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Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow

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Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 15 Oct 2019, 04:00
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Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow lava. This rapid chilling occurs when lava erupts directly into water (or beneath ice) or when it flows across a shoreline and into a body of water. While the term "pillow lava" suggests a definite shape, in fact geologists disagree. Some geologists argue that pillow lava is characterized by discrete, ellipsoidal masses. Others describe pillow lava as a tangled mass of cylindrical, interconnected flow lobes. Much of this controversy probably results from unwarranted extrapolations of the original configuration of pillow flows from two-dimensional cross-sections of eroded pillows in land outcroppings. Virtually any cross section cut through a tangled mass of interconnected flow lobes would give the appearance of a pile of discrete ellipsoidal masses. Adequate three-dimensional images of intact pillows are essential for defining the true geometry of pillowed flows and thus ascertaining their mode of origin. Indeed, the term "pillow," itself suggestive of discrete masses, is probably a misnomer.
Which of the following is a fact presented in the passage?

(A) The shape of the connections between the separate, sacklike masses in pillow lava is unknown.
(B) More accurate cross sections of pillow lava would reveal the mode of origin.
(C) Water or ice is necessary for the formation of pillow lava.
(D) No three-dimensional examples of intact pillows currently exist.
(E) The origin of pillow lava is not yet known.


Spoiler: :: OA
C


In the passage, the author is primarily interested in

(A) analyzing the source of a scientific controversy
(B) criticizing some geologists' methodology
(C) pointing out the flaws in a geological study
(D) proposing a new theory to explain existing scientific evidence
(E) describing a physical phenomenon


Spoiler: :: OA
A


The author of the passage would most probably agree that the geologists mentioned ("Some geologists") have made which of the following errors in reasoning?

I. Generalized unjustifiably from available evidence.
II. Deliberately ignored existing counterevidence.
III. Repeatedly failed to take new evidence into account.

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) II and III only


Spoiler: :: OA
A


The author implies that the "controversy" might be resolved if

(A) geologists did not persist in using the term "pillow"
(B) geologists did not rely on potentially misleading information
(C) geologists were more willing to confer directly with one another
(D) two-dimensional cross-sections of eroded pillows were available
(E) existing pillows in land outcroppings were not so badly eroded


Spoiler: :: OA
B



Source: GRE Official Material

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Originally posted by carcass on 09 Mar 2019, 03:29.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 15 Oct 2019, 04:00, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (994).
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2019, 22:37
SUmmary :
1.PL ..how it is formed!!
2. A disagreement over the shape of PL
POVs for shape of PL
3. Author's take : controversy based on UNWARRANTED extrapolation of bla bla
Supporting his view as to why such thinking existed
Giving his take on what is necessary for conclusive decision

Main point : The controversy over te hape of PL is based on unwarranted extraps and what is necessary to resolve such disagreement !!
Primary purpsoe : evaluating the source of controversy (why the controversy existed)

Which of the following is a fact presented in the passage?

Approach : POE

(A) The shape of the connections between the separate, sacklike masses in pillow lava is unknown.
- no idea about sahpe of "connections"

(B) More accurate cross sections of pillow lava would reveal the mode of origin.
- Keep
(C) Water or ice is necessary for the formation of pillow lava.
- leep
(D) No three-dimensional examples of intact pillows currently exist.
- AItor says " adeqaute number of images are needed "..adequate does not mean no images at all

(E) The origin of pillow lava is not yet known.
- actually we know ..how PL are formed ..so their origins have to be from the VOLCANO rigt??

B vs C
B says "more accurate cross sections " would reveal...we do not know this for sure..AUthor says adequate 3D intact pillow images are essential...but he does not say anything aboyt "MORE ACCUARATE corss sectiosn"

C - POE

mikemcgarry DmitryFarber TommyWallach ScottTargetTestPrep chetan2u generis

please provode your reasoning for OPTION C... the passsage does not say anything that the ONLY WAY FOR PLs to form is cooling from WATER... i mean there can be other ways right??/ then how can we safely state that water is in FACT needed for PL's to form...??
How can we be sure about that???
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2019, 22:54
In the passage, the author is primarily interested in

SUmmary :
1.PL ..how it is formed!!
2. A disagreement over the shape of PL
POVs for shape of PL
3. Author's take : controversy based on UNWARRANTED extrapolation of bla bla
Supporting his view as to why such thinking existed
Giving his take on what is necessary for conclusive decision

Main point : The controversy over te hape of PL is based on unwarranted extraps and what is necessary to resolve such disagreement !!
Primary purpsoe : giving his taken on the source of controversy (why the controversy existed)

Quote:
(A) analyzing the source of a scientific controversy

(B) criticizing some geologists' methodology
- only the basis for the geos's claims are mentioned..NO METHODLOY

(C) pointing out the flaws in a geological study
- author is not just POINTING OUT, he is even presenting his OWN view.

(D) proposing a new theory to explain existing scientific evidence
- author his presneting his POV over the controversy about PL shape... He is NOT proposing something new to explain. He just says we need some things. he does not give us a NEW THEORY

(E) describing a physical phenomenon
- author is not just describing. He is presenting his analysis too
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Mar 2019, 07:02
Here’s the relevant part of the passage:

Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow lava. This rapid chilling occurs when lava erupts directly into water (or beneath ice) or when it flows across a shoreline and into a body of water.

The passage says two things about the formation of pillow lava:

“forms as fluid lava chills rapidly”

“This rapid chilling occurs when lava erupts directly into water (or beneath ice) or when it flows across a shoreline and into a body of water.”

Neither one of those statements indicates that lava’s coming into contact with water or ice is the only way in which pillow lava can form. Nor can one properly arrive at that inference by considering the statements in combination.

In fact, given what the statements say, it seems likely that pillow lava can form in any circumstance in which lava cools quickly, regardless of whether ice or water is present.

Therefore, choice (C) is not fully supported by what the passage says and, thus, is not “a fact presented by the passage.”

Question 1 is broken.
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow   [#permalink] 11 Mar 2019, 07:02
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