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    Strategies and techniques for approaching featured GMAT topics

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait

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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.


(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are

(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are

(C) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but

(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are

(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

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Originally posted by sondenso on 16 May 2008, 01:30.
Last edited by Bunuel on 30 Nov 2018, 03:08, edited 2 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2015, 08:30
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Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

As per the meaning of the sentence:
SJG argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection but they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.
Products of Natural selection are favored due to their enhancement and reproduction or survival.
As per the sentence favored is a Verb+ed Modifier or past participle modifier

Why not "Due to" or "because of"
Now as we know "Products" cannot do favoring so the action is performed on "products", so "favored" is a verb+ed modifier.

Any verb+ed Modifier can be written as a clause.
For example:
kept at the corner of the room, the rock was glittering.

Obviously rock cannot do the action of keeping so kept is a verb+ed modifier modifying the noun -> Rock.
So we can also write The rock that was kept at the corner of the room was glittering. So this modifier can be written as a clause.

And we know
1) Due to" modifies a noun or noun phrase and followed by a noun or noun phrase.
For example:
Delay in the match was due to heavy rain
here "Delay" (a noun or noun phrase) is modified by Due to and Due to takes "Heavy rain" (noun or noun phrase).

2) Because of modifies a noun or noun phrase and followed by a clause.
For example:
Match was delayed because of heavy rain.
So "Match was delayed" is a complete clause and it is modified by "because of" and because of takes "heavy rain" (noun or noun phrase)..

So we need a "because" or "because of" as verb+ed modifier can be expressed as a clause.


(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
Two issues:
1) Due to is wrong as it cannot modify any clause.
2) "they are" is repeated and is not required. "They" refers to "biological traits"


(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
Same issues as above

(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are
Though the structure is correct bit not sure who is enhancing the "reproduction or survival"

Now lets check the below options:

Let me demonstrate the problem with Option C)

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

There can be two interpretations:
1) Interpretation 1:
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection,
[favored because they enhance reproduction or survival,
but
(because they) simply (enhance) random by-products of other evolutionary developments]

A little bit illogical but yes, does conveys some meaning.

2) Interpretation 2:
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are
not
the products of natural selection,(favored because they enhance reproduction or survival),
but
simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

This interpretation makes a lot of sense. So to remove the ambiguity we need repeat the "are" so that reader shouldn't get the 1st illogical meaning at all. And that's the reason why D) wins.

(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are - Correct
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2008, 08:41
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Quote:
A due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are


Eliminate A and B. Reason : Due to means caused by
Eliminate C . Reason : Try substituting it in the original sentence.
E is wrong because first ing is wordy. Also, if you observe closely, it modifies the original menaning.
Answer : D
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Nov 2009, 08:58
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1
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are

(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are

(C) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but

(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are

(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

Difference between C and D

Idiomatic usage is Not X but Y
Here if it was mentioned not products of natural selection without the "the" C would have been ok. The extra "the" in front of products needs "are" to maintain parallel structure
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2010, 05:58
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I found some discussion on other forum. Should help everyone:

there are two ways of reading the sentence if choice C is inserted. here they are, with the boldface in each indicating exactly what is construed as a modifier:

1) Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

2) Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

The first example can be read as:

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many bio traits are not X [the products...selection], modifier of X [favored...survival], but simply Y [random...developments].

So, above, I'm contrasting X and Y, and X also happens to have a little extra modifier going on.

The second example can be read as:

Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many bio traits are not X [the products...selection], modifier of X [favored...survival], modifer of modifier of X [but simply...developments].

In other words, I'm no longer contrasting X and Y - instead, I'm saying something about X and then giving a couple of modifiers in a row to describe it - there is no longer a comparable, contrasting Y. (And this doesn't make logical sense if you know anything about the topic. But it is a grammatical possibility - someone who didn't know that this is illogical couldn't be sure that this isn't the meaning.)

I need that "are" in there to know that it is definitely option 1: comparing X to Y. Biological traits are not X but are Y.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2010, 23:17
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This is irritating. I went for C lured by the II ism not X but Y . And then this new form of IIism pops in with Are in between. Im going insane.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2010, 20:53
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the point is:

the BUT here is not PARALLEL with NOT, I was fooled by it. BUT here is just parallel with FAVORED, both the phrase supports the NATURAL SELECTION.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2011, 02:44
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eybrj2 wrote:
43. Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

A due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

What's wrong with c?


In C, lack of helping verb "are" will make 2 interpretation.

1. but simply random by-products of... will elaborate for "due to ... survival"
2. but simply random by-products of... will elaborate for (contradict) the product of natural selection.

In choice D, it has just only one interpretation as #2
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2012, 17:34
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This sentence is very difficult to stick unless you have the rules about due to and because of very clear (I also picke dit wrong, saying the truth)

So, in concrete we have to choice between due to and because of (or because)

Due to is used to modify only nouns and THEN if you replaced due to with caused by and the phrase has sense, it is correct. Here is wrong due to: A and B are out

Because of must modify a verb, in E we have not a verb that follows because of so E is incorrect

C doesn't have ARE in the ens , so is incorrect.

Answer is D.

Tough :) Hope is clear. For reference follow this link http://e-gmat.com/blogs/?p=137
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2012, 00:03
1
tsheshraj wrote:
43. Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

A due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

hi all, i used the POE technique to eliminate (due to vs Because of) the wrong answers and was left with C & D as the choices for the following questions. I eliminated D because of the expression are not X, but are Y and selected C which has Not X, But Y construction. The OA seems to be D. Can you help pls?


I took following approach to reach to the correct answer, although it took more that 2 minutes.

Step 1:
Whenever I find phrase 'due to', I look out option with phrase 'because' and segregate the options into two groups.
Next I replace 'due to' with the word 'caused by' in the original sentence. If it sounds OK, then I eliminate all options with 'because'.
In this question option A and B are eliminated by this approach as here 'caused by' sound awkward.

Step2:
In option C & D, 'they' is correctly referring to 'traits'.
at the end of the sentence 'are' is required, as it will form parallelism. '... traits are not X, but are Y'.
The clause "favored, because....." is a -ed modifier that modifies 'selection'.

So, out of C& D, D seems correct.

Step 3: here ' because of enhancing' is wrong. With because we can use any one of the following forms-
(i) because of enhancement. here enhancement is noun, in this we don't need a subject.
(ii) because (subject) (verb): because they enhance

So, option E is wrong.

With this conclude that option D is correct.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2012, 23:46
1
tsheshraj wrote:
43. Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

A due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

hi all, i used the POE technique to eliminate (due to vs Because of) the wrong answers and was left with C & D as the choices for the following questions. I eliminated D because of the expression are not X, but are Y and selected C which has Not X, But Y construction. The OA seems to be D. Can you help pls?



For parallelism : to avoid confusion I follow this Crude method ..........

A ( B+ C) = AB...................+.......................AC = AB & AC should make sense logically / structurally : + = But / AND, parallel markers

Biological traits are not the products of natural selection......................BUT...............are by-products

For option C :

Let : A = Biological traits are not , X = the prodcuts of natural selection , Y = By products

lets substitute these variables in the above eqn and check :

Biological traits are not ( the products of natural selection )..............................BUT..........................Biological traits are not (by products) = Does it make any sense ?

Now Option D ; Rearrangement of variables :

Let : A = Biological traits are , X = Not THE prodcuts of natural selection , Y = By products

Substitution yields :

Biological traits are (not the products of natural selection)..............................BUT..........................Biological traits are ( by products ) = perfect

Leading to D, my take
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2012, 08:34
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tsheshraj wrote:
43. Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

A due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

hi all, i used the POE technique to eliminate (due to vs Because of) the wrong answers and was left with C & D as the choices for the following questions. I eliminated D because of the expression are not X, but are Y and selected C which has Not X, But Y construction. The OA seems to be D. Can you help pls?


Choice D is correct and choice C is incorrect primarily because meaning is more clear with Choice D. Remember the correct answer should be grammatically correct and it should communicate the meaning without any ambiguity. Essentially as you speak or write the sentence, the listener or the reader should not think - what did you just say or what did I just read.

I will only bring out the relevant portions of this sentence as they pertain to the meaning of Choices C and D.

Choice C
SJG said that bio traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.
When I read this sentence, I am a little confused whether the red part is an extension of "reproduction or survival" or the contrast for "products of natural selection". Yes logically I know it should be the latter but the way this choice is written as I go with the flow of the sentence, I may consider this part to be the extension of "reproduction or survival".

This problem is solved with Choice D. Here by repeating the verb - are - now the author clarifies that "the modifier is over" and now we are back to the contrast. i.e.
Biol traits are not the products of natural selection but are the by products of evolutionary development.

So yes from pure grammar standpoint choice C has the right parallel list but it fails to communicate the meaning clearly. Choice D on the other hand by adding "are" emphasizes on the important aspect of meaning as intended by choice A.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2014, 00:34
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PiyushK wrote:
NEW PROJECT!: Back to basic => Give your explanation- Get Kudos Point for best explanation


Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

A. due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B. due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C. because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D. because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E. because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are


Sentence Meaning: Paleontologist SJ believes that Many Biological Traits are not the products of Natural Selection but are random by-products of other evolutionary developments. {These Biological traits are favoured because they enhance reproduction or survival} ----> Verb-ed modifier modifing BT..

Option A and B are wrong because of Incorrect usage of Due to...A small test to check whether due to is correctly used is replace "Due to" by "Caused by" and see if the sentence makes sense...Moreover we need because to explain the reason why certain BT is favoured..

Option E says Because of Enhancing reproduction...BT gets preferred which is not reason..BT are preferred because BT's enhance reproduction or survival..

Option C tries to make us chose this option because of Idiom Not X but Y...where X and Y are parallel...But we need an "are" which is present in Option D...
"Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued
that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival,but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.-------> without are...the sentence is run-on..


D says that BT are not products of natural selection but are simply random by products...Here we have connected 2 verbs in contrast by using but....
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2014, 10:47
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PiyushK wrote:
NEW PROJECT!: Back to basic => Give your explanation- Get Kudos Point for best explanation


Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

A. due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B. due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C. because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D. because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E. because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are



Grammatical construction should be - due to "noun" or because of "noun". In option A,B, E there is a clause after "but" - but they are. To maintain parallelism we need to have a clause before but. So option A,B and E are incorrect.

In option C, we need are to complete the clause after but. Hence, option D is the correct answer.

Consider kudos if this helps!!!
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jan 2015, 21:23
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sondenso wrote:
43. Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

A due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are


A - Can't use "due to" in this construction. To test "due to" in a sentence, replace it with "caused by" and see if it still makes sense. "Favored caused by"? No good.
B - Same as A
C - Without including "are", the role of "but simply random by-products..." becomes ambiguous. Does it connect with "are not" or does it modify the "favored because.." clause.
D - Correct
E - "Because of enhancing" is an incorrect idiom.

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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2017, 06:30
egmat wrote:
tsheshraj wrote:
43. Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

A due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

hi all, i used the POE technique to eliminate (due to vs Because of) the wrong answers and was left with C & D as the choices for the following questions. I eliminated D because of the expression are not X, but are Y and selected C which has Not X, But Y construction. The OA seems to be D. Can you help pls?


Choice D is correct and choice C is incorrect primarily because meaning is more clear with Choice D. Remember the correct answer should be grammatically correct and it should communicate the meaning without any ambiguity. Essentially as you speak or write the sentence, the listener or the reader should not think - what did you just say or what did I just read.

I will only bring out the relevant portions of this sentence as they pertain to the meaning of Choices C and D.

Choice C
SJG said that bio traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.
When I read this sentence, I am a little confused whether the red part is an extension of "reproduction or survival" or the contrast for "products of natural selection". Yes logically I know it should be the latter but the way this choice is written as I go with the flow of the sentence, I may consider this part to be the extension of "reproduction or survival".

This problem is solved with Choice D. Here by repeating the verb - are - now the author clarifies that "the modifier is over" and now we are back to the contrast. i.e.
Biol traits are not the products of natural selection but are the by products of evolutionary development.

So yes from pure grammar standpoint choice C has the right parallel list but it fails to communicate the meaning clearly. Choice D on the other hand by adding "are" emphasizes on the important aspect of meaning as intended by choice A.

Hope this helps.
Regards,
Payal


Could you please be more clear on when to use Not x but y and Not + x but + verb + y ?
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2017, 02:56
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sumanainampudi wrote:
egmat wrote:
tsheshraj wrote:
43. Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.

A due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are
B due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are
C because they enhance reproduction or survival, but
D because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are
E because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are

hi all, i used the POE technique to eliminate (due to vs Because of) the wrong answers and was left with C & D as the choices for the following questions. I eliminated D because of the expression are not X, but are Y and selected C which has Not X, But Y construction. The OA seems to be D. Can you help pls?


Choice D is correct and choice C is incorrect primarily because meaning is more clear with Choice D. Remember the correct answer should be grammatically correct and it should communicate the meaning without any ambiguity. Essentially as you speak or write the sentence, the listener or the reader should not think - what did you just say or what did I just read.

I will only bring out the relevant portions of this sentence as they pertain to the meaning of Choices C and D.

Choice C
SJG said that bio traits are not the products of natural selection, favored because they enhance reproduction or survival, but simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.
When I read this sentence, I am a little confused whether the red part is an extension of "reproduction or survival" or the contrast for "products of natural selection". Yes logically I know it should be the latter but the way this choice is written as I go with the flow of the sentence, I may consider this part to be the extension of "reproduction or survival".

This problem is solved with Choice D. Here by repeating the verb - are - now the author clarifies that "the modifier is over" and now we are back to the contrast. i.e.
Biol traits are not the products of natural selection but are the by products of evolutionary development.

So yes from pure grammar standpoint choice C has the right parallel list but it fails to communicate the meaning clearly. Choice D on the other hand by adding "are" emphasizes on the important aspect of meaning as intended by choice A.

Hope this helps.
Regards,
Payal


Could you please be more clear on when to use Not x but y and Not + x but + verb + y ?



background:
structure 1: "not X but Y"
this construction signifies that "X" is expected, normal, or customary in the given situation but that "Y" is what is actually present / has happened / will happen.
for instance:
Restaurant X's "hamburgers" are made not of actual hamburger but of turkey.

structure 2: "X but Y"
this construction signifies some sort of general contrast between X and Y, but lacks the semantic sense that Y is a substitute for X.
for instance:
i am not a doctor but can fix your broken finger.

so, the correct answer to this problem can be understood as a case of structure #2 -- note my example above ("i am not a doctor but can fix your broken finger"), which will also appear incorrect if you try to process it as structure #1.


background:
structure 1: "not X but Y"
this construction signifies that "X" is expected, normal, or customary in the given situation but that "Y" is what is actually present / has happened / will happen.
for instance:
Restaurant X's "hamburgers" are made not of actual hamburger but of turkey.

structure 2: "X but Y"
this construction signifies some sort of general contrast between X and Y, but lacks the semantic sense that Y is a substitute for X.
for instance:
i am not a doctor but can fix your broken finger.

so, the correct answer to this problem can be understood as a case of structure #2 -- note my example above ("i am not a doctor but can fix your broken finger"), which will also appear incorrect if you try to process it as structure #1.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2017, 20:48
I thought C is correct via the "in-out" principle? So, "ARE not x, but (ARE) Y", so in D it would go "ARE ARE" if that makes sense?

Someone please help!!! Thank You :P
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2017, 23:20
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You can read the structure two ways:

1) are NOT x BUT y
2) are not x BUT are y

In other words, we can see the parallel markers as "NOT/BUT," or we can see a single parallel marker: "BUT." The interpretation the GMAT is going with on this one is 2. It's really a matter of emphasis: I am not this but I AM that. As my colleague Kyle points out above, the use of "are" in this case helps us to interpret the overall meaning more clearly. It's very common (both on the GMAT and in "real" writing) to use seemingly unneeded structuring words or punctuation to make the meaning clear.
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2018, 23:45
sondenso wrote:
Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological traits are not the products of natural selection, favored due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are simply random by-products of other evolutionary developments.


(A) due to their enhancement of reproduction or survival, but that they are

(B) due to the reproduction or survival they enhance, but they are

(C) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but

(D) because they enhance reproduction or survival, but are

(E) because of enhancing reproduction or survival, but are


Please let me know if my reasoning is flawed:

a,b) DUE TO is incorrect because substituting in "caused by" makes the sentence non sensical
C) Missing a linking verb after BUT
D) Correct
E) Need a noun in the subordinate clause started by BECAUSE
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Re: Paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has argued that many biological trait &nbs [#permalink] 07 Dec 2018, 23:45
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