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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait

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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 17 May 2008, 19:11
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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
(C) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

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Originally posted by sondenso on 16 May 2008, 02:30.
Last edited by sondenso on 17 May 2008, 19:11, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2015, 09:30
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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

As per the meaning of the sentence:
SJG argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection but they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.
Products of Natural selection are favored due to their enhancement and reproduction or survival.
As per the sentence favored is a Verb+ed Modifier or past participle modifier

Why not "Due to" or "because of"
Now as we know "Products" cannot do favoring so the action is performed on "products", so "favored" is a verb+ed modifier.

Any verb+ed Modifier can be written as a clause.
For example:
kept at the corner of the room, the rock was glittering.

Obviously rock cannot do the action of keeping so kept is a verb+ed modifier modifying the noun -> Rock.
So we can also write The rock that was kept at the corner of the room was glittering. So this modifier can be written as a clause.

And we know
1) Due to" modifies a noun or noun phrase and followed by a noun or noun phrase.
For example:
Delay in the match was due to heavy rain
here "Delay" (a noun or noun phrase) is modified by Due to and Due to takes "Heavy rain" (noun or noun phrase).

2) Because of modifies a noun or noun phrase and followed by a clause.
For example:
Match was delayed because of heavy rain.
So "Match was delayed" is a complete clause and it is modified by "because of" and because of takes "heavy rain" (noun or noun phrase)..

So we need a "because" or "because of" as verb+ed modifier can be expressed as a clause.

(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
Two issues:
1) Due to is wrong as it cannot modify any clause.
2) "they are" is repeated and is not required. "They" refers to "biological traits"

(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
Same issues as above

(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are
Though the structure is correct bit not sure who is enhancing the "reproduction or survival"

Now lets check the below options:

Let me demonstrate the problem with Option C)

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

There can be two interpretations:
1) Interpretation 1:
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection,
[favored because they enhance reproduction or survival,
but
(because they) simply (enhance) random by-products of other evolutionary developments]

A little bit illogical but yes, does conveys some meaning.

2) Interpretation 2:
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are
not
the products of natural selection,(favored because they enhance reproduction or survival),
but
simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

This interpretation makes a lot of sense. So to remove the ambiguity we need repeat the "are" so that reader shouldn't get the 1st illogical meaning at all. And that's the reason why D) wins.

(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are - Correct
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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16 May 2008, 03:21
I am between D and E. For me, D looks better, but I cannot explain it.

Can somebody explain it? OA?
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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16 May 2008, 04:35
this ones been discussed a few times on here, and it boils down to C or D. Honestly, I went with D because it has the right idiom (not X but Y), and also maintains parallelism 'are ... are'
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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16 May 2008, 08:19
..many biological traits are not ... but are...
Left with D and E.
even though I find use of 'they' bit confusing in D but E is even worse. So, reluctantly, D.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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16 May 2008, 09:41
1
1
Quote:
A due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

Eliminate A and B. Reason : Due to means caused by
Eliminate C . Reason : Try substituting it in the original sentence.
E is wrong because first ing is wordy. Also, if you observe closely, it modifies the original menaning.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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16 May 2008, 18:21
1
farend wrote:
C. for ||ism - not X but Y

Farend, you and I are in the same boat!

zoltan wrote:
Can somebody explain it?

I am also looking for a thorough reasoning of D? I dont know why "are" at the final of D is neccesary?
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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16 May 2008, 20:18
D for me too. Sondenso, a humble request to you. mate. Please do not delay posting teh OA as most of us are losing our hair waiting for you to post it. You know, it is really hard to wait once we made that selection. Having been a part of the genration that believes in instant gratification, I can't help but expect a quicker affirmation here. Can you help?
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 17 May 2008, 03:00
D for me too.

another humble request for Sodenso,

please put GMATPrep in the subject line if its a GMATPrep question. I realise you want healthy discussion of these questions, but I am sure you do not want to dilute your fellow clubber's gmatprep experience. Also most, if not all, GMATPrep questions are discussed several times over in this forum. A search would yield good hits if you were to look for explanations.

Kudos for being so enthusiastic however.

Originally posted by buffdaddy on 17 May 2008, 02:49.
Last edited by buffdaddy on 17 May 2008, 03:00, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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17 May 2008, 02:59
please put GMATPrep in the subject line if its a GMATPrep question

Ok, from now on, I will put GmatPrep as title!

OA is D

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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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17 May 2008, 03:07
sondenso wrote:
please put GMATPrep in the subject line if its a GMATPrep question

Ok, from now on, I will put GmatPrep as title!

OA is D

thanks mate

Honestly, I still not understand why D is correct? Give me a hand!
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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17 May 2008, 03:23
ok I will give it a shot at explaining.

According to the parallelism rule, yes the [are] is optional, BUT, sometimes it necessary.

This is one example where its necessary since there is a modifier that clouds the parallelism. Meaning the ", but simply random byproducts..." could be confused as a sub modifier of "survival" or the first modifying phrase.

So ", but are..." construction, removes this confusion by realining the focus of the sentence to the original stem of the sentence. i.e "... are not the products of natural selection, <modifier>, but are ..."
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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17 May 2008, 19:07
1
ok I will give it a shot at explaining.

According to the parallelism rule, yes the [are] is optional, BUT, sometimes it necessary.

This is one example where its necessary since there is a modifier that clouds the parallelism. Meaning the ", but simply random byproducts..." could be confused as a sub modifier of "survival" or the first modifying phrase.

So ", but are..." construction, removes this confusion by realining the focus of the sentence to the original stem of the sentence. i.e "... are not the products of natural selection, <modifier>, but are ..."

Let see the rule of parallelism: not X, but Y. So the sentence should be: not ARE X, but ARE Y.

The original violates that rule and say "are not X, but are Y" So confusing! Do you think so?
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2009, 22:38
1
tejal777 wrote:
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are

(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are

(C) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but

(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are

(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

OA
:D

Please explain why C is incorrect.

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection,
favored because they enhance reproduction or survival,
but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

You are missing verb - are - in C. D corrects this problem.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2009, 10:27
Ans is D

Explanation for C

bla bla bla are not, due to ... , but are
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2009, 09:58
1
1
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are

(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are

(C) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but

(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are

(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

Difference between C and D

Idiomatic usage is Not X but Y
Here if it was mentioned not products of natural selection without the "the" C would have been ok. The extra "the" in front of products needs "are" to maintain parallel structure
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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14 Jun 2010, 09:06
D is not parallel.

The idiom is not X but Y.
In D X is a noun and in Y it is a verb.

Whats wrong in C??
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2010, 06:58
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2
I found some discussion on other forum. Should help everyone:

there are two ways of reading the sentence if choice C is inserted. here they are, with the boldface in each indicating exactly what is construed as a modifier:

1) Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

2) Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

The first example can be read as:

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many bio traits are not X [the products...selection], modifier of X [favored...survival], but simply Y [random...developments].

So, above, I'm contrasting X and Y, and X also happens to have a little extra modifier going on.

The second example can be read as:

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many bio traits are not X [the products...selection], modifier of X [favored...survival], modifer of modifier of X [but simply...developments].

In other words, I'm no longer contrasting X and Y - instead, I'm saying something about X and then giving a couple of modifiers in a row to describe it - there is no longer a comparable, contrasting Y. (And this doesn't make logical sense if you know anything about the topic. But it is a grammatical possibility - someone who didn't know that this is illogical couldn't be sure that this isn't the meaning.)

I need that "are" in there to know that it is definitely option 1: comparing X to Y. Biological traits are not X but are Y.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2010, 11:15
seekmba wrote:
I found some discussion on other forum. Should help everyone:

there are two ways of reading the sentence if choice C is inserted. here they are, with the boldface in each indicating exactly what is construed as a modifier:

1) Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

2) Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

The first example can be read as:

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many bio traits are not X [the products...selection], modifier of X [favored...survival], but simply Y [random...developments].

So, above, I'm contrasting X and Y, and X also happens to have a little extra modifier going on.

The second example can be read as:

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many bio traits are not X [the products...selection], modifier of X [favored...survival], modifer of modifier of X [but simply...developments].

In other words, I'm no longer contrasting X and Y - instead, I'm saying something about X and then giving a couple of modifiers in a row to describe it - there is no longer a comparable, contrasting Y. (And this doesn't make logical sense if you know anything about the topic. But it is a grammatical possibility - someone who didn't know that this is illogical couldn't be sure that this isn't the meaning.)

I need that "are" in there to know that it is definitely option 1: comparing X to Y. Biological traits are not X but are Y.

Not X but Y. How can X be a noun and Y a verb?
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2010, 00:17
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This is irritating. I went for C lured by the II ism not X but Y . And then this new form of IIism pops in with Are in between. Im going insane.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait &nbs [#permalink] 28 Aug 2010, 00:17

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