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Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest

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Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Nov 2006, 22:21
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Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest agricultural remains of many archeological sites in Europe and Asia. The only place where the wild form of emmer wheat has been found growing is a relatively narrow strip of southwest Asia. Since the oldest remains of cultivated emmer wheat yet found are from village sites in the same narrow strip, it is clear that emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthen the argument?

(A) The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkon, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia.

(B) Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains (a particular type of plant).

(C) At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated.

(D) In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.

(E) It is very difficult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia.

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New post 20 Sep 2010, 08:13
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I agree with all the above posters so won't go too much into detail breaking down the answer choices, but for FQ-- the argument is laid out this way:

Cult. EW traces found all over Europe/Asia
Wild EW found only in narrow strip of Asia (note the shift here from traces of PAST EW to what is CURRENTLY found growing--this is a huge jump to make)
Oldest EW traces in same strip
Therefore, EW first cult in same strip

FQ, the reason why D strengthens the argument is that it controls for a condition that could vary dramatically. What if wild emmer wheat is only found now in that narrow strip because 10 years ago a volcano erupted there and wild emmer wheat really likes to grow in volcanic ash? (That's a silly and extreme example, but I hope it illustrates my point). If the climate has been the same ever since wild wheat became domesticated, then it's less likely that the wild emmer wheat--which we only have evidence of in the *present moment*--came here later. It's like the control condition in a scientific experiment---control as much as you can so you can isolate the variable you're looking closely at.

If you didn't have a "gut" reaction like MC did, you can still use the scope of the argument, as mads did, to quickly eliminate A, B, and C. Choice D makes the conditions around the argument more precise, choice E makes the conditions muddier (and therefore weakens).
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Re: Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2006, 14:40
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Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest agricultural remains of many archeological sites in Europe and Asia. The only place where the wild form of emmer wheat has been found growing is a relatively narrow strip of southwest Asia. Since the oldest remains of cultivated emmer wheat yet found are from village sites in the same narrow strip, it is clear that emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip.

Which of the following, if, true, most strengthen the arguerment?

A) The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkon, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia.-- Irrelevant, not emmer

B) Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains.
Weakens argument as it could be domesticated anywhere witin reason

C) At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated.--Nutrition is Irrelevant to argument of where it was cultivated

D) In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.- Note thisstrengthens as it indicates the wheat was already gorwing there and nothing changed so it could easily be domesticated there.

E) It is very diffucult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia. - this does not relate to the argument. It is bringing in another type of grain. We already know we are discussing emmer

D- thanks good CR.

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New post 20 Aug 2010, 07:27
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(A) The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkorn, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia.
>> Not relevant. We are considering only emmer wheat.
(B) Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains.
>>This is not related to the origins ot emmer wheat
(C) At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated.
>> Not related.
(D) In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.
>> Yes, This stengthens the argument.
(E) It is very difficult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia.
>> This weakens the argument.
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New post 18 Nov 2010, 07:31
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MICKEYXITIN wrote:
We have two kinds of wheat mentioned in the premises above:
1. wild emmer wheat
2. cultivated emmer wheat
---> Conclusion: wild wheat was cultivated first in the strip (the scope to follow)
(A): irrelevant as the premise is talking about "emmer wheat" not "another wild wheat, einkon"
(B): irrelevant as the fact that wild emmer wheat easily yield like traditionally domestic wheat does not prove anything that wild emmer wheat was first domesticated in the place. (B) might also weaken the argument by saying that this kind of wheat is very easy to cultivated so it can be done in anywhere not only. What if the very strong storm wind the wild wheat seat to further area and was cultivated in the place rather than the strip (just my imagination but hope you can understand my point)
(C) irrelevant as "the most nutrious of all the varieties of grain" wont affect the conclusion above.
(D): might be correct because it related to the unchanged conditions where emmer wheat "since before the development of agriculture." We can assure this answer by negate the answer by saying that "climatic conditions have not changed very little". If so, there's alot of negative effects which can affect the cultivation of the wheat
(E): weaken the argument as it possibly misunderstood emmer wheat with other kinds of wheat --> how we can assure that the emmer wheat was first cultivated there if we even hardly distinguise wheat?? By saying addtiontionally "without genetic testing" also wont work here as it makes irrelevant to support when and where the wheat was domesticated.



I just brief some of my thoughts. Hope it can help and please correct me if i've made mistake somewhere.


You are right. You have explained perfectly why B is not the answer. Let me give you the reason why D IS the answer.
D says: "In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture."
and we know that wild emmer wheat is still flourishing in that strip. If the climatic conditions were the same before the development of agriculture, it increases the possibility that wild emmer wheat flourished at that time too. Hence the people of that strip could have domesticated it. Therefore, (D) strengthens the argument. (Remember, it doesn't prove that emmer was first domesticated in that strip, it only increases the probability. That is what a strengthen option does.)
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Re: Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2011, 10:43
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thangvietnam wrote:
Karisma, I appreciate your reply. But can you show the assumption which D increases the belief in. Kaplan classic method said that a strengthener is an assumption or new information which increases the belief in an assumption. that is the way a strengthener increases the belief in conclusion.


When you want to find the option that strengthens the argument, you need to find the option which strengthens the conclusion of the argument. Mind you, the given arguments are not perfect. You can always make them stronger/weaker. You have to identify the conclusion and then focus on strengthening it. The correct option makes the conclusion more believable. The conclusion is the main idea of the stimulus - it is the author's opinion based on the facts (the premises)

Here the conclusion is "emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip."
We are given that wild emmer wheat has been growing in that strip and oldest remains of cultivated wheat have also been found in that strip itself.
An assumption here is that wild emmer wheat flourished in that region before the development of agriculture too. (that is how it could have been domesticated there)
By saying that the "climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture", we are increasing the chances that wild emmer wheat flourished in that strip since before the development of agriculture. (The climatic conditions are favorable today and were the same at that time too.)
This strengthens the conclusion that emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip. We don't establish the conclusion, we just make it more probable.
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Re: Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 10 Jun 2015, 02:01
[P1] Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest agricultural remains of many archaeological sites in Europe and Asia.
[P2] The only place where the wild form of emmer wheat has been found growing is a relatively narrow strip of southwest Asia.
Since the oldest remains of cultivated emmer wheat yet found are from village sites in the same narrow strip, it is clear that
emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip.

Based upon the location of the two varieties of emmer wheat ,cultivated and wild, its concluded that EW was domesticated in the mentioned location.
Assumption is that this is not a mere coincidence and that no new factor, which can make the land more futile for EW, has been introduced since then, in the area.
Any option that rules out the factors that could put the underlying assumption in doubt will strengthen the conclusion.


Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A. The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkorn, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia.
>>Not relevant.
B. Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains.
>>In a way it may weaken the arg.
C. At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated.
>>Not relevant.
D. In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.
>> Correct. This confirm that one of factor ,"Climate", has changed little and hence condition required for EW before and now are almost same
E. It is very difficult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia.
>>Its difficult not impossible.Also it doesnt help much in strengthening the fact.

Originally posted by JarvisR on 25 Aug 2014, 21:19.
Last edited by JarvisR on 10 Jun 2015, 02:01, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 07 Feb 2015, 20:23
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Is the OA D ?

My reasoning
1) Out of scope since we are talking about emmer wheat in this case and not einkorn .
2) Irrelevant since we need to show some evidence it was domesticated at some point of time earlier in that region.
3) Nutrition is not what the argument talks about
5) Weakens the argument a bit since if we are not able to distinguish between emmer wheat and anothe kind of wheat .

Only D strengthens the argument with the fact that if climatic conditions have not changed over the past it could very well mean that emmer wheat was domesticated in the regions close by . This adds some weight to the argument.
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Re: Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Feb 2015, 02:18
A. The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkorn, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia.
it talks of another type of wheat so not related

B. Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains.
not related

C. At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated.
being nutritious is not related

D. In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.
it strengthens the argument as the condition favourable to the growth has been same during the two eras.. correct

E. It is very difficult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia.
not related
ans D
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New post 21 Apr 2016, 05:30
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Nez wrote:
Pls chetan2u, HKD1710, VeritasPrepKarishma, OptimusPrepJanielle, and Manhattan GMAT guys in this forum.
Help me explain what's going on in this question.
The experts in this forum help me to even understand the link between option D and the stimulus.
I've understood the toughest questions in Mgmat test bank, but this one is strange.
If the Climate has changed very little since then, how does that strengthen the conclusion or the premise?

Posted from my mobile device


Hi Nez,
I will not say D is too big a strengthener, but It is the ONLY strengthener in the choices..

Let me break it down for you if it can make sense..



1) The most important FACT here is that the WILD EW is right now found only at the narrow -strip in SW Asia...
2) There have been traces of Cultivated EW found in Europe and Asia but the oldest of all remains have been found in this strip..


so as the oldest CULTIVATED remains and presently growing WILD EW are from same place so these two things add up to tell that these wild were initially cultivated on this strip and later transported to other locations...

WHAT is it assuming-
1) there has been no place where the wild ever grew..
2) These WILD EW have continued to survive right from the time it was cultivated for the first time...

Answer D comes into play by giving us a reason to believe in assumption 2 above..

D tells us that there has been very little change in the climate from those early days and MAYBE what we see today as the WILD EW has its ORIGIN back to that time..
There has been no change in climate at a later stage which could have resulted in sudden growth of WILD EW.


Not a very big strengthener but just does that little bit to be the answer, when none other qualify as OA..
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New post 21 Apr 2016, 06:04
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Nez wrote:
Wait a little chetan2u
I'm still grappling at the fact of the blue part in your post.
"so as the oldest CULTIVATED remains and
presently growing WILD EW are from same place
so these two things add up to tell that these wild
were initially cultivated on this strip and later
transported to other location


Just wait..
Where did the bold part come from pls?

Posted from my mobile device


Hi,
there are two cases that could have occured
1) The wild has ONLY been here ,. it was first domesticated here and then spread to other places...
2) The wild variety was available in both Europe and asia in olden days and these wild were domesticated at these locations separately but due to some changes in climate or some calamity, the wild EW perished at other locations apart from this narrow strip..

I have mentioned the 1 case but the flow of reasoning would remain the same in either of the case
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New post 21 Apr 2016, 07:09
Nez wrote:
So after the twisted assumption corktail then we add just a little more assumption that A CLIMATE CHANGE MIGHT HAVE ENSURED THEY DIDN'T SURVIVE.
Then it happens in D that there was little climate change.

So it's like "No wonder! that godblest constant climate ensured we still see these EW.
But what's the argument again...
**depressing question**


Yes I totally agree with you that it is not a great Q and that too the source has been shown as GMAT PREP..
Just tells us that if nothing is seemingly correct even after ripping apart the entire Q word by word, we may have to look at the choices again and choose the CHOICE which can provide some resemblance of a strengthener/weakener etc that is asked
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New post 22 Mar 2019, 02:45
We need to choose an option which strengthens the argument that emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in narrow strip of sw asia.

Option D precisely does that, if you correlate it with the argument
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Re: Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2019, 23:52
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Quote:
Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest agricultural remains of many archeological sites in Europe and Asia. The only place where the wild form of emmer wheat has been found growing is a relatively narrow strip of southwest Asia. Since the oldest remains of cultivated emmer wheat yet found are from village sites in the same narrow strip, it is clear that emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip.


Conclusion: Emmer wheat was first domesticated in the relatively narrow strip of southwest Asia. Why did the author come to such conclusion? Because the oldest remains of cultivated emmer wheat were found in villages belonging to that strip. How can we strengthen this conclusion?
The clue lies in the very fact that the plant was cultivable in the same strip was because the climatic conditions are the same.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthen the argument?

Quote:
(A) The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkon, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia.

The fact that Einkon(another kind of wild wheat) covers a much larger area does not say anything about Emmer wheat was first domesticated in the relatively narrow strip of southwest Asia.

Quote:
(B) Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains (a particular type of plant).

The ease of domestication of the wild wheat does not say anything about Emmer wheat was first domesticated in the relatively narrow strip of southwest Asia.

Quote:
(C) At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated.

Again, Nutritional value of Emmer when it was first cultivated does not explain why it was first cultivated in that narrow strip than anywhere else in the world.

Quote:
(D) In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.

Since the climatic conditions of the cultivated wheat are the same as the wild wheat, the cultivated wheat thrived. This gives us high hopes (atleast better than all other options) to trust that, maybe wild Emmer wheat was first domesticated in the relatively narrow strip of southwest Asia.(Also the oldest remains were found there)


Quote:
(E) It is very difficult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia.

This option says nothing about the origin of the first cultivated Emmer wheat. Out of scope.
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Re: Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest  [#permalink]

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New post 09 May 2019, 03:23
parker wrote:
I agree with all the above posters so won't go too much into detail breaking down the answer choices, but for FQ-- the argument is laid out this way:

Cult. EW traces found all over Europe/Asia
Wild EW found only in narrow strip of Asia (note the shift here from traces of PAST EW to what is CURRENTLY found growing--this is a huge jump to make)
Oldest EW traces in same strip
Therefore, EW first cult in same strip

FQ, the reason why D strengthens the argument is that it controls for a condition that could vary dramatically. What if wild emmer wheat is only found now in that narrow strip because 10 years ago a volcano erupted there and wild emmer wheat really likes to grow in volcanic ash? (That's a silly and extreme example, but I hope it illustrates my point). If the climate has been the same ever since wild wheat became domesticated, then it's less likely that the wild emmer wheat--which we only have evidence of in the *present moment*--came here later. It's like the control condition in a scientific experiment---control as much as you can so you can isolate the variable you're looking closely at.

If you didn't have a "gut" reaction like MC did, you can still use the scope of the argument, as mads did, to quickly eliminate A, B, and C. Choice D makes the conditions around the argument more precise, choice E makes the conditions muddier (and therefore weakens).



Correct me if I'm wrong.
As I could understand, it could mean that author has taken a sweeping conclusion that EW has been first domesticated in narrow strip based on the fact that EW was present as old remains long before and has been present now too. The chronology of events takes an important part here to understand the question and there could be two possibilities.

1st possibility: EW was domesticated, before the oldest traces were present. This makes sense because we are concluding about a past event based on its availability now. If you consider this case, D doesn't make sense at all. Although, other options don't in any way, D would be picked only by POE, but not on strong grounds of reasoning as an answer.

2nd possibility: Oldest traces were present first, and then domestication occurred. With this chronology of events, we are assuming that domestication WOULD occur, after EW is present in the region. Its more like a process (presence to domestication) that will happen if all other variables affecting them don't change. In this possibility, D makes sense, and I would be picking D as I have strong grounds.

Did I miss something? Everybody are welcome to add their thoughts.

Thanks in advance!
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Re: Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2019, 23:58
VeritasKarishma wrote:
MICKEYXITIN wrote:
We have two kinds of wheat mentioned in the premises above:
1. wild emmer wheat
2. cultivated emmer wheat
---> Conclusion: wild wheat was cultivated first in the strip (the scope to follow)
(A): irrelevant as the premise is talking about "emmer wheat" not "another wild wheat, einkon"
(B): irrelevant as the fact that wild emmer wheat easily yield like traditionally domestic wheat does not prove anything that wild emmer wheat was first domesticated in the place. (B) might also weaken the argument by saying that this kind of wheat is very easy to cultivated so it can be done in anywhere not only. What if the very strong storm wind the wild wheat seat to further area and was cultivated in the place rather than the strip (just my imagination but hope you can understand my point)
(C) irrelevant as "the most nutrious of all the varieties of grain" wont affect the conclusion above.
(D): might be correct because it related to the unchanged conditions where emmer wheat "since before the development of agriculture." We can assure this answer by negate the answer by saying that "climatic conditions have not changed very little". If so, there's alot of negative effects which can affect the cultivation of the wheat
(E): weaken the argument as it possibly misunderstood emmer wheat with other kinds of wheat --> how we can assure that the emmer wheat was first cultivated there if we even hardly distinguise wheat?? By saying addtiontionally "without genetic testing" also wont work here as it makes irrelevant to support when and where the wheat was domesticated.



I just brief some of my thoughts. Hope it can help and please correct me if i've made mistake somewhere.


You are right. You have explained perfectly why B is not the answer. Let me give you the reason why D IS the answer.
D says: "In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture."
and we know that wild emmer wheat is still flourishing in that strip. If the climatic conditions were the same before the development of agriculture, it increases the possibility that wild emmer wheat flourished at that time too. Hence the people of that strip could have domesticated it. Therefore, (D) strengthens the argument. (Remember, it doesn't prove that emmer was first domesticated in that strip, it only increases the probability. That is what a strengthen option does.)



---

I also chose D, but only through POE. But reading your explanation through negation now I understand why it is right too. Thank you.
I think negation solves most of conundrum when the correct answer choice looks not very convincing.
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Re: Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest   [#permalink] 13 Jun 2019, 23:58
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