GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 23 Sep 2018, 22:50

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 27 Jun 2005
Posts: 489
Location: MS
According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Nov 2005, 13:45
7
74
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  55% (hard)

Question Stats:

58% (01:13) correct 42% (01:06) wrong based on 3088 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics

According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct rendering of speech, but was more likely to begin as a separate and distinct symbolic system of communication, and only later merged with spoken language.

(A) was more likely to begin as
(B) more than likely began as
(C) more than likely beginning from
(D) it was more than likely begun from
(E) it was more likely that it began

Official Guide 12 Question

GMAT Official Guide 12

Question: 39
Page: 41
Difficulty: 600

Find All Official Guide Questions

Video Explanations:

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 208: Sentence Correction


Subscribe to GMAT Question of the Day: E-mail | RSS
For All QOTD Questions Click Here


https://www.nytimes.com/1999/04/06/science/when-no-one-read-who-started-to-write.html

The archeologists, historians and other scholars at the meeting smiled at the absurdity of a king's writing a letter that its recipient could not read. They also doubted that the earliest writing was a direct rendering of speech. Writing more than likely began as a separate and distinct symbolic system of communication, like painting, sculpture and oral storytelling, and only later merged with spoken language.

Issues

(1) Parallelism: X, Y, and Z; X, and Y

The sentence contains a parallel construction:

(A) writing was not a rendering, but was to begin a system, and merged
(B) writing was not a rendering, but began as a system, and merged
(C) writing was not a rendering, but beginning from a system, and merged
(D) writing was not a rendering, but it was begun from a system, and merged
(E) writing was not a rendering, but it was likely that it began a system, and merged

The structure of the first three answers requires three parallel verbs: the writing was not X, but [the writing was] Y, and [the writing] merged with Z. The middle verb should be in the simple past tense to match the first and third verbs. Only answer (B) offers this. Eliminate answers (A) and (C).

The last two answer choices change the structure; the new clause (it was) chops out the first item (was not) and reduces the sentence to a two-item list. In such a list, no comma is needed between two items (she hang and danced every day), but this sentence does contain a comma before the final item, and merged. Because of this comma, it's not acceptable to turn the original three-item list into a two-item list. Eliminate answers (D) and (E).

(2) Verb: was
Idiom: as


You might spot a couple of issues in answer (E) when examining this portion of the parallel construction: it was likely that it began a system.

First the likelihood is today, not in the past. The sentence should say it is likely, not was. Second, the writing began as a system. The word as is necessary in this idiom, but the construction is missing the word as. Eliminate answer (E).

The Correct Answer

Correct answer (B) fixes the original parallelism error by matching was, began, and merged.
Most Helpful Expert Reply
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
User avatar
P
Status: GMAT and GRE tutor
Joined: 13 Aug 2009
Posts: 2021
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
GMAT 2: 800 Q51 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V170
Re: According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Jan 2018, 07:04
1
1
Let's start by putting (A) and (B) side-by-side:

Quote:
(A) was more likely to begin as
(B) more than likely began as

The verb tense in (A) is really confusing, and it's definitely not our best option. We have three different verbs in the sentence, all of which describe "the earliest writing", which:

  • ..."was probably not a direct rendering of speech"
  • "...was more likely to begin..."
  • and "...later merged with spoken language."

That middle piece is wacky. All three of these things happened in the past, and need to be in the same version of past tense. So the underlined portion is odd: why would we say "was more likely to begin", when we could just say "more likely began as"? "Begin" is in present tense (i.e., a general characteristic), and "was more likely to begin" doesn't make much sense -- it's almost as if the earliest writing had some probabilistic quality or something, and there was a good chance that it would eventually begin "as a separate and distinct symbolic system."

That's so much messier than (B), which just says that according to scholars, it's likely that the earliest writing actually began "as a separate and distinct symbolic system."

So we can get rid of (A), and keep (B).

Quote:
(C) more than likely beginning from

There are two little problems with (C), particularly when we compare it with (B).

First, I don't know why we would switch the verb "began" to the participle "beginning", considering that the rest of the sentence features nice, simple, past tense verbs ("the earliest writing was... and later merged..." So in this sense, (B) is clearly better than (C).

The other issue is that it doesn't really make sense to say that the earliest writing was beginning "from a separate and distinct symbolic system." The earliest writing didn't evolve from some other separate and distinct system; the earliest writing WAS the separate and distinct symbolic system.

So we can ditch (C).

Quote:
(D) it was more than likely begun from

We could make a lazy argument that (D) is wordy and awkward, and that's not necessarily wrong. (D) definitely sounds like crap, and I don't think that you could ever use the phrase "was begun" in a correct sentence. At least I can't think of one.

The more concrete argument is that that parallelism is wrong in (D):

    "...the earliest writing was probably not a direct rendering of speech, it was more than likely begun from a separate and distinct symbolic system of communication, and only later merged with spoken language."

So we have a full independent clause, then another full independent clause, then an "and" followed by a verb phrase ("merged with spoken language"). That's not OK, partly because you can't just separate two independent clauses with a comma (a comma splice, if you like jargon), and partly because the "and" is followed by a verb phrase -- so the other parallel elements should also be verb phrases, not full clauses.

Plus, "from" doesn't make sense, for the same reasons as answer choice (C). See above for more on that issue.

Anyway, (D) is out.

Quote:
(E) it was more likely that it began

(E) features the same parallelism issue as (D), and that's enough by itself to eliminate (E).

Plus, there's no preposition after "began", so that tweaks the meaning: "[the earliest writing systems] began a separate and distinct symbolic system..." Huh? The writing system didn't "begin" a new symbolic system; it WAS a separate symbolic system, so we'd need to say that it "began as" a separate system.

And for bonus points, I'm not sure that there's a good reason to include an extra "it" at the beginning of the underlined portion -- it's a non-referential pronoun (classic example: "it is raining" is an acceptable sentence, but the "it" has no referent), and that's not necessarily wrong, but there's no reason to use that extra pronoun at all in this particular sentence.

So (E) is out, and we're left with (B).
_________________

GMAT Club Verbal Expert | GMAT/GRE tutor @ www.gmatninja.com (Now hiring!) | GMAT blog | Food blog | Notoriously bad at PMs

Beginners' guides to GMAT verbal
Reading Comprehension | Critical Reasoning | Sentence Correction

YouTube LIVE verbal webinars
Series 1: Fundamentals of SC & CR | Series 2: Developing a Winning GMAT Mindset

SC & CR Questions of the Day (QOTDs), featuring expert explanations
All QOTDs | Subscribe via email | RSS

Need an expert reply?
Hit the request verbal experts' reply button -- and please be specific about your question. Feel free to tag @GMATNinja and @GMATNinjaTwo in your post. Priority is always given to official GMAT questions.

Sentence Correction articles & resources
How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

Reading Comprehension, Critical Reasoning, and other articles & resources
All GMAT Ninja articles on GMAT Club | Using LSAT for GMAT CR & RC |7 reasons why your actual GMAT scores don't match your practice test scores | How to get 4 additional "fake" GMAT Prep tests for $29.99 | Time management on verbal

Most Helpful Community Reply
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Affiliations: IIBA
Joined: 04 Sep 2010
Posts: 51
Location: India
Schools: HBS, Stanford, Stern, Insead, ISB, Wharton, Columbia
WE 1: Information Technology (Banking and Financial Services)
Re: According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 14 Jan 2013, 18:06
10
7
According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct rendering of speech, but was more likely to begin as a separate and distinct symbolic system of communication, and only later merged with spoken language.

a)was more likely to begin as -- more must be accompanied by than
b)more than likely began as -- correct
c) more than likely beginning from -- beginning from is not parallel with merged.
d) it was more than likely begun from -- begun is not the correct form, began must be used to make it parallel to merged.
e) it was more likely that it began. -- more must be accompanied by than.
_________________

~soaringAlone
~Live fast, die young and leave a marketable corpse behind !!

General Discussion
CEO
CEO
User avatar
Joined: 20 Nov 2005
Posts: 2819
Schools: Completed at SAID BUSINESS SCHOOL, OXFORD - Class of 2008
Re: According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 29 Nov 2005, 15:12
2
I will go with B

The sequence of events is first it was a symbolic system of communication, then the writings and then merged with the spoken language.

So "was more likely to begin as" must use "began". A, C and D are eliminated.

E is not sounding correct to ears because it is not using "as" or "from" in the end.

The explanation is based on my knowledge only. :-D
_________________

SAID BUSINESS SCHOOL, OXFORD - MBA CLASS OF 2008

VP
VP
avatar
S
Joined: 09 Jun 2010
Posts: 1036
Re: According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 23 Mar 2016, 02:58
1
1
cool_jonny009 wrote:
According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct rendering of speech, but was more likely to begin as a separate and distinct symbolic system of communication, and only later merged with spoken language.

(A) was more likely to begin as
(B) more than likely began as
(C) more than likely beginning from
(D) it was more than likely begun from
(E) it was more likely that it began

Official Guide 12 Question

GMAT Official Guide 12

Question: 39
Page: 41
Difficulty: 600

Find All Official Guide Questions

Video Explanations:


very hard and beautiful question.
the first pattern is
no A but B, both A and B are of the same type of word.

above pattern is very easy to remember. this pattern applies to every case.
but the problem happen with the verb to be

she is not beautiful now but begin to be beautiful

now the pattern is
not+to be +but +verb.
this pattern is hard to remember. very hard. I miss this question.
_________________

visit my facebook to help me.
on facebook, my name is: thang thang thang

Retired Moderator
User avatar
P
Joined: 19 Mar 2014
Posts: 961
Location: India
Concentration: Finance, Entrepreneurship
GPA: 3.5
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member
Re: According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 16 Jul 2017, 08:37
1
1
According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct rendering of speech, but was more likely to begin as a separate and distinct symbolic system of communication, and only later merged with spoken language.

Let's try to understand the sentence, as we glance through we come to know that the sentence tense is most probably past tense because of the words - was & merged. In the underlined portion as well we should be looking for an option that is in past tense.

Also, in comparison questions, the word "more" is always followed by the word "than".

(A) was more likely to begin as

- more likely to begin is non-idiomatic, also the word begin does not go with the words - was and merged, begin should be in the past tense. We are also missing the word THAN after the word MORE.

(B) more than likely began as

- CORRECT - BEGAN is parallel with the words - was and merged (past tense), THAN is used after MORE
- IDIOM - Not X but more than likely Y


(C) more than likely beginning from

- missing verb here, beginning is not a verb, also does not go along with was and merged.

(D) it was more than likely begun from

- Begun - is not the correct tense here. Does not go along with was and merged.

(E) it was more likely that it began

In this awkward, unclear, and wordy construction, the first it must be followed by is, not was, because the theory is current; the second it acts as the subject of the subordinate clause, and this usage requires the omission of the comma after communication.

Hence, Answer is B

Did you like the answer? 1 Kudos Please :good
_________________

"Nothing in this world can take the place of persistence. Talent will not: nothing is more common than unsuccessful men with talent. Genius will not; unrewarded genius is almost a proverb. Education will not: the world is full of educated derelicts. Persistence and determination alone are omnipotent."

Best AWA Template: https://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html#p470475

Manager
Manager
avatar
S
Joined: 01 Feb 2017
Posts: 155
Re: According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Jan 2018, 13:58
3
This construction tests idiomatic usage of
'Not X But Y' where X and Y must be in parallel construction.

X: "a direct rendering of speech" is a phrase and hence Y cannot be a clause.

So, choices A,D and E are out.

Choice C is incorrect because it is using present participle 'begining' instead of past participle 'began'.

Hence, IMO Correct Ans is B

Posted from my mobile device
Verbal Forum Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: Greatness begins beyond your comfort zone
Joined: 08 Dec 2013
Posts: 2107
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
Schools: Kelley '20, ISB '19
GPA: 3.2
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge CAT Tests
Re: According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Feb 2018, 21:34
GMATNinja wrote:
Let's start by putting (A) and (B) side-by-side:

Quote:
(A) was more likely to begin as
(B) more than likely began as

The verb tense in (A) is really confusing, and it's definitely not our best option. We have three different verbs in the sentence, all of which describe "the earliest writing", which:

  • ..."was probably not a direct rendering of speech"
  • "...was more likely to begin..."
  • and "...later merged with spoken language."

That middle piece is wacky. All three of these things happened in the past, and need to be in the same version of past tense. So the underlined portion is odd: why would we say "was more likely to begin", when we could just say "more likely began as"? "Begin" is in present tense (i.e., a general characteristic), and "was more likely to begin" doesn't make much sense -- it's almost as if the earliest writing had some probabilistic quality or something, and there was a good chance that it would eventually begin "as a separate and distinct symbolic system."

That's so much messier than (B), which just says that according to scholars, it's likely that the earliest writing actually began "as a separate and distinct symbolic system."

So we can get rid of (A), and keep (B).

Quote:
(C) more than likely beginning from

There are two little problems with (C), particularly when we compare it with (B).

First, I don't know why we would switch the verb "began" to the participle "beginning", considering that the rest of the sentence features nice, simple, past tense verbs ("the earliest writing was... and later merged..." So in this sense, (B) is clearly better than (C).

The other issue is that it doesn't really make sense to say that the earliest writing was beginning "from a separate and distinct symbolic system." The earliest writing didn't evolve from some other separate and distinct system; the earliest writing WAS the separate and distinct symbolic system.

So we can ditch (C).

Quote:
(D) it was more than likely begun from

We could make a lazy argument that (D) is wordy and awkward, and that's not necessarily wrong. (D) definitely sounds like crap, and I don't think that you could ever use the phrase "was begun" in a correct sentence. At least I can't think of one.

The more concrete argument is that that parallelism is wrong in (D):

    "...the earliest writing was probably not a direct rendering of speech, it was more than likely begun from a separate and distinct symbolic system of communication, and only later merged with spoken language."

So we have a full independent clause, then another full independent clause, then an "and" followed by a verb phrase ("merged with spoken language"). That's not OK, partly because you can't just separate two independent clauses with a comma (a comma splice, if you like jargon), and partly because the "and" is followed by a verb phrase -- so the other parallel elements should also be verb phrases, not full clauses.

Plus, "from" doesn't make sense, for the same reasons as answer choice (C). See above for more on that issue.

Anyway, (D) is out.

Quote:
(E) it was more likely that it began

(E) features the same parallelism issue as (D), and that's enough by itself to eliminate (E).

Plus, there's no preposition after "began", so that tweaks the meaning: "[the earliest writing systems] began a separate and distinct symbolic system..." Huh? The writing system didn't "begin" a new symbolic system; it WAS a separate symbolic system, so we'd need to say that it "began as" a separate system.

And for bonus points, I'm not sure that there's a good reason to include an extra "it" at the beginning of the underlined portion -- it's a non-referential pronoun (classic example: "it is raining" is an acceptable sentence, but the "it" has no referent), and that's not necessarily wrong, but there's no reason to use that extra pronoun at all in this particular sentence.

So (E) is out, and we're left with (B).


Hi GMATNinja,
In option D,

"...the earliest writing was probably not a direct rendering of speech, but it was more than likely begun from a separate and distinct symbolic system of communication, and only later merged with spoken language."
I think you might have missed the but after the comma.

1. Since ",but" is joining two independent clauses, there is no comma splice here. Also, isn't the pronoun it that follows but redundant?
Since, the independent clauses (the earliest writing was probably not a direct rendering of speech, but it was more than likely begun from a separate and distinct symbolic system of communication) have the same subject. Can we reject option because of redundancy due to repetition of subject in the independent clauses ?

2. For Not X, But Y parallelism --> Can we reject option A, D and E based on parallelism(Not X , but Y) ?

https://gmatclub.com/forum/qotd-as-crim ... 58304.html --> think of “not/but” as a parallelism trigger, not an idiom.

Whenever Not X , But Y appears in a sentence , should we ensure that X and Y are parallel ?

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert , other experts-- please enlighten
_________________

When everything seems to be going against you, remember that the airplane takes off against the wind, not with it. - Henry Ford
The Moment You Think About Giving Up, Think Of The Reason Why You Held On So Long
+1 Kudos if you find this post helpful

Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
S
Joined: 30 Oct 2017
Posts: 176
Re: According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 13 May 2018, 13:30
Skywalker18 wrote:
Hi GMATNinja,
In option D,

"...the earliest writing was probably not a direct rendering of speech, but it was more than likely begun from a separate and distinct symbolic system of communication, and only later merged with spoken language."
I think you might have missed the but after the comma.

1. Since ",but" is joining two independent clauses, there is no comma splice here. Also, isn't the pronoun it that follows but redundant?
Since, the independent clauses (the earliest writing was probably not a direct rendering of speech, but it was more than likely begun from a separate and distinct symbolic system of communication) have the same subject. Can we reject option because of redundancy due to repetition of subject in the independent clauses ?

2. For Not X, But Y parallelism --> Can we reject option A, D and E based on parallelism(Not X , but Y) ?

https://gmatclub.com/forum/qotd-as-crim ... 58304.html --> think of “not/but” as a parallelism trigger, not an idiom.

Whenever Not X , But Y appears in a sentence , should we ensure that X and Y are parallel ?

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert , other experts-- please enlighten

Hi Skywalker18!

You're right, GMATNinja missed the "but" in option D, but the parallelism issue is still there (you are correct that "Not X, but Y" should follow parallel structure). The extra "it" destroys the parallel structure:

...the earliest writing was not a rendering..., but it was begun from..., and only later merged...

You're correct that "it" is redundant here. So for either that reason, or the fact that it ruins parallelism here, it's incorrect. We can definitely eliminate D and E because they do not follow correct parallelism here, since we want three verb phrases, not clauses. However, A, B, and C all have verb phrases (rather than clauses), so we can't eliminate them based on parallelism alone.

-Carolyn
_________________

Magoosh Test Prep

Image

Image

Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 08 May 2018
Posts: 31
Re: According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Jul 2018, 01:32
Hi GMATNinja

Can you please resolve the following query:

1. Does the usage of "comma + but" always signifies an independent clause?
2. Can i conclude that in the following sentence we have an independent clause after ", but" and another independent clause after ", and" ?

"According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct rendering of speech, but more than likely began as a separate and distinct symbolic system of communication, and only later merged with spoken language."
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
User avatar
P
Status: GMAT and GRE tutor
Joined: 13 Aug 2009
Posts: 2021
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
GMAT 2: 800 Q51 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V170
Re: According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 07 Sep 2018, 13:28
XYZABCABC wrote:
Hi GMATNinja

Can you please resolve the following query:

1. Does the usage of "comma + but" always signifies an independent clause?
2. Can i conclude that in the following sentence we have an independent clause after ", but" and another independent clause after ", and" ?

"According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct rendering of speech, but more than likely began as a separate and distinct symbolic system of communication, and only later merged with spoken language."

1. No. I'm not sure that this the issue, but just to be clear: by definition, the word "but" turns an independent clause into a dependent clause.

  • Independent: "Burritos are delicious." --> can stand alone as an independent sentence
  • Dependent: "But burritos are delicious." --> definitely can not stand alone as an independent sentence

There are also other uses of the word "but" that don't introduce a clause at all. Here's an example:

    "Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, but are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments."

I simplified some things, but the heart of this sentence is actually in a GMATPrep question. You can see that "but" is NOT followed by a full clause at all -- it's just a verb phrase by itself (parallel to the phrase after the word "not" in this case). And that can be fine. More generally, "but" or any other conjunction (and, or, etc.) does not necessarily separate clauses from each other; those conjunctions can also separate verbs or verb phrases or items in a list.

So don't assume that "but" necessarily has to be followed by a full clause.

2. Also no. Again, an independent clause must be able to stand on its own as a complete sentence. "More than likely began as a separate and distinct symbolic system of communication" isn't a complete sentence, since there's no subject! The same is true of "only later merged with spoken languages." Notice that the OA contains two instances of "comma + conjunction," and neither introduces an independent clause.

So yes: if we're connecting two clauses with a conjunction such as "but," we'd need to use a comma, but conjunctions such as "but" and "and" have other uses, such as separating the elements in a list.

I hope that helps!
_________________

GMAT Club Verbal Expert | GMAT/GRE tutor @ www.gmatninja.com (Now hiring!) | GMAT blog | Food blog | Notoriously bad at PMs

Beginners' guides to GMAT verbal
Reading Comprehension | Critical Reasoning | Sentence Correction

YouTube LIVE verbal webinars
Series 1: Fundamentals of SC & CR | Series 2: Developing a Winning GMAT Mindset

SC & CR Questions of the Day (QOTDs), featuring expert explanations
All QOTDs | Subscribe via email | RSS

Need an expert reply?
Hit the request verbal experts' reply button -- and please be specific about your question. Feel free to tag @GMATNinja and @GMATNinjaTwo in your post. Priority is always given to official GMAT questions.

Sentence Correction articles & resources
How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

Reading Comprehension, Critical Reasoning, and other articles & resources
All GMAT Ninja articles on GMAT Club | Using LSAT for GMAT CR & RC |7 reasons why your actual GMAT scores don't match your practice test scores | How to get 4 additional "fake" GMAT Prep tests for $29.99 | Time management on verbal

GMAT Club Bot
Re: According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct &nbs [#permalink] 07 Sep 2018, 13:28
Display posts from previous: Sort by

According to scholars, the earliest writing was probably not a direct

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  

Events & Promotions

PREV
NEXT


Copyright

GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.