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# All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem

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All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2004, 06:24
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passage 24

All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complement of genes. How then can these cells differentiate and form structures as different as roots, stems, leaves, and fruits? The answer is that only a small subset of the genes in a particular kind of cell are expressed, or turned on, at a given time. This is accomplished by a complex system of chemical messengers that in plants include hormones and other regulatory molecules. Five major hormones have been identified: auxin, abscisic acid, cytokinin, ethylene, and gibberellin. Studies of plants have now identified a new class of regulatory molecules called oligosaccharins.

Unlike the oligosaccharins, the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific; that is, each has more than one effect on the growth and development of plants. The five has so many simultaneous effects that they are not very useful in artificially controlling the growth of crops. Auxin, for instance, stimulates the rate of cell elongation, causes shoots to grow up and roots to grow down, and inhibits the growth of lateral shoots. Auxin also causes the plant to develop a vascular system, to form lateral roots, and to produce ethylene.

The pleiotropy of the five well-studied plant hormones is somewhat analogous to that of certain hormones in animal. For example, hormones from the hypothalamus in the brain stimulate the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to synthesize and release many different hormones, one of which stimulates the release of hormones from the adrenal cortex. These hormones have specific effects on target organs all over the body. One hormone stimulates the thyroid gland, for example, another the ovarian follicle cells, and so forth. In other words, there is a hierarchy of hormones. Such a hierarchy may also exist in plants. Oligosaccharins are fragments of the cell wall released by enzymes: different enzymes release different oligosaccharins. There are indications that pleiotropic plant hormones may actually function by activating the enzymes that release these other, more specific chemical messengers from the cell wall.

1. According to the passage, the five well-known plant hormones are not useful in controlling the growth of crops because

(A) it is not known exactly what functions the hormones perform

(B) each hormone has various effects on plants

(C) none of the hormones can function without the others

(D) each hormone has different effects on different kinds of plants

(E) each hormone works on only a small subset of a cell's genes at any particular time

2. The passage suggests that the place of hypothalamic hormones in the hormonal hierarchies of animals is similar to the place of which of the following in plants?

(A) plant cell walls

(B) the complement of genes in each plant cell

(C) a subset of a plant cell's gene complement

(D) the five major hormones

(E) the oligosaccharins

3. The passage suggests that which of the following is a function likely to be performed by an oligosaccharin?

(A) to stimulate a particular plant cell to become part of a plant's root system

(B) to stimulate the walls of a particular cell to produce other oligosaccharins

(C) to activate enzymes that release specific chemical messengers from plant cell walls

(D) to duplicate the gene complement in a particular plant cell

(E) to produce multiple effects on a particular subsystem of plant cells

4. The author mentions specific effects that auxin has on plant development in order to illustrate the

(A) point that some of the effects of plant hormones can be harmful

(B) way in which hormones are produced by plants

(C) hierarchical nature of the functioning of plant hormones

(D) differences among the best-known plant hormones

(E) concept of pleiotropy as it is exhibited by plant hormones

5. According to the passage, which of the following best describes a function performed by oligosaccharins?

(A) regulating the daily functioning of a plant's cells

(B) interacting with one another to produce different chemicals

(C) releasing specific chemical messengers from a plant's cell walls

(D) producing the hormones that cause plant cells to differentiate to perform different functions

(E) influencing the development of a plant's cells by controlling the expression of the cells' genes

6. The passage suggests that, unlike the pleiotropic hormones, oligosaccharins could be used effectively to

(A) trace the passage of chemicals through the walls of cells

(B) pinpoint functions of other plant hormones

(C) artificially control specific aspects of the development of crops

(D) alter the complement of genes in the cells of plants

(E) alter the effects of the five major hormones on plant development

7. The author discusses animal hormones primarily in order to

(A) introduce the idea of a hierarchy of hormones

(B) explain the effects that auxin has on plant cells

(C) contrast the functioning of plant hormones and animals hormones

(D) illustrate the way in which particular hormones affect animals

(E) explain the distinction between hormones and regulatory molecules

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #5 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #6 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #7 OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 03 Oct 2017, 00:10, edited 5 times in total.
Reformatted question, OA added
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Joined: 11 Nov 2007
Posts: 23
Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2007, 09:22
I am hereby giving answers and I would like to get OA also.

1.
(a) it is not known exactly what functions the hormones perform - functioned to be performed are not discussed but how many and in what directions, their control etc is discussed and suggested in this passage.
(b) each hormone has various effects on plants - YUP..this is the reason due to which these hormones cannot be used on crops. Since they produce some unwanted and somehow dangerous effects on crops.RIGHT ANSWER
(c) none of the hormones can function without the others no interdependency is discussed !!
(d) each hormone has different effects on different kinds of plants - goes out of scope of the passage.
(e) each hormone works on only a small subset of a cell's genes at any particular time -does not relate...

2. (a) plant cell walls
(b) the complement of genes in each plant cell
(c) a subset of a plant cell's gene complement
(d) the five major hormones RIGHT as the place of hypothalamic hormones is top and the same is enjoyed by five major hormones in plants.
(e) the oligosaccharins

3. (a) to stimulate a particular plant cell to become part of a plant's root system
(b) to stimulate the walls of a particular cell to produce other oligosaccharins
(c) to activate enzymes that release specific chemical messengers from plant cell walls RIGHT
(d) to duplicate the gene complement in a particular plant cell
(e) to produce multiple effects on a particular subsystem of plant cells

4. (a) is the right answer..

5. (C) is the right answer..

6. (c) is the right answer

7. (A)

I would like to get OA as that would help to give crisp explanation if I am right and would force me to find flaws in my reasoning if I am wrong...
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Posts: 23
Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2007, 09:41
5.
A> In this passage, functioning of the plants is not discussed.
B> No different oliggosacc...interact and this goes out of scope from information provided in the passage,
C> olig.. are the fragments of plant's cell walls
D> again functions of plants....
E> they carry specific information which has a particular consequence on the plant...this is mentioned in the passage..

7. clear> and so forth..in another words....IT IS CLEARLY INDICATIVE OF PRESENTATION OF AN IDEA.
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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2007, 08:59
jimjohn wrote:
could someone plz explain the answers for #2 and #3

For (2), I would have gone for D.
For (3), Although the OA is (A), I go for (B). In the last few lines of the passage:

oligosaccharins are fragments of the cell wall released by enzymes: different enzymes release different oligosaccharins. there are indications that pleiotropic plant hormones may actually function by activating the
enzymes that release these other, more specific chemical messengers from the cell wall.
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Posts: 20
Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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20 Dec 2011, 17:43
5. According to the passage, which of the following best describes a function performed by oligosaccharins?

The genes in a particular kind of cell...are expressed, or turned on,...by a complex system of chemical messengers that include...regulatory molecules...called oligosaccharins. (Paragraph 1)

Reverse the reverb to get D ("Influencing the development of a plant’s cells by controlling the expression of the cells’ genes").

Oligosaccharins are regulatory molecules that are chemical messengers and that turn on or express the genes in a particular kind of cell.

[XyaXdj]
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Schools: UCLA (Anderson) - Class of 2014
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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2012, 01:36
I finally found out the answer. This question is very complicated. It took me half an hour to crack this question.

D is the correct answer.

According to the passage:

"The pleiotropy of the five well-studied plant hormones is somewhat analogous to that of certain hormones in animal. For example, hormones from the hypothalamus in the brain stimulate the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to synthesize and release many different hormones, one of which stimulates the release of hormones from the adrenal cortex. These hormones have specific effects on target organs all over the body. One hormone stimulates the thyroid gland, for example, another the ovarian follicle cells, and so forth. In other words, there is a hierarchy of hormones. Such a hierarchy may also exist in plants. Oligosaccharins are fragments of the cell wall released by enzymes: different enzymes release different oligosaccharins. There are indications that pleiotropic plant hormones may actually function by activating the enzymes that release these other, more specific chemical messengers from the cell wall.

The processes in animals and in plants could be summarized as followed:

In animals: hypothalamus --> synthesize and release many different hormones --> one hormones stimulates the release of hormones from the adrenal cortex --> effects on target organs

In plants: pleiotropic plant hormones --> enzymes --> Oligosaccharins i.e. fragments of the cell wall released by enzymes --> different enzymes release different oligosaccharins

So hypothalamus can be inferred to function as pleiotropic plant hormones do.
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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2014, 04:42
2
KUDOS
10 mins.
1. according to the passage, the five well-known plant hormones are not useful in controlling the growth of crops because
(a) it is not known exactly what functions the hormones perform
(b) each hormone has various effects on plants
>> unlike the oligosaccharins, the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific,

(c) none of the hormones can function without the others
(d) each hormone has different effects on different kinds of plants
(e) each hormone works on only a small subset of a cell's genes at any particular time

2. the passage suggests that the place of hypothalamic hormones in the hormonal hierarchies of animals is similar to the place of which of the following in plants?
(a) plant cell walls
(b) the complement of genes in each plant cell
(c) a subset of a plant cell's gene complement
(d) the five major hormones
>> Animal hormones example is presented to present the idea of hormone hierarchy in plants.

(e) the oligosaccharins

3. the passage suggests that which of the following is a function likely to be performed by an oligosaccharin?
(a) to stimulate a particular plant cell to become part of a plant's root system
>> unlike the oligosaccharins, the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific,

(b) to stimulate the walls of a particular cell to produce other oligosaccharins
(c) to activate enzymes that release specific chemical messengers from plant cell walls
(d) to duplicate the gene complement in a particular plant cell
(e) to produce multiple effects on a particular subsystem of plant cells

4. the author mentions specific effects that auxin has on plant development in order to illustrate the
(a) point that some of the effects of plant hormones can be harmful
(b) way in which hormones are produced by plants
(c) hierarchical nature of the functioning of plant hormones
(d) differences among the best-known plant hormones
(e) concept of pleiotropy as it is exhibited by plant hormones
>>the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific.Since auxin has multiple effects.

5. according to the passage, which of the following best describes a function performed by oligosaccharins?
(a) regulating the daily functioning of a plant's cells
(b) interacting with one another to produce different chemicals
(c) releasing specific chemical messengers from a plant's cell walls
(d) producing the hormones that cause plant cells to differentiate to perform different functions
(e) influencing the development of a plant's cells by controlling the expression of the cells' genes
>> unlike the oligosaccharins, the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific,

6. the passage suggests that, unlike the pleiotropic hormones, oligosaccharins could be used effectively to
(a) trace the passage of chemicals through the walls of cells
(b) pinpoint functions of other plant hormones
(c) artificially control specific aspects of the development of crops
>> Unlike P, O can influence specific property.

(d) alter the complement of genes in the cells of plants
(e) alter the effects of the five major hormones on plant development

7. the author discusses animal hormones primarily in order to
(a) introduce the idea of a hierarchy of hormones
>>the pleiotropy of the five well-studied plant <b>(25)</b> hormones is somewhat analogous to that of certain hormones in animal.

(b) explain the effects that auxin has on plant cells
(c) contrast the functioning of plant hormones and animals hormones
(d) illustrate the way in which particular hormones affect animals
(e) explain the distinction between hormones and regulatory molecules
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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2016, 23:03
In the context of last para, Oligosaccharins, the last entity in the plant cell activity hierarchy is analogous to the hormones in of living being.

The author clearly states the functions of hormones in the below line.
One hormone stimulates the thyroid gland, for example, another the ovarian follicle cells, and so forth.

Hence option D is correct.

D. Influencing the development of a plant’s cells by controlling the expression of the cells’ genes.
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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2017, 02:18
Answer to question 3 and 5 please, with explanation.
Plus, for question 5, the last line says that there are indications hormones might work by activating enzymes that release oligosaccharins, so why is d not the answer for 5
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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2017, 19:47
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anikacr7 wrote:
Answer to question 3 and 5 please, with explanation.
Plus, for question 5, the last line says that there are indications hormones might work by activating enzymes that release oligosaccharins, so why is d not the answer for 5

Quote:
3. the passage suggests that which of the following is a function likely to be performed by an oligosaccharin?

(a) to stimulate a particular plant cell to become part of a plant's root system

(b) to stimulate the walls of a particular cell to produce other oligosaccharins

(c) to activate enzymes that release specific chemical messengers from plant cell walls

(d) to duplicate the gene complement in a particular plant cell

(e) to produce multiple effects on a particular subsystem of plant cells

The passage tells us that "a complex system of chemical messengers that in plants include hormones and other regulatory molecules" allows cells to "differentiate and form structures as different as roots, stems, leaves, and fruits." Furthermore, the passage tells us that the five well-known hormones, which are "pleiotropic" ("P's") because they have multiple effects, might function by activating certain enzymes that in turn release regulatory molecules called oligosaccharins ("O's"), which, because they are not "P's", have only one specific effect on the growth and development of plants.

In other words, the five "P's" activate enzymes which in turn release "O's", which have a single, specific effect on the growth and development of the plant (for example, forming roots, stems, leaves, or fruits). Thus, the passage suggests that the "O's" could be directly responsible for causing a plant cell to become part of a plant's root system. Thus, choice (A) is the best answer.

Quote:
5. according to the passage, which of the following best describes a function performed by oligosaccharins?

(a) regulating the daily functioning of a plant's cells

(b) interacting with one another to produce different chemicals

(c) releasing specific chemical messengers from a plant's cell walls

(d) producing the hormones that cause plant cells to differentiate to perform different functions

(e) influencing the development of a plant's cells by controlling the expression of the cells' genes

As explained above, the "O's" have one specific effect on the growth and development of plants. How is this possible, when "all of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complement of genes"? It's because "only a small subset of the genes in a particular kind of cell are expressed, or turned on, at a given time." Thus, it makes sense that the "O's" could function by "influencing the development of a plant's cells by controlling the expression of the cells' genes", as described in choice (E).

Quote:
(d) producing the hormones that cause plant cells to differentiate to perform different functions

(D) cannot be the answer because we are not told that the "O's" produce hormones. Rather, as described above, the "P" hormones activate enzymes that release "O" regulatory molecules, which in turn cause plant cells to differentiate and perform different functions.

I hope that helps!
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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2017, 19:13
eyunni wrote:
Anyone care to answer questions 5 and 7? Explanations are appreciated.

For Question 7. it clearly mentions in the 3 rd paragraph "Such a hierarchy may also exist in plants" . This should lead us to understand that author specifically mentioned the animal hierarchy to draw an analogy between plant and animal hormones.

Hope this helps.
Give kudos if you like the answer.
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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2017, 18:49
JarvisR wrote:
10 mins.
1. according to the passage, the five well-known plant hormones are not useful in controlling the growth of crops because
(a) it is not known exactly what functions the hormones perform
(b) each hormone has various effects on plants
>> unlike the oligosaccharins, the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific,

(c) none of the hormones can function without the others
(d) each hormone has different effects on different kinds of plants
(e) each hormone works on only a small subset of a cell's genes at any particular time

2. the passage suggests that the place of hypothalamic hormones in the hormonal hierarchies of animals is similar to the place of which of the following in plants?
(a) plant cell walls
(b) the complement of genes in each plant cell
(c) a subset of a plant cell's gene complement
(d) the five major hormones
>> Animal hormones example is presented to present the idea of hormone hierarchy in plants.

(e) the oligosaccharins

3. the passage suggests that which of the following is a function likely to be performed by an oligosaccharin?
(a) to stimulate a particular plant cell to become part of a plant's root system
>> unlike the oligosaccharins, the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific,

(b) to stimulate the walls of a particular cell to produce other oligosaccharins
(c) to activate enzymes that release specific chemical messengers from plant cell walls
(d) to duplicate the gene complement in a particular plant cell
(e) to produce multiple effects on a particular subsystem of plant cells

4. the author mentions specific effects that auxin has on plant development in order to illustrate the
(a) point that some of the effects of plant hormones can be harmful
(b) way in which hormones are produced by plants
(c) hierarchical nature of the functioning of plant hormones
(d) differences among the best-known plant hormones
(e) concept of pleiotropy as it is exhibited by plant hormones
>>the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific.Since auxin has multiple effects.

5. according to the passage, which of the following best describes a function performed by oligosaccharins?
(a) regulating the daily functioning of a plant's cells
(b) interacting with one another to produce different chemicals
(c) releasing specific chemical messengers from a plant's cell walls
(d) producing the hormones that cause plant cells to differentiate to perform different functions
(e) influencing the development of a plant's cells by controlling the expression of the cells' genes
>> unlike the oligosaccharins, the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific,

6. the passage suggests that, unlike the pleiotropic hormones, oligosaccharins could be used effectively to
(a) trace the passage of chemicals through the walls of cells
(b) pinpoint functions of other plant hormones
(c) artificially control specific aspects of the development of crops
>> Unlike P, O can influence specific property.

(d) alter the complement of genes in the cells of plants
(e) alter the effects of the five major hormones on plant development

7. the author discusses animal hormones primarily in order to
(a) introduce the idea of a hierarchy of hormones
>>the pleiotropy of the five well-studied plant <b>(25)</b> hormones is somewhat analogous to that of certain hormones in animal.

(b) explain the effects that auxin has on plant cells
(c) contrast the functioning of plant hormones and animals hormones
(d) illustrate the way in which particular hormones affect animals
(e) explain the distinction between hormones and regulatory molecules

For Q3, agreed that Oligosachhariins perform specific function and plant root system is specific. But arent we inferring too far here because there is nothing mentioned in passage about oligosachharin and root system. Passage just mentions specific function:It can be any specific function but we dont know that from passage.
Please, can anyone throw light on this.
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Re: All of the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complem [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2017, 09:01
For Q3, agreed that Oligosachhariins perform specific function and plant root system is specific. But arent we inferring too far here because there is nothing mentioned in passage about oligosachharin and root system. Passage just mentions specific function:It can be any specific function but we dont know that from passage.
Please, can anyone throw light on this.

I agree with your point. But notice the wording of the question. It says "likely" to be performed.

This means we need to find out an option that says the function is specific rather than generic. Hence, only option A does so. Thus, the correct answer.
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