to reach new habitats.

(E) The habitat of the overwintering generation has nothing to do with the summer generation’s dimorphic wing structure. Again, it’s the different temperatures to which the overwintering generation’s eggs are exposed that causes this morphological reaction.

• This question, like #3, plays on the temperature and wing structure relationship. Notice that none of the wrong choices addresses this relationship.

Answer: A


Hope it helps
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New post 31 Jul 2019, 22:45
please give explanation for q 3
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New post 31 Jul 2019, 22:58
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Explanation


3. It can be inferred from the passage that if the winter months of a particular year were unusually warm, the

Difficulty Level: 650

Explanation

Lines 39-41 say that warm temperatures lead to water bugs with normal wings—i.e., macropterous bugs. Hence, it follows that a warmer than usual winter would produce a higher than normal proportion of macropterous—normal-winged—bugs.

(B) Au contraire. Higher temperatures, we’ve just noted, would increase the proportion of macropterous (not micropterous) individuals.

(C) The thrust of para 2 and 3 is that temperature change has a palpable effect on water-bug development. That’s what it’s all about!

(D) and (E) are beyond the scope. There’s no information to suggest that warmer than usual winter temperatures would affect either water-bug behavior (D) or egg formation (E).

• This question highlights the importance of getting scientific relationships straight in your mind. If you had the relationship between temperature and wing formation down, this question should have led to a quick and easy point.

Answer: A


Hope it helps

Kanvi wrote:
please give explanation for q 3

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Re: Three basic adaptive responses—regulatory, acclimatory, and developmen  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2019, 06:55
SajjadAhmad, please help me

Quote:
6.According to the passage, the generation of water bugs hatching during the summer is likely to

(A) be made up of equal numbers of macropterous and micropterous individuals
(B) lay its eggs during the winter in order to expose them to cold
(C) show a marked inability to fly from one pond to another
(D) exhibit genetically determined differences in wing form from the early spring-hatched generation
(E) contain a much greater proportion of macropterous water bugs than the early spring-hatched generation

I did not pick up E because following:
1/The first hatches during the spring, reproduces during the summer, then dies. The eggs laid in the summer hatch and develop into adults in late summer. 
The summer (early) generation, in contrast, is usually dimorphic—some individuals have normal functional (macropterous) wings; others have much-reduced (micropterous) wings of no use for flight.
So 1st hatches in spring, then 2nd hatches in summer.
Question stem requires generation hatching during the summer , that refers to 2nd hatches. So 2nd has greater proportion of micropterous, rather than macropterous.

Quote:
7.The author mentions laboratory experiments with adult water bugs (lines 63-66) in order to illustrate which one of the following?

(A) the function of the summer generation’s dimorphism
(B) the irreversibility of most developmental adaptive responses in water bugs
(C) the effect of temperature on developing water-bug eggs
(D) the morphological difference between the summer generation and the overwintering generation of water bugs
(E) the functional adjustment of water bugs in response to seasonal temperature variation

I have no idea what’s wrong with E.
I think this experiments in laboratory implies that different seasonal temperature will generate different functional structure, by controlling the temperature in cold.
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New post 05 Aug 2019, 04:39
Explanation


6. According to the passage, the generation of water bugs hatching during the summer is likely to

Difficulty Level: 750

Explanation

Water bugs hatched during the summer are macropterous, since the eggs from which they emerge are never exposed to cold temperatures. In contrast, the early-spring generation contains some eggs that are exposed to cold temperatures; therefore, some of this generation are micropterous.

(A) No, water bugs hatched during the summer are all macropterous.

(B) This generation of water bugs lays its eggs at two distinct times: early autumn and early spring. Only the autumn eggs are exposed to cold; the spring eggs are not.

(C) Since this generation of water bugs is macropterous (i.e. has normal wings), its members are capable of flight from one pond to another.

(D) Yes, there is a difference in wing form between this generation and that of early spring, but this difference is caused by temperature changes in the environment. Lest we forget, genetics are explicitly excluded from having an impact on wings.

• When dealing with passages that contain a lot of scientific jargon, it’s usually helpful to jot down some very quick shorthand in the margins. For example, alongside this passage, you might have jotted down that macropterous=flighted wings—eggs warm and micropterous=flightless wings= eggs cold.

Answer: E


7. The author mentions laboratory experiments with adult water bugs (Last 3 lines) in order to illustrate which one of the following?

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

In last 4-5 lines, the author notes that water-bug eggs exposed to cold winter temperatures produce micropterous individuals. But when these same eggs are taken out of the cold and put into a warm laboratory, they produce macropterous individuals. In other words, the purpose of mentioning the experiment is to show that temperature clearly has an effect on the development of water-bug eggs.

(A) refers to the wrong part of the passage. The function of the summer generation’s dimorphism is explained in Para 2.

(B) is outside the scope of the passage, which concerns one and only one developmental response—wing development.

(D) No, the laboratory experiment concentrates on how the same generation’s eggs may develop differently in response to different temperatures; it doesn’t address differences between water-bug generations.

(E) This passage discusses a morphological, not a functional, adjustment.

• When a question asks why the author included a particular detail, the answer is likely to be found in the lines around that detail. In most cases, choices that are based on information from a different part of the passage—like (A) here—will be wrong.

Answer: C


Hope it helps

zoezhuyan wrote:
SajjadAhmad, please help me

Quote:
6.According to the passage, the generation of water bugs hatching during the summer is likely to

(A) be made up of equal numbers of macropterous and micropterous individuals
(B) lay its eggs during the winter in order to expose them to cold
(C) show a marked inability to fly from one pond to another
(D) exhibit genetically determined differences in wing form from the early spring-hatched generation
(E) contain a much greater proportion of macropterous water bugs than the early spring-hatched generation

I did not pick up E because following:
1/The first hatches during the spring, reproduces during the summer, then dies. The eggs laid in the summer hatch and develop into adults in late summer. 
The summer (early) generation, in contrast, is usually dimorphic—some individuals have normal functional (macropterous) wings; others have much-reduced (micropterous) wings of no use for flight.
So 1st hatches in spring, then 2nd hatches in summer.
Question stem requires generation hatching during the summer , that refers to 2nd hatches. So 2nd has greater proportion of micropterous, rather than macropterous.

Quote:
7.The author mentions laboratory experiments with adult water bugs (lines 63-66) in order to illustrate which one of the following?

(A) the function of the summer generation’s dimorphism
(B) the irreversibility of most developmental adaptive responses in water bugs
(C) the effect of temperature on developing water-bug eggs
(D) the morphological difference between the summer generation and the overwintering generation of water bugs
(E) the functional adjustment of water bugs in response to seasonal temperature variation

I have no idea what’s wrong with E.
I think this experiments in laboratory implies that different seasonal temperature will generate different functional structure, by controlling the temperature in cold.

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Re: Three basic adaptive responses—regulatory, acclimatory, and developmen  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2019, 05:30
zoezhuyan wrote:
SajjadAhmad, please help me

Quote:
6.According to the passage, the generation of water bugs hatching during the summer is likely to

(A) be made up of equal numbers of macropterous and micropterous individuals
(B) lay its eggs during the winter in order to expose them to cold
(C) show a marked inability to fly from one pond to another
(D) exhibit genetically determined differences in wing form from the early spring-hatched generation
(E) contain a much greater proportion of macropterous water bugs than the early spring-hatched generation

I did not pick up E because following:
1/The first hatches during the spring, reproduces during the summer, then dies. The eggs laid in the summer hatch and develop into adults in late summer. 
The summer (early) generation, in contrast, is usually dimorphic—some individuals have normal functional (macropterous) wings; others have much-reduced (micropterous) wings of no use for flight.
So 1st hatches in spring, then 2nd hatches in summer.
Question stem requires generation hatching during the summer , that refers to 2nd hatches. So 2nd has greater proportion of micropterous, rather than macropterous.

Hi SajjadAhmad, would you please point out where my reasoning is wrong.
i am still have no idea, although i read your reply

thanks
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Re: Three basic adaptive responses—regulatory, acclimatory, and developmen   [#permalink] 06 Aug 2019, 05:30
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