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According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow

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New post 06 Oct 2014, 23:36
TGC wrote:
egmat wrote:
vietmoi999 wrote:
I can come to choice A because other choices have clear errors.
But I am uneasy with choice A
there is no past action or past point of time before which "had feared" happened. In nearly all og questions, "had done" has a past point of time or past action.

we can infer the meaning only from the forms of verb in the sentence.




Hi vietmoi999,

A very good question indeed. :)

You are absolutely correct in saying that there is no ‘past action’ or past point of time’ in this sentence. The usage of the past perfect tense is a little tricky in this sentence. Let’s analyze the structure and meaning of the sentence to understand:

• According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence (C-1)
o that the economy will avoid the recession (C-2)
• that many had feared earlier in the year (C-3)
o and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity. (C-2)....Continued

In the above sentence, “according to some analysts” presents a meaning similar to “some analysts said that”. This is the related past event in the sentence.

So, the two events from the past are:
1. Some analysts said….
2. Many had feared earlier in the year…..

The time marker ‘earlier in the year’ tells us that the 2nd action happened earlier in the past than the 1st action. So, the usage of the past perfect tense is correct here.

Note that, it’s not intuitive to consider “according to some analysts” a separate event, but I would suggest that we try to understand the context of the sentence to see how an event can be expressed without using an action word.

Also, as you have already mentioned, no other answer choice is error-free. So, we can apply POE to get to the answer.

Hope this helps! :)

Regards,
Deepak


Hi e-gmat,

Thanks for the good explanation. However, below is my query.

How can we be so sure of the phrase "According to some analysts" is a past event?

Unless the below are mentioned we cannot be sure enough?

(1). Currently, according to analysts : Present

(2). In the past, according to analyst: Past

(3). According to analyst in the coming years: Future

And lastly for the indefinite time when we don't know the time period we use "Present Perfect"

(4). According to analysts: Present perfect.

Please clarify !



Hi Saurabh,

It is not advisable to use the present perfect when the time period is not known. The present perfect tense is used when we need to show the duration over which an action has continued or when the effect of an event that happened in the past are still visible in the present.

Also, the time marker "earlier in the year" tells us that the recession was feared earlier in the year. So, what event could possibly have happened after this fear? The context of the sentence tells us that the claims of the analysis is the only thing that could have happened afterwards.


Hope this helps! :)
Regards,
Deepak
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New post 25 Oct 2014, 04:42
vietmoi999 wrote:
on most sc problems, "had done" need a part time/action as a mark. for some problems, "had done " dose not. luckily, in this problems, there is another error clear for us to solve


Here is what i got --

for something that happened in the past but is important at the time of reporting:
I couldn’t get into the house. I had lost my keys.
Teresa wasn’t at home. She had gone shopping.

Please let me know, if this can be considered as a rule.
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New post 25 Oct 2014, 15:54
tomlui2010 wrote:
vietmoi999 wrote:
on most sc problems, "had done" need a part time/action as a mark. for some problems, "had done " dose not. luckily, in this problems, there is another error clear for us to solve


Here is what i got --

for something that happened in the past but is important at the time of reporting:
I couldn’t get into the house. I had lost my keys.
Teresa wasn’t at home. She had gone shopping.

Please let me know, if this can be considered as a rule.


Your examples (which you can turn into a single sentence by connecting with 'because') follow the standard rules of past perfect - two actions in the past with one happening before the other.

You don't need to look at a different rule to justify the past perfect.

KW

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New post 06 Mar 2015, 09:55
282552 wrote:
Can anybody please explain the difference in use of "confidence that" and "confidence in" .I thought confidence in is a correct idiom.Expert please help!!!



Either "confident that" and "confident in" can be correct. When it comes to GMAT -- oftentimes it's not black and white. One is not necessarily always right while the other is always wrong -- try to think in terms of grey/middle areas where both can be correct.

In this case, the question is not testing you on an idiom usage -- there are other problems in other parts of the sentence that you should be directing your attention (and not wasting time on this particular area).

Also, we recommend that you create a free account here and watch through our video explanations of OG questions: http://www.gmatpill.com/official-guide- ... ?id=ogsc50
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New post 19 Sep 2016, 15:11
My two cents guys.

I based the analysis on OG

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New post 17 Oct 2016, 23:58
2
souvik101990 wrote:
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a “soft landing,” followed by a gradual increase in business activity.

A. that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come

B. in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come

C. in the economy’s ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared, and instead to come

D. in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come

E. that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared earlier this year by many, with it instead coming


The sentence intends to convey that gains in the stock market represents confidence that the economy will be all and well in the future.

B & D. Does not convey the intended meaning and implied instead that confidence avoids the recession. Illogical.
C. The first portion stating confidence in the economy's ability makes sense, however "instead to come" does not have a subject. Therefore eliminate.
E. "It" is ambiguous in this sense and to me it could be referring to either the economy or the recession. Therefore eliminate.

A. Is the correct answer that conveys the meaning.
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New post 19 May 2017, 17:45
2
gautrang wrote:
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a “soft landing,” followed by a gradual increase in business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy’s ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared, and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared earlier this year by many, with it instead coming



Can anyone explain to me why
"had feared" is ok here?


A Correct.
B "To come" is not parallel with "avoid."
C "To come" is not parallel with "avoid."
D "To come" is not parallel with "avoid."
E "Coming" is not parallel with "avoid."
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New post 05 Jul 2017, 20:55
GMATNinja, Please explain the use of "that" in the original sentence.

As I understand, first "that" refers to the clause "the economy will avoid the recession" and second "that" stands for "recession". Please correct if this is wrong.

This is an example in which I see multiple use of "that" in one sentence. On the similar lines, is below sentence also correct?
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New post 21 Sep 2017, 12:38
RMD007 wrote:
GMATNinja, Please explain the use of "that" in the original sentence.

As I understand, first "that" refers to the clause "the economy will avoid the recession" and second "that" stands for "recession". Please correct if this is wrong.

This is an example in which I see multiple use of "that" in one sentence.

Original sentence again:
Quote:
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

You're on the right track! The first "that" ("that the economy will avoid the recession...") is just telling us more about the "growing confidence." The second "that" ("that many had feared earlier in the year") is just describing "the recession." Both are fine.

And its perfectly fine to see multiple "thats" in a single sentence, too. A full rundown of the various uses of "that" can be found here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/experts-topi ... 43686.html

Quote:
On the similar lines, is below sentence also correct?
It is great to take part in the GMAT Club forum as it has many experts like GMATNinja :)


I'm not completely sure which part of this sentence has inspired your question, but in most cases, the GMAT would prefer "such as" instead of "like", since you're introducing an example of an expert (albeit a lazy one who has done a totally crappy job of keeping up with questions this summer!). Personally, I don't like the sound of "as it has many experts...", but I don't think that there's anything inherently wrong with it on the GMAT.

I hope this helps!
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New post 10 Oct 2017, 07:28
[/quote]

But isnt it wrong to use 'ínstead' before a clause?[/quote]

Usage of "instead of" is restricted to nouns, whereas usage of "rather than" is more flexible. "Rather than" can be used with nouns or verbs / infinitives /participles. The reason is that "instead of" ends with the preposition "of" and hence requires a noun.[/quote]

hi sayantanc2k
I am also confused about the usage rather and instead of here.
If instead is used with noun, isn't it wrong in option A?
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New post 10 Oct 2017, 08:49
1
pra1785 wrote:

But isnt it wrong to use 'ínstead' before a clause?

Usage of "instead of" is restricted to nouns, whereas usage of "rather than" is more flexible. "Rather than" can be used with nouns or verbs / infinitives /participles. The reason is that "instead of" ends with the preposition "of" and hence requires a noun.

hi sayantanc2k
I am also confused about the usage rather and instead of here.
If instead is used with noun, isn't it wrong in option A?



Hello pra1785,


I will be glad to help you with this one. :-)

The phrase instead of is followed by a noun because a preposition is ALWAYS followed by a noun.

The original sentence that is also the correct sentence uses only instead - an adverb - that correctly precedes the verb come in.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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New post 11 Nov 2017, 22:00
Just to clarify the word earlier in the year invariably refers that the fear occurred earlier in the year and that the growing confidence in the economy showed that there was a soft landing. And since fear occurred earlier in the year we use past perfect??
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New post 27 Dec 2017, 14:59
longhaul123 wrote:
Just to clarify the word earlier in the year invariably refers that the fear occurred earlier in the year and that the growing confidence in the economy showed that there was a soft landing. And since fear occurred earlier in the year we use past perfect??



Hello longhaul123,

I am not sure if you still have this doubt. Here is my response nonetheless. :-)


You are correct in saying that the usage of the phrase earlier in the year prompts the usage of past perfect tense verb had feared.

If we put all the events in the chronological order, we will find that:

Event 1: Many had feared recession earlier in the year.
Event 2: Analysts said.
Event 3: the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence
Event 4: the economy will avoid the recession and come in for a 'soft landing'
Event 5: The business activity will gradually increase.


Since, between the two past events - Event 1 and Event 2, the action of had feared took place earlier, usage of past perfect tense is correct.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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New post 15 Jan 2019, 06:07
Required structure...

The gains (..) reflect (..) that the economy will avoid (..) and (will) come (..)

Parallelism to be maintained between will avoid and will come.
That is required
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New post 18 Apr 2019, 00:23
EMPOWERgmatVerbal

Could you please provide an explanation for this question?
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New post 18 Apr 2019, 15:04
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guhancr7 wrote:
EMPOWERgmatVerbal

Could you please provide an explanation for this question?


Hi guhancr7! I'd be glad to give an explanation for this question! To begin, here is the original with any major differences between the options highlighted in orange:

According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared earlier this year by many, with it instead coming

After a quick glance over the options, we see a few areas we can focus our attention on:

1. will avoid vs. to avoid (Verb Tense & Meaning)
2. feared / had feared / fearing (Verb Tense)
3. and instead come / rather to come / and instead to come / and rather to come / with it instead to come (Parallelism)


The quickest way to answer this question is to actually focus on #3 on our list: parallelism. There are two actions the economy will take in this sentence, and they must be parallel. Let's take a look at the original sentence for clues:

According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

We need to make sure that the options all use parallel wording with "avoid." Let's see how they stack up:

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come = PARALLEL
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come = NOT PARALLEL
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come = NOT PARALLEL
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come = NOT PARALLEL
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared earlier this year by many, with it instead coming = NOT PARALLEL

There you have it - option A is the correct choice! It's the only option that uses parallel structure throughout the sentence.

So why didn't I start with #1 or #2 on my list?

#1 on my list (to avoid vs. will avoid) is incredibly confusing to try to explain. It has more to do with how to handle modifiers and intended meaning, which will take you more time to work out while taking the GMAT. Parallelism typically is a quicker thing to check for, so it makes more sense to start there.

#2 on my list (how each option ends) relies on your understanding of idioms that use words like "rather" and "instead." As I understand it, the word "rather" deals with degrees of something (it's rather cold outside) and "instead" is used to offer up an alternative (let's go to the mall instead). However, trying to focus on this option will also take a lot more time than necessary.

I hope this helps! By focusing on the grammar concepts that are easier to handle, you might find that they help you answer the question much faster than just picking the first thing you notice! :) :thumbup:


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New post 26 Apr 2019, 20:48
bdumpala wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 11th Edition, 2005

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 45
Page: 644

According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come

(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come

(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come

(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come

(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared earlier this year by many, with it instead coming

https://www.nytimes.com/1989/08/25/business/stock-averages-reach-new-highs-dow-up-56-erases-87-mark.html

The gains reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a ''soft landing,'' followed by a gradual increase in business activity.


This question can be solved solely based on the part of speech usage. If someone can remember the rules, many 700+ level sc can be solved with ease.

Lets look at the last word split. Option B,C and D can be eliminated as "come"( a verb) is preceded by "to"(a preposition). What should follow preposition is a noun/pronoun.

E.g. Sam is going to(Preposition) home(noun).

Option E can be eliminated as instead(adverb) is preceded by a coming(Noun,Gerund). Adverbs can precede a verb (as you see in answer choice A,last two words of underlined portion) or a preposition. Eg. I chose ISB instead(adverb) of(preposition) IIML(Noun).
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New post 26 Apr 2019, 23:13
KaranB1 wrote:
Lets look at the last word split. Option B,C and D can be eliminated as "come"( a verb) is preceded by "to"(a preposition). What should follow preposition is a noun/pronoun.

E.g. Sam is going to(Preposition) home(noun).
To can also be an infinitive marker, in which case it is normal for us to see the basic form of a verb after it. For example:

Sam is going to come home soon.
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New post 26 Apr 2019, 23:19
AjiteshArun wrote:
KaranB1 wrote:
Lets look at the last word split. Option B,C and D can be eliminated as "come"( a verb) is preceded by "to"(a preposition). What should follow preposition is a noun/pronoun.

E.g. Sam is going to(Preposition) home(noun).
To can also be an infinitive marker, in which case it is normal for us to see the basic form of a verb after it. For example:

Sam is going to come home soon.


Agreed. However, "to" is not a preposition in this context.

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/preposition
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New post 26 Apr 2019, 23:34
KaranB1 wrote:
Agreed. However, "to" is not a preposition in this context.

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/preposition
Then we're on the same page. :) To is not always a preposition.
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