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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow [#permalink]
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Here’s the relevant part of the passage:

Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow lava. This rapid chilling occurs when lava erupts directly into water (or beneath ice) or when it flows across a shoreline and into a body of water.

The passage says two things about the formation of pillow lava:

“forms as fluid lava chills rapidly”

“This rapid chilling occurs when lava erupts directly into water (or beneath ice) or when it flows across a shoreline and into a body of water.”

Neither one of those statements indicates that lava’s coming into contact with water or ice is the only way in which pillow lava can form. Nor can one properly arrive at that inference by considering the statements in combination.

In fact, given what the statements say, it seems likely that pillow lava can form in any circumstance in which lava cools quickly, regardless of whether ice or water is present.

Therefore, choice (C) is not fully supported by what the passage says and, thus, is not “a fact presented by the passage.”

Question 1 is broken.
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow [#permalink]
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ScottTargetTestPrep wrote:
Here’s the relevant part of the passage:

Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow lava. This rapid chilling occurs when lava erupts directly into water (or beneath ice) or when it flows across a shoreline and into a body of water.

The passage says two things about the formation of pillow lava:

“forms as fluid lava chills rapidly”

“This rapid chilling occurs when lava erupts directly into water (or beneath ice) or when it flows across a shoreline and into a body of water.”

Neither one of those statements indicates that lava’s coming into contact with water or ice is the only way in which pillow lava can form. Nor can one properly arrive at that inference by considering the statements in combination.

In fact, given what the statements say, it seems likely that pillow lava can form in any circumstance in which lava cools quickly, regardless of whether ice or water is present.

Therefore, choice (C) is not fully supported by what the passage says and, thus, is not “a fact presented by the passage.”

Question 1 is broken.




Can you please explain que 4

I selected D
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow [#permalink]
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kunalc20 wrote:
ScottTargetTestPrep wrote:
Here’s the relevant part of the passage:

Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow lava. This rapid chilling occurs when lava erupts directly into water (or beneath ice) or when it flows across a shoreline and into a body of water.

The passage says two things about the formation of pillow lava:

“forms as fluid lava chills rapidly”

“This rapid chilling occurs when lava erupts directly into water (or beneath ice) or when it flows across a shoreline and into a body of water.”

Neither one of those statements indicates that lava’s coming into contact with water or ice is the only way in which pillow lava can form. Nor can one properly arrive at that inference by considering the statements in combination.

In fact, given what the statements say, it seems likely that pillow lava can form in any circumstance in which lava cools quickly, regardless of whether ice or water is present.

Therefore, choice (C) is not fully supported by what the passage says and, thus, is not “a fact presented by the passage.”

Question 1 is broken.




Can you please explain que 4

I selected D



the answer to this question can be deduce from Much of this controversy probably results from unwarranted extrapolations of the original configuration of pillow flows .
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow [#permalink]
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explanation for Question no.3 ?
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow [#permalink]
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Anshuman0902 wrote:
explanation for Question no.3 ?



Hi Anshuman0902

Quote:
3. The author of the passage would most probably agree that the geologists mentioned ("Some geologists") have made which of the following errors in reasoning?


Answer to Question 3 can be inferred from: "Some geologists argue that pillow lava is characterized by discrete, ellipsoidal masses. Others describe pillow lava as a tangled mass of cylindrical, interconnected flow lobes. Much of this controversy probably results from unwarranted extrapolations of the original configuration of pillow flows from two-dimensional cross-sections of eroded pillows in land outcroppings."

Its mentioned that the most of the errors in the reasoning is because of the generalizations based on little evidence available. Now this is point I of the 3 points mentioned. We cannot infer II and III. Thus, A is the correct answer.


Hope This Helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow [#permalink]
Please explain question 4
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow [#permalink]
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Hey shubhamrai249,

Let me give it a shot.
So question 4, talks about how can the "controversy" regarding the structure of pillow lava be resolved ?

If you go through the passage, it says that some geologists think that the structure of the pillow lava is ellipsoidal is shape based on "unwarranted extrapolations of the original configuration of pillow flows from two-dimensional cross-sections of eroded pillows in land outcroppings." Now I would like to bring your attention to the phrase "eroded pillows in land outcroppings", if something has eroded that means the structure of the commodity has degraded, so for geologists to base their conclusions about the structure of pillows based on eroded pillows is fallacious. This sentence leaves the conclusion of those particular geologists incomplete.

Thus, the correct answer is B.
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow [#permalink]
Hey kntombat,

you answer was really helpful to come at ans B, But i could not eliminate option E because passage states "Adequate three-dimensional images of intact pillows are essential for defining the true geometry of pillowed flows and thus ascertaining their mode of origin."the same idea option E states.

Thanks.
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow [#permalink]
kadamhari825, I did not choose E because the option says "not so badly eroded", so it is possible that there could be a little erosion and the structure of the pillow changes or it could remain the same, so due to this ambiguity I chose B.
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow [#permalink]
kntombat wrote:
Hey,

Let me give it a shot.
So question 4, talks about how can the "controversy" regarding the structure of pillow lava be resolved ?

If you go through the passage, it says that some geologists think that the structure of the pillow lava is ellipsoidal is shape based on "unwarranted extrapolations of the original configuration of pillow flows from two-dimensional cross-sections of eroded pillows in land outcroppings." Now I would like to bring your attention to the phrase "eroded pillows in land outcroppings", if something has eroded that means the structure of the commodity has degraded, so for geologists to base their conclusions about the structure of pillows based on eroded pillows is fallacious. This sentence leaves the conclusion of those particular geologists incomplete.

Thus, the correct answer is B.


I have a query about this question. I reached to the same answer but my approach was a little different. From the sentence "Virtually any cross section cut through a tangled mass of interconnected flow lobes would give
the appearance of a pile of discrete ellipsoidal masses." can't we infer that the premise of the geologists' argument was flawed? Please correct me if there is some flaw in my understanding.
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow [#permalink]
can someone please explain in que 2 why we had not chosen option 3 because eventually the author is concluding that geologist misinterpreted or missed the infprmatiom
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow [#permalink]
Expert Reply
kavyaa_porwal wrote:
can someone please explain in que 2 why we had not chosen option 3 because eventually the author is concluding that geologist misinterpreted or missed the infprmatiom


Explanation


2. In the passage, the author is primarily interested in

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

The passage discusses a geological phenomenon called "pillow lava," which forms when fluid lava chills rapidly. The process of rapid chilling occurs when lava erupts directly into water (or beneath ice) or when it flows across a shoreline and into a body of water. However, the term "pillow lava" is not as straightforward as it may seem, and geologists disagree on its characterization.

The main point of the passage is to address the controversy surrounding the definition and appearance of pillow lava. Some geologists describe it as discrete, ellipsoidal masses, while others see it as a tangled mass of cylindrical, interconnected flow lobes. The author suggests that this disagreement is likely due to unwarranted extrapolations made from two-dimensional cross-sections of eroded pillows in land outcroppings. The passage explains that any cross-section cut through a tangled mass of interconnected flow lobes would appear as discrete ellipsoidal masses, which can lead to confusion in defining the true geometry of pillowed flows and understanding their mode of origin.

The author emphasizes the need for adequate three-dimensional images of intact pillows to properly define the true geometry of pillow lava and clarify its mode of formation. The term "pillow" itself, which implies discrete masses, is questioned as a possible misnomer.

To summarize:

(A) Analyzing the source of a scientific controversy:
The author discusses the differing views among geologists regarding the nature of pillow lava and attributes the controversy to unwarranted extrapolations from two-dimensional cross-sections.

(B) Criticizing some geologists' methodology:
While the passage points out disagreements among geologists, it does not explicitly criticize their methodology.

(C) Pointing out the flaws in a geological study:
The passage does point out the limitations of relying on two-dimensional cross-sections to interpret the nature of pillow lava, but it does not focus on a specific geological study's flaws.

(D) Proposing a new theory to explain existing scientific evidence:
The passage does not propose a new theory but rather discusses the need for better three-dimensional images to accurately understand pillow lava.

(E) Describing a physical phenomenon:
While the passage does describe the physical phenomenon of pillow lava, its primary focus is on the controversy surrounding its definition and appearance, not merely describing the phenomenon itself.

Therefore, the correct answer is (A) analyzing the source of a scientific controversy.

Answer: A
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow [#permalink]
For Q4, can someone explain why B 'resolves' the controversy?
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Re: Volcanic rock that forms as fluid lava chills rapidly is called pillow [#permalink]
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