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According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow

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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2016, 14:09
johnnguyen2016 wrote:
egmat wrote:
vietmoi999 wrote:
I can come to choice A because other choices have clear errors.
But I am uneasy with choice A
there is no past action or past point of time before which "had feared" happened. In nearly all og questions, "had done" has a past point of time or past action.

we can infer the meaning only from the forms of verb in the sentence.




Hi vietmoi999,

A very good question indeed. :)

You are absolutely correct in saying that there is no ‘past action’ or past point of time’ in this sentence. The usage of the past perfect tense is a little tricky in this sentence. Let’s analyze the structure and meaning of the sentence to understand:

• According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence (C-1)
o that the economy will avoid the recession (C-2)
• that many had feared earlier in the year (C-3)
o and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity. (C-2)....Continued

In the above sentence, “according to some analysts” presents a meaning similar to “some analysts said that”. This is the related past event in the sentence.

So, the two events from the past are:
1. Some analysts said….
2. Many had feared earlier in the year…..

The time marker ‘earlier in the year’ tells us that the 2nd action happened earlier in the past than the 1st action. So, the usage of the past perfect tense is correct here.

Note that, it’s not intuitive to consider “according to some analysts” a separate event, but I would suggest that we try to understand the context of the sentence to see how an event can be expressed without using an action word.

Also, as you have already mentioned, no other answer choice is error-free. So, we can apply POE to get to the answer.

Hope this helps! :)

Regards,
Deepak


But if "According to some analysts..." = "Some analysts said that..."
==> "Some analysts said that the economy will avoid the recession" ==> is it quite right?


johnnguyen2016 Your reasoning is very strong ! :-D If the past perfect had feared is used because it is within a statement equivalent to said that, then the future will should also be would. The past perfect is used because of another past event, not because according to = said that.

Note the chronological order of events:
1. fear of recession.............earlier in the year.
2. confidence started growing........some time in the past (cause of gain in stock market)
3. confidence grows and there are gains in stock market........... present (result of growing confidence)
4. will avoid recession.... future.

The past perfect had feared is used to depict that it happened before the confidence started growing.

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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2016, 14:24
sa18 wrote:
nusmavrik wrote:
Rather - shows preference
e.g
1). We ought to invest in machinery rather than buildings.
2) I want a cat rather than a dog

Instead - suggests that one person, thing or action replaces another.
1). I'll have tea instead of coffee, please.
2). I stayed in bed all day instead of going to work.

E is wrong. You can kill C because instead is not followed by infinitive.
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come

pdarun wrote:
Can you elaborate on "instead" versus "rather".



But isnt it wrong to use 'ínstead' before a clause?


Usage of "instead of" is restricted to nouns, whereas usage of "rather than" is more flexible. "Rather than" can be used with nouns or verbs / infinitives /participles. The reason is that "instead of" ends with the preposition "of" and hence requires a noun.

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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2016, 23:01
Gabrielantonioreis wrote:
jatinrai wrote:
bdumpala wrote:
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared eariler this year by many, with it instead coming

please post your answers with explanations


A is the correct answer. Usage of 'that' makes all the difference. "Gains reflect the confidence that economy will avoid..." is correct. "Gains refect the confidence (in the economy) to avoid..." is flawed.

'in the economy' modifies 'confidence' in options B,C & D. You must try to make sense without reading the modifier in between. Try reading "gains reflect the confidence to avoid...". Does that make any sense?

Ofcourse E is too wordier & flawed that you'll be able to pick between A & E.

Hey guys, surprisingly, this is one exceptio to the use of idiom: 'instead of'. Can someone explain why is this exception?


No way! Had feared earlier is redundant. Something is wrong with the original answer


If there had been no "earlier this year", but just "earlier", then that would have been redundancy. Here "earlier" is used not to depict that the verb "fear" occured before another verb but to indicate the time when it occured. The usage is similar to saying, for example,
".....the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared in January".

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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jul 2016, 06:07
A- correct
B- In the economy is a wrong modifier, the confidence is not in the economy but rather in its ability
c. Here the subject changes to ability which is correct for first phrase, however for the second phrase (instead to come) it is wrong
D. similar problem with B
E. "That was feared earlier" is unnecessarily wordy. Also, the second part with it instead coming nulifies the parallelism of two actions and rather modifies or acts like a result of the preceeding clause.
bdumpala wrote:
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared eariler this year by many, with it instead coming

please post your answers with explanations

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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jul 2016, 09:16
bdumpala wrote:
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared eariler this year by many, with it instead coming

please post your answers with explanations


B,C,D Options are Incorrect, Since the meaning of [the gains...confidence in the economy..] is illogical. The gain in stock market should reflect the growing confidence in INVESTORS not the economy.
D. THAT WAS feared... the relative pronoun THAT, which is also the Subject of relative Clause, is too close to its referent "RECESSION". This form is generally avoided.

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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2016, 08:47
Richardson wrote:
bdumpala wrote:
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared eariler this year by many, with it instead coming

please post your answers with explanations


I dont' know why it used past perfect tense for A..There is even no single past tense in the sentence!!!
Not mentioning the past perfect tense, I think A is right.
IN B...I am not sure if we can still have "rather to come" without and connecting words such as "and". And maybe it would be better if "in avoiding" is used rather than "to avoid". Overall, B looks okay to me.
In C...confidence in economy's ability...sounds not quite right. Again, past perfect tense. So I drop C.
D. Past progressive tense makes me a bit uncomfortable, but I think D is better than B.
E...Awkward..."with it instead coming" and passive expression.

For me B and E are the winners. If OA is A, I do need an explanation on the reason of using Past Perfect tense there. THx.


Well, per my understanding use of past perfect tense even in the presence of time line marker (in this case-earlier) is not incorrect. Yes, a simple past with defined time line marker is always preferred over Past Perfect, by GMAT (provided meaning makes sense) . Use of Past Perfect in such cases is just optional not "INCORRECT". So, we must not just eliminate on the basis of past perfect and simple past in a 700+ level question, there could be some other elements too.

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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2016, 22:06
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a “soft landing,” followed by a gradual increase in business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy’s ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared, and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared earlier this year by many, with it instead coming


If I keep "tense" issue aside -

Meaning is Economy will avoid the recession and come in for a soft landing,

the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence in the economy to avoid the recession and rather to come in
"To" doesn't make sense here. Also in B"and" before "rather" is missing.

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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2016, 16:11
My two cents guys.

I based the analysis on OG

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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2016, 04:15
Karanagrawal wrote:
why is option B incorrect?
is there any use of difference between instead and rather in this question?? :roll:


Option B has an obvious idiom error. Will avoid recession Vs. instead to come in for a soft landing. Wrong usage.

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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow [#permalink]

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souvik101990 wrote:
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a “soft landing,” followed by a gradual increase in business activity.

A. that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come

B. in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come

C. in the economy’s ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared, and instead to come

D. in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come

E. that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared earlier this year by many, with it instead coming


The sentence intends to convey that gains in the stock market represents confidence that the economy will be all and well in the future.

B & D. Does not convey the intended meaning and implied instead that confidence avoids the recession. Illogical.
C. The first portion stating confidence in the economy's ability makes sense, however "instead to come" does not have a subject. Therefore eliminate.
E. "It" is ambiguous in this sense and to me it could be referring to either the economy or the recession. Therefore eliminate.

A. Is the correct answer that conveys the meaning.
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow [#permalink]

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New post 08 Feb 2017, 23:11
bdumpala wrote:
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

(A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come
(B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come
(C) in the economy's ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared , and instead to come
(D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come
(E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared eariler this year by many, with it instead coming

please post your answers with explanations


sayantanc2k

I have couple of doubts. Please throw some light. Thank you.

As we discussed last week, Past Perfect action is with response to another action, which is sequentially after the Past Perfect action.
In this question, Option A is correct choice out of compulsion? As no other choice is correct enough, we have to accept Option A with the Perfect tense despite of lack of another action?

Or have I missed any other action?

Further, do Phrases such as Earlier is enough to warrant use of Past Perfect tense even if no other action in sequence?
But then it is understood that with words such as Earlier, Later, etc we understand the sequence.

In the above sentence, we have List of: Economy 1. will avoid recession...and instead 2. [will]come in soft landing, Is Ellipses in work with respect to [Will]?

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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2017, 21:55
GMATNinja, Please explain the use of "that" in the original sentence.

As I understand, first "that" refers to the clause "the economy will avoid the recession" and second "that" stands for "recession". Please correct if this is wrong.

This is an example in which I see multiple use of "that" in one sentence. On the similar lines, is below sentence also correct?
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2017, 12:38
Hi Payel,

If we are interpreting According to some analyst as Analyst reported/stated then will should become would ?

Could you please clarify the usage?

Thanks

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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2017, 12:21
arijitdas31 wrote:
Hi Payel,

If we are interpreting According to some analyst as Analyst reported/stated then will should become would ?

Could you please clarify the usage?

Thanks


Hello arijitdas31 - You point is absolutely valid, however, there is a great explanation given by sayantanc2k - Check this link

https://gmatclub.com/forum/according-to ... l#p1651134
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2017, 13:38
RMD007 wrote:
GMATNinja, Please explain the use of "that" in the original sentence.

As I understand, first "that" refers to the clause "the economy will avoid the recession" and second "that" stands for "recession". Please correct if this is wrong.

This is an example in which I see multiple use of "that" in one sentence.

Original sentence again:
Quote:
According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a 'soft landing', followed by a gradual increase in the business activity.

You're on the right track! The first "that" ("that the economy will avoid the recession...") is just telling us more about the "growing confidence." The second "that" ("that many had feared earlier in the year") is just describing "the recession." Both are fine.

And its perfectly fine to see multiple "thats" in a single sentence, too. A full rundown of the various uses of "that" can be found here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/experts-topi ... 43686.html

Quote:
On the similar lines, is below sentence also correct?
It is great to take part in the GMAT Club forum as it has many experts like GMATNinja :)


I'm not completely sure which part of this sentence has inspired your question, but in most cases, the GMAT would prefer "such as" instead of "like", since you're introducing an example of an expert (albeit a lazy one who has done a totally crappy job of keeping up with questions this summer!). Personally, I don't like the sound of "as it has many experts...", but I don't think that there's anything inherently wrong with it on the GMAT.

I hope this helps!
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2017, 08:28
[/quote]

But isnt it wrong to use 'ínstead' before a clause?[/quote]

Usage of "instead of" is restricted to nouns, whereas usage of "rather than" is more flexible. "Rather than" can be used with nouns or verbs / infinitives /participles. The reason is that "instead of" ends with the preposition "of" and hence requires a noun.[/quote]

hi sayantanc2k
I am also confused about the usage rather and instead of here.
If instead is used with noun, isn't it wrong in option A?

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According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2017, 09:49
pra1785 wrote:

But isnt it wrong to use 'ínstead' before a clause?

Usage of "instead of" is restricted to nouns, whereas usage of "rather than" is more flexible. "Rather than" can be used with nouns or verbs / infinitives /participles. The reason is that "instead of" ends with the preposition "of" and hence requires a noun.

hi sayantanc2k
I am also confused about the usage rather and instead of here.
If instead is used with noun, isn't it wrong in option A?



Hello pra1785,


I will be glad to help you with this one. :-)

The phrase instead of is followed by a noun because a preposition is ALWAYS followed by a noun.

The original sentence that is also the correct sentence uses only instead - an adverb - that correctly precedes the verb come in.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2017, 23:00
Just to clarify the word earlier in the year invariably refers that the fear occurred earlier in the year and that the growing confidence in the economy showed that there was a soft landing. And since fear occurred earlier in the year we use past perfect??

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Re: According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect grow   [#permalink] 11 Nov 2017, 23:00

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