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According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow

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New post 07 Oct 2014, 00:36
TGC wrote:
egmat wrote:
vietmoi999 wrote:
I can come to choice A because other choices have clear errors.
But I am uneasy with choice A
there is no past action or past point of time before which "had feared" happened. In nearly all og questions, "had done" has a past point of time or past action.

we can infer the meaning only from the forms of verb in the sentence.




Hi vietmoi999,

A very good question indeed. :)

You are absolutely correct in saying that there is no ‘past action’ or past point of time’ in this sentence. The usage of the past perfect tense is a little tricky in this sentence. Let’s analyze the structure and meaning of the sentence to understand:

• According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence (C-1)
o that the economy will avoid the recession (C-2)
• that many had feared earlier in the year (C-3)
o and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity. (C-2)....Continued

In the above sentence, “according to some analysts” presents a meaning similar to “some analysts said that”. This is the related past event in the sentence.

So, the two events from the past are:
1. Some analysts said….
2. Many had feared earlier in the year…..

The time marker ‘earlier in the year’ tells us that the 2nd action happened earlier in the past than the 1st action. So, the usage of the past perfect tense is correct here.

Note that, it’s not intuitive to consider “according to some analysts” a separate event, but I would suggest that we try to understand the context of the sentence to see how an event can be expressed without using an action word.

Also, as you have already mentioned, no other answer choice is error-free. So, we can apply POE to get to the answer.

Hope this helps! :)

Regards,
Deepak


Hi e-gmat,

Thanks for the good explanation. However, below is my query.

How can we be so sure of the phrase "According to some analysts" is a past event?

Unless the below are mentioned we cannot be sure enough?

(1). Currently, according to analysts : Present

(2). In the past, according to analyst: Past

(3). According to analyst in the coming years: Future

And lastly for the indefinite time when we don't know the time period we use "Present Perfect"

(4). According to analysts: Present perfect.

Please clarify !



Hi Saurabh,

It is not advisable to use the present perfect when the time period is not known. The present perfect tense is used when we need to show the duration over which an action has continued or when the effect of an event that happened in the past are still visible in the present.

Also, the time marker "earlier in the year" tells us that the recession was feared earlier in the year. So, what event could possibly have happened after this fear? The context of the sentence tells us that the claims of the analysis is the only thing that could have happened afterwards.


Hope this helps! :)
Regards,
Deepak
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New post 25 Oct 2014, 05:42
vietmoi999 wrote:
on most sc problems, "had done" need a part time/action as a mark. for some problems, "had done " dose not. luckily, in this problems, there is another error clear for us to solve


Here is what i got --

for something that happened in the past but is important at the time of reporting:
I couldn’t get into the house. I had lost my keys.
Teresa wasn’t at home. She had gone shopping.

Please let me know, if this can be considered as a rule.
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New post 25 Oct 2014, 16:54
tomlui2010 wrote:
vietmoi999 wrote:
on most sc problems, "had done" need a part time/action as a mark. for some problems, "had done " dose not. luckily, in this problems, there is another error clear for us to solve


Here is what i got --

for something that happened in the past but is important at the time of reporting:
I couldn’t get into the house. I had lost my keys.
Teresa wasn’t at home. She had gone shopping.

Please let me know, if this can be considered as a rule.


Your examples (which you can turn into a single sentence by connecting with 'because') follow the standard rules of past perfect - two actions in the past with one happening before the other.

You don't need to look at a different rule to justify the past perfect.

KW

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New post 06 Mar 2015, 10:55
282552 wrote:
Can anybody please explain the difference in use of "confidence that" and "confidence in" .I thought confidence in is a correct idiom.Expert please help!!!



Either "confident that" and "confident in" can be correct. When it comes to GMAT -- oftentimes it's not black and white. One is not necessarily always right while the other is always wrong -- try to think in terms of grey/middle areas where both can be correct.

In this case, the question is not testing you on an idiom usage -- there are other problems in other parts of the sentence that you should be directing your attention (and not wasting time on this particular area).

Also, we recommend that you create a free account here and watch through our video explanations of OG questions: http://www.gmatpill.com/official-guide- ... ?id=ogsc50
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2015, 18:24
1
1
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared eariler this year by many, with it instead coming

Meaning :
Analyst Said : Gains Reflect confidence . Confidence that Economy with Avoid recession. A recession that was feared by many but come soft with increase in business activity.

Sentence Structure :
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence (Clause - Gain : Subject, Reflect - Verb)
That the economy will avoid the recession, (clause - Economy: Subject, Will avoid : Verb )
that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity. (clause That (Recession) : Subject, had Feared and had come verb)

Second clause modifies "Confidence" and Third clause modifies Recession.


Error Analysis :
1. Use of "that" - Usually That introduces clause (S + V), ( when lot of action is happening in small part of sentence GMAT always prefer Clause instead of Phrases ) As per above structure analysis, we have full clause after every occurrence of that and hence Use of that is correct.

2. Use of Will : Any future prediction need Use of simple future hence use of Will is correct.

3. Use of Past perfect Had : Is fear still exist ? No, It was expected / Feared by many but that fear is not there at the time of analyst making that statement. Analyst made that sentence in past and they talked about "Fear" their past event - So Use of "HAD" is not incorrect.

4. Modifiers : there is not misplaces or dangling modifiers, clauses introduced by "that" logically modifies its preceding noun.

So sentence is correct

Option B,C,D can be eliminated based on the absence of "that"
There are other issues as well in Option B,C and D, such as Incorrect usage of "Rather or Instead"

Let's analyse Option E (only option with "That")
that the economy will avoid the recession - Correct
that was feared eariler this year by many - Simple past tense, that means, when analyst made that statement Fear was in existence that means analyst statement in void. this part changes the intended meaning - incorrect
with it instead coming - Adverbial phrase acting as modifier, what this guy is trying to modify, Recession or economy not clear.
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New post 03 Oct 2015, 08:31
1
zahraf wrote:
according to parallelism,shouldn't be "will come'' because we have "will avoid" ?


Hey! Great query. But perhaps, this is one of those situations where you can skip the auxiliary/helping verb. For example: "I will get up in the morning and go for a walk" is as correct as I will get up in the morning and I will go for a walk."

The similar situation is seen here. Hope this helps! However, let me know whether there is an alternate explanation to this.
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New post 03 Oct 2015, 08:55
1
Hugoba wrote:
Can someone tell wheter the the construction "in the economy's ability to avoid... and instead to come" is correct?



Idiomatically it is. Take a look at this for a clearer explanation on the usage of Instead of v/s Rather than http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-idioms-of-comparison/
and thank mikemcgarry from Magoosh for the same :)
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New post 25 Feb 2016, 19:37
egmat wrote:
vietmoi999 wrote:
I can come to choice A because other choices have clear errors.
But I am uneasy with choice A
there is no past action or past point of time before which "had feared" happened. In nearly all og questions, "had done" has a past point of time or past action.

we can infer the meaning only from the forms of verb in the sentence.




Hi vietmoi999,

A very good question indeed. :)

You are absolutely correct in saying that there is no ‘past action’ or past point of time’ in this sentence. The usage of the past perfect tense is a little tricky in this sentence. Let’s analyze the structure and meaning of the sentence to understand:

• According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence (C-1)
o that the economy will avoid the recession (C-2)
• that many had feared earlier in the year (C-3)
o and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity. (C-2)....Continued

In the above sentence, “according to some analysts” presents a meaning similar to “some analysts said that”. This is the related past event in the sentence.

So, the two events from the past are:
1. Some analysts said….
2. Many had feared earlier in the year…..

The time marker ‘earlier in the year’ tells us that the 2nd action happened earlier in the past than the 1st action. So, the usage of the past perfect tense is correct here.

Note that, it’s not intuitive to consider “according to some analysts” a separate event, but I would suggest that we try to understand the context of the sentence to see how an event can be expressed without using an action word.

Also, as you have already mentioned, no other answer choice is error-free. So, we can apply POE to get to the answer.

Hope this helps! :)

Regards,
Deepak


But if "According to some analysts..." = "Some analysts said that..."
==> "Some analysts said that the economy will avoid the recession" ==> is it quite right?
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New post 26 Feb 2016, 14:09
johnnguyen2016 wrote:
egmat wrote:
vietmoi999 wrote:
I can come to choice A because other choices have clear errors.
But I am uneasy with choice A
there is no past action or past point of time before which "had feared" happened. In nearly all og questions, "had done" has a past point of time or past action.

we can infer the meaning only from the forms of verb in the sentence.




Hi vietmoi999,

A very good question indeed. :)

You are absolutely correct in saying that there is no ‘past action’ or past point of time’ in this sentence. The usage of the past perfect tense is a little tricky in this sentence. Let’s analyze the structure and meaning of the sentence to understand:

• According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence (C-1)
o that the economy will avoid the recession (C-2)
• that many had feared earlier in the year (C-3)
o and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity. (C-2)....Continued

In the above sentence, “according to some analysts” presents a meaning similar to “some analysts said that”. This is the related past event in the sentence.

So, the two events from the past are:
1. Some analysts said….
2. Many had feared earlier in the year…..

The time marker ‘earlier in the year’ tells us that the 2nd action happened earlier in the past than the 1st action. So, the usage of the past perfect tense is correct here.

Note that, it’s not intuitive to consider “according to some analysts” a separate event, but I would suggest that we try to understand the context of the sentence to see how an event can be expressed without using an action word.

Also, as you have already mentioned, no other answer choice is error-free. So, we can apply POE to get to the answer.

Hope this helps! :)

Regards,
Deepak


But if "According to some analysts..." = "Some analysts said that..."
==> "Some analysts said that the economy will avoid the recession" ==> is it quite right?


johnnguyen2016 Your reasoning is very strong ! :-D If the past perfect had feared is used because it is within a statement equivalent to said that, then the future will should also be would. The past perfect is used because of another past event, not because according to = said that.

Note the chronological order of events:
1. fear of recession.............earlier in the year.
2. confidence started growing........some time in the past (cause of gain in stock market)
3. confidence grows and there are gains in stock market........... present (result of growing confidence)
4. will avoid recession.... future.

The past perfect had feared is used to depict that it happened before the confidence started growing.
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New post 18 Jun 2016, 14:24
sa18 wrote:
nusmavrik wrote:
Rather - shows preference
e.g
1). We ought to invest in machinery rather than buildings.
2) I want a cat rather than a dog

Instead - suggests that one person, thing or action replaces another.
1). I'll have tea instead of coffee, please.
2). I stayed in bed all day instead of going to work.

E is wrong. You can kill C because instead is not followed by infinitive.
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come

pdarun wrote:
Can you elaborate on "instead" versus "rather".



But isnt it wrong to use 'ínstead' before a clause?


Usage of "instead of" is restricted to nouns, whereas usage of "rather than" is more flexible. "Rather than" can be used with nouns or verbs / infinitives /participles. The reason is that "instead of" ends with the preposition "of" and hence requires a noun.
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New post 23 Jun 2016, 23:01
Gabrielantonioreis wrote:
jatinrai wrote:
bdumpala wrote:
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared eariler this year by many, with it instead coming

please post your answers with explanations


A is the correct answer. Usage of 'that' makes all the difference. "Gains reflect the confidence that economy will avoid..." is correct. "Gains refect the confidence (in the economy) to avoid..." is flawed.

'in the economy' modifies 'confidence' in options B,C & D. You must try to make sense without reading the modifier in between. Try reading "gains reflect the confidence to avoid...". Does that make any sense?

Ofcourse E is too wordier & flawed that you'll be able to pick between A & E.

Hey guys, surprisingly, this is one exceptio to the use of idiom: 'instead of'. Can someone explain why is this exception?


No way! Had feared earlier is redundant. Something is wrong with the original answer


If there had been no "earlier this year", but just "earlier", then that would have been redundancy. Here "earlier" is used not to depict that the verb "fear" occured before another verb but to indicate the time when it occured. The usage is similar to saying, for example,
".....the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared in January".
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New post 19 Sep 2016, 16:11
My two cents guys.

I based the analysis on OG

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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Oct 2016, 00:58
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souvik101990 wrote:
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a “soft landing,” followed by a gradual increase in business activity.

A. that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come

B. in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come

C. in the economy’s ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared, and instead to come

D. in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come

E. that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared earlier this year by many, with it instead coming


The sentence intends to convey that gains in the stock market represents confidence that the economy will be all and well in the future.

B & D. Does not convey the intended meaning and implied instead that confidence avoids the recession. Illogical.
C. The first portion stating confidence in the economy's ability makes sense, however "instead to come" does not have a subject. Therefore eliminate.
E. "It" is ambiguous in this sense and to me it could be referring to either the economy or the recession. Therefore eliminate.

A. Is the correct answer that conveys the meaning.
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2017, 21:55
GMATNinja, Please explain the use of "that" in the original sentence.

As I understand, first "that" refers to the clause "the economy will avoid the recession" and second "that" stands for "recession". Please correct if this is wrong.

This is an example in which I see multiple use of "that" in one sentence. On the similar lines, is below sentence also correct?
It is great to take part in the GMAT Club forum as it has many experts like GMATNinja :)
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New post 21 Sep 2017, 13:38
RMD007 wrote:
GMATNinja, Please explain the use of "that" in the original sentence.

As I understand, first "that" refers to the clause "the economy will avoid the recession" and second "that" stands for "recession". Please correct if this is wrong.

This is an example in which I see multiple use of "that" in one sentence.

Original sentence again:
Quote:
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

You're on the right track! The first "that" ("that the economy will avoid the recession...") is just telling us more about the "growing confidence." The second "that" ("that many had feared earlier in the year") is just describing "the recession." Both are fine.

And its perfectly fine to see multiple "thats" in a single sentence, too. A full rundown of the various uses of "that" can be found here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/experts-topi ... 43686.html

Quote:
On the similar lines, is below sentence also correct?
It is great to take part in the GMAT Club forum as it has many experts like GMATNinja :)


I'm not completely sure which part of this sentence has inspired your question, but in most cases, the GMAT would prefer "such as" instead of "like", since you're introducing an example of an expert (albeit a lazy one who has done a totally crappy job of keeping up with questions this summer!). Personally, I don't like the sound of "as it has many experts...", but I don't think that there's anything inherently wrong with it on the GMAT.

I hope this helps!
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2017, 08:28
[/quote]

But isnt it wrong to use 'ínstead' before a clause?[/quote]

Usage of "instead of" is restricted to nouns, whereas usage of "rather than" is more flexible. "Rather than" can be used with nouns or verbs / infinitives /participles. The reason is that "instead of" ends with the preposition "of" and hence requires a noun.[/quote]

hi sayantanc2k
I am also confused about the usage rather and instead of here.
If instead is used with noun, isn't it wrong in option A?
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New post 10 Oct 2017, 09:49
pra1785 wrote:

But isnt it wrong to use 'ínstead' before a clause?

Usage of "instead of" is restricted to nouns, whereas usage of "rather than" is more flexible. "Rather than" can be used with nouns or verbs / infinitives /participles. The reason is that "instead of" ends with the preposition "of" and hence requires a noun.

hi sayantanc2k
I am also confused about the usage rather and instead of here.
If instead is used with noun, isn't it wrong in option A?



Hello pra1785,


I will be glad to help you with this one. :-)

The phrase instead of is followed by a noun because a preposition is ALWAYS followed by a noun.

The original sentence that is also the correct sentence uses only instead - an adverb - that correctly precedes the verb come in.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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New post 11 Nov 2017, 23:00
Just to clarify the word earlier in the year invariably refers that the fear occurred earlier in the year and that the growing confidence in the economy showed that there was a soft landing. And since fear occurred earlier in the year we use past perfect??
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New post 27 Dec 2017, 15:59
longhaul123 wrote:
Just to clarify the word earlier in the year invariably refers that the fear occurred earlier in the year and that the growing confidence in the economy showed that there was a soft landing. And since fear occurred earlier in the year we use past perfect??



Hello longhaul123,

I am not sure if you still have this doubt. Here is my response nonetheless. :-)


You are correct in saying that the usage of the phrase earlier in the year prompts the usage of past perfect tense verb had feared.

If we put all the events in the chronological order, we will find that:

Event 1: Many had feared recession earlier in the year.
Event 2: Analysts said.
Event 3: the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence
Event 4: the economy will avoid the recession and come in for a 'soft landing'
Event 5: The business activity will gradually increase.


Since, between the two past events - Event 1 and Event 2, the action of had feared took place earlier, usage of past perfect tense is correct.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Feb 2018, 22:11
Someone can explain me why the verb WILL is not repeated again in A after and?. Though i agree that A is the best option here, I have seen an article that states even verb should repeat after and to avoid any ambiguities.

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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow &nbs [#permalink] 16 Feb 2018, 22:11

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