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With American cryptanalysts breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese I

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With American cryptanalysts breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese I [#permalink]

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New post 15 Feb 2017, 05:24
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With American cryptanalysts breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet losing the strategic element of surprise at Midway, which allowed the American Fleet to ambush the Japanese and win a decisive victory.

A. With American cryptanalysts breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet losing the strategic element of surprise at Midway, which allowed
B. With American cryptanalysts breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet strategically lost the element of surprise at Midway, and this allowed
C. Because of the American cryptanalysts breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet strategically lost the element of surprise at Midway, to allow
D. Because American cryptanalysts had broken the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet lost the strategic element of surprise at Midway, allowing
E. Since American cryptanalysts broke the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet strategically lost the element of surprise at Midway, and this allowed

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With American cryptanalysts breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese I [#permalink]

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New post 15 Feb 2017, 09:05
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A. With American cryptanalysts breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet losing the strategic element of surprise at Midway, which allowed - Incorrect. Missing verb error.

B. With American cryptanalysts breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet strategically lost the element of surprise at Midway, and this allowed - Incorrect. Illogical and usage of 'this' is incorrect in the given context.

C. Because of the American cryptanalysts breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet strategically lost the element of surprise at Midway, to allow - Incorrect. Illogical.

D. Because American cryptanalysts had broken the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet lost the strategic element of surprise at Midway, allowing - Correct.

E. Since American cryptanalysts broke the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet strategically lost the element of surprise at Midway, and this allowed - Incorrect. Tense error and usage of 'this' is incorrect.

Answer: D
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With American cryptanalysts breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese I [#permalink]

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New post 15 Feb 2017, 09:17
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With American cryptanalysts breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet losing the strategic element of surprise at Midway, which allowed the American Fleet to ambush the Japanese and win a decisive victory.

Issues: Modifier | Verb Tense

Analysis:
1) Sequence of events in sentence: code had been broken => Japanese lost element of surprise => allowing American to ambush Japanese
2) Hence, the correct verb for "Americans break code" should be "past perfect" since that event happen before "Japanese lost element of surprise" and is also the the cause of it.
3) "which allowed" as used in original sentence is incorrect as "which" is never used to refer to the whole clause. ", verb-ing" is a form we need to use here to refer to the whole clause.


I have highlighted the issues in options below:

A. With American cryptanalysts breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet losing the strategic element of surprise at Midway, which allowed
- "which" used incorrectly
- "breaking" and "loosing" seems to indicate that those things were happening simultaneously which has meaning issue
- ", the Japanese Imperial Feet..." is a run on clause without any conjunction

(Any of the above error alone is enough to eliminate this option)

B. With American cryptanalysts breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet strategically lost the element of surprise at Midway, and this allowed
- Pronoun ambiguity
(Also less favorable option than (D))

C. Because of the American cryptanalysts breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet strategically lost the element of surprise at Midway, to allow
- Modifier error (leading to sentence fragment)

D. Because American cryptanalysts had broken the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet lost the strategic element of surprise at Midway, allowing

E. Since American cryptanalysts broke the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet strategically lost the element of surprise at Midway, and this allowed

- Verb tense issue
- Pronoun ambiguity


Answer: (D)
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With American cryptanalysists breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 05 Aug 2017, 21:48
With American cryptanalysists breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet losing the strategic element of surprise at Midway, which allowed the America Fleet to ambush the Japanese and win a decisive victory.

(A) With American cryptanalysists breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet losing the strategic element of surprise at Midway, which allowed

(B) With American cryptanalysists breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet strategically lost the element of surprise at Midway, and this allowed

(C) Because of the American cryptanalysists breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet strategically lost the element of surprise at Midway, to allow

(D) Because American cryptanalysists had broken the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet lost the strategic element of surprise at Midway, allowing

(E) Since American cryptanalysists broke the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet strategically lost the element of surprise at Midway, and this allowed

Originally posted by Mo2men on 05 Aug 2017, 15:19.
Last edited by broall on 05 Aug 2017, 21:48, edited 1 time in total.
Merged topic. Please search before posting question.
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Re: With American cryptanalysists breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2017, 15:36
If you look at how "strategic" and "strategically" are used in the various answer choices, you can pick the correct answer here. If you say someone "strategically lost", that means losing was a strategy that person was using. So you might say a pool hustler "strategically lost her first game to make other players think she was worse at pool than she truly was". That's something someone might do as a strategy to gain a larger advantage later on. But here, Japan did not "strategically lose the element of surprise"; that wasn't a tactical choice on their part. Instead they lost the "strategic element of surprise". This correctly conveys the meaning that the "element of surprise" is what is strategic in this sentence.

Answers A and D are the only answers that use "strategic" correctly, but answer A is not a sentence (there is no main clause), so D must be right.

And the question should say 'cryptanalyst', not 'cryptanalysist' (that's not a word!).
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Re: With American cryptanalysts breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese I [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jan 2018, 07:36
"lost strategically" and strategic element have 2 different meanings.
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Re: With American cryptanalysts breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese I [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2018, 21:43
Quote:
D. Because American cryptanalysts had broken the Japanese code, the Japanese Imperial Fleet lost the strategic element of surprise at Midway, allowing


Based on the post by e-gmat on VERB-ING MODIFIERS:
Quote:
verb-ing modifiers are made from “verbs” and they denote action. Now, any action needs a doer. In the same way, the verb-ing modifiers also associated with the subjects of the preceding clause. What we must keep in mind is that the action denoted by verb-ing must make sense with the subject of the clause. The use of verb-ing is correct only if it makes sense with the subject of the clause it is modifying.


From what I understand, this means that in option D, the Japanese Imperial Fleet should be the doer of the action allowing. However, it is the loosing of the surprise that "allowed" American Fleet to ambush. Am I missing something here?

Thanks in advance.
Re: With American cryptanalysts breaking the Japanese code, the Japanese I   [#permalink] 09 Jun 2018, 21:43
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