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# Although some officials noted that using machines for

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Although some officials noted that using machines for [#permalink]

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13 Feb 2009, 09:36
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Although some officials noted that using machines for farming in China costs more than traditional hand cultivation, the mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half.

(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half
(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year
(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as cost were cut to half of the previous year’s
(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as it cut in half the previous year’s costs
(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by ankurgupta03 on 25 Feb 2014, 23:57, edited 1 time in total.
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16 Feb 2009, 09:40
OA is B.

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16 Feb 2009, 09:43
Can someone help me with the exact rule about 'run on sentences' ?

Every sentence beginning with 'although' has a sentence(after comma) that can stand on its own.

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18 Feb 2009, 00:02
For this question i did little google for the usage of while and found following-
While - The preposition "while" is used to represent the length of time an action has been happening.
Example--While I was playing with my dog, my sister was doing her homework.

"While" is used when speaking about 2 actions that are happing at the same time. The length of the action is not important.
Example--My mother doesn't like the T. V. on while we are eating dinner.

Taken from site--http://www.english-the-easy-way.com/
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26 Aug 2009, 14:46
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Although some officials noted that using machines for farming in China costs more than traditional hand cultivation, the mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half.

(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half------- its not the previous year's costs but the present year's costs that are cut in half.
(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year---- correct
(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as cost were cut to half of the previous year’s-----SV agreement
(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as it cut in half the previous year’s costs------ambigous "it"
(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year ---------wrong comparison that should be those
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28 Aug 2009, 06:07
amb2512 wrote:
Although some officials noted that using machines for farming in China costs more than traditional hand cultivation, the mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half.

(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half------- its not the previous year's costs but the present year's costs that are cut in half.
(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year---- correct
(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as cost were cut to half of the previous year’s-----SV agreement
(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as it cut in half the previous year’s costs------ambigous "it"
(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year ---------wrong comparison that should be those

There is some error with this question. I don't believe "B" is correct. "cutting costs to half those of the previous year" is a runon sentence.
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08 Mar 2010, 18:03
(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half - previous year's costs were not to half , but current year costs were half of previous year's costs
(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year
(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as cost were cut to half of the previous year’s - cost were is wrong , also while was more appropriate
(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as it cut in half the previous year’s costs
- easy pic , it is not clear
(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year

left with B and E - i will go with Costs - those - IMHO - B
costs that does not sound right to me
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08 Mar 2010, 20:07
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One more small suggestion.
Many of us eliminate answer options saying "sounding awkward" but if we find/post the reason y is it sounding awkward it really helps us(to understand the mistakes better) and also helps the novice

This is just a small suggestion
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09 Mar 2010, 03:47
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(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half
(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year
(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as cost were cut to half of the previous year’s
(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as it cut in half the previous year’s costs
(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year

Let me try...

A and D are using wrong "cut in half" wrong construction so they are out.
C is using "cost were" so it is out (subject/verb)
E is using "that of the previous year" for referring to "costs" it should be "those of the previous year"
We are left with B, which don't have any of the above issue

Hope this helps.
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Last edited by mustdoit on 10 Mar 2010, 02:56, edited 1 time in total.
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09 Mar 2010, 08:22
IMHO B

"Mechanization of farming" is better than "farming mechanization".
So, D and E are out.

C is out: "Cost were cut">> "costs" should be used.

A is out: Agent of action is "Mechanization of farming" .
Consider the following example.
"X did Y while cutting Z." is better than "X did Y while Z were cut"
Here, agent of action is X.
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30 Oct 2010, 06:06
noboru wrote:
95. Although some officials noted that using machines for farming in China costs more than traditional hand cultivation, the mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half.

(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half
(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year
(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as cost were cut to half of the previous year’s
(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as it cut in half the previous year’s costs
(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year

I observed the presence of article "the" in non-underlined part. Hence the underlined part must start withe the subject which is "mechanization" of farming not "farming" mechanism.

A vs B -
Cut in half means it was split into two parts ... correct usage is cut TO half..
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30 Oct 2010, 06:35
OA is B.
Thanks for the discussion.
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01 Nov 2010, 03:00
B
I prefer cutting costs than year’s costs were cut
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Re: Although some officials noted that using machines for [#permalink]

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04 Mar 2012, 22:19
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I don't quite understand what you mean by A and D are out because of "previous year's costs". There is nothing wrong with using previous year's costs.

(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half
The problem in A is with doubled and were. They are not parallel after the marker "while"

(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year
CORRECT.

(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as cost were cut to half of the previous year’s
The problem in C is the change in meaning. The sentence uses "as" which is a comparator and not really a time indicator. In the original sentence, while was used to indicate the timeframe of occurence of events which is eliminated in this sentence.

(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as it cut in half the previous year’s costs
Same problem as C.

(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year
Same problem as A. X while Y the verbs should be parallel. Doubled while cutting is more parallel than doubled while costs. In the latter we are comparing doubled (a participle) with costs (a noun)
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Re: Although some officials noted that using machines for [#permalink]

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11 May 2012, 05:16
only when the sentence begins with "the mechanisation" makes it a run on sentence ,because the mechanisation becomes a complex gerund and acts a noun .Correct me if i am wrong .
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Re: Although some officials noted that using machines for [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2013, 07:37
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Thedevils88 wrote:
95. Although some officials noted that using machines for farming in China costs more than traditional hand cultivation, the mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half.
(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half
(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year
(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as cost were cut to half of the previous year’s
(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as it cut in half the previous year’s costs
(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year

I know which answer is correct, however i do not understand the underlying principle. Please explain it to me. Help is much appreciated. Thanks

Im stronger on quant than I am on verbal, but see my comments in red below for my take on it. (B) is the only sentence that does not require correction.

(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut to half
(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year
(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half of the previous year’s
(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while it cut in half the previous year’s costs (bad sentence structure)
(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half those of the previous year

Another note is that "as" creates dependency. The cost is not dependent on the yield, it is dependent on the mechanization of farming.
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Re: Although some officials noted that using machines for [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2013, 07:49
CarlMtl wrote:
Thedevils88 wrote:
95. Although some officials noted that using machines for farming in China costs more than traditional hand cultivation, the mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half.
(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half
(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year
(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as cost were cut to half of the previous year’s
(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as it cut in half the previous year’s costs
(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year

I know which answer is correct, however i do not understand the underlying principle. Please explain it to me. Help is much appreciated. Thanks

Im stronger on quant than I am on verbal, but see my comments in red below for my take on it. (B) is the only sentence that does not require correction.

(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut to half
(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year
(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half of the previous year’s
(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while it cut in half the previous year’s costs (bad sentence structure)
(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half those of the previous year

Another note is that "as" creates dependency. The cost is not dependent on the yield, it is dependent on the mechanization of farming.

kudos for that! Could you also explain something else to me please? I know that 'mechanization of farming ...' is a complete sentence and it is connected the subordinate clause 'while cutting costs...'. What I want to know is what kind of phrase 'cutting costs...' is? Do I just take it for fact that it is just a correct way to say what it was intended in English? Thanks!
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Re: Although some officials noted that using machines for [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2013, 08:10
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Thedevils88 wrote:
95. Although some officials noted that using machines for farming in China costs more than traditional hand cultivation, the mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half.
(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half
(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year
(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as cost were cut to half of the previous year’s
(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as it cut in half the previous year’s costs
(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year

I know which answer is correct, however i do not understand the underlying principle. Please explain it to me. Help is much appreciated. Thanks

Hi Thedevils88,

For the sake of understanding lets remove the prepositional phrases.

Although some officials noted that using machines costs more than traditional hand cultivation, the [u]mechanization doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half.

(A) mechanization doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half

The meaning implied in this sentence is incorrect. "while the previous year's costs were cut in half" means that the previous year's costs were cut in half but, no comparison is made to this year's costs. This meaning is clearly expressed in (B). It is not clear that which year's costs is the sentence talking about. Moreover, "cut to half" would be better than "cut in half"

(B) mechanization doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year

Expresses a clear comparison and correctly and concisely.

(C) mechanization doubled the corn yield as cost were cut to half of the previous year’s

In this choice as well, the meaning implied in incorrect. This choice means that "mechanization" was a result of costs being cut in half. However, the meaning of the sentence should be the opposite.

(D) mechanization doubled the corn yield as it cut in half the previous year’s costs

unambiguous "it". "it" could refer to either "mechanization" or "corn yield"

(E) mechanization doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year

The use of "while" distorts the meaning. This choice incorrectly states that "cutting of costs" was not because of "mechanization" but "cut to half" just like that.

eg John went to Cornell, while Mary went to Yale.

Hope it helps,

Vercules
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Re: Although some officials noted that using machines for [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2013, 08:24
A) This choice is incorrect for the same reason cited in Choice E

B) Correct and concise choice.

C) S-V disagreement cost …were. This choice also wrong because it changes intended meaning. We know there are two consequences of mechanization 1. it doubled the corn yield. 2. cut the costs to half. Wrong use of as changes the intended meaning and implies that mechanization doubled the corn yield because decrease in costs, while the intended meaning is mechanization doubled corn yield without increase in costs.

D) This choice is also wrong for the same reasons cited in Choice C

E) Here is parallelism error. Two consequences of single action should be in a form x has done y while doing z. The passive structure costs were cut…. is not parallel to doubled the corn yield. In this choice costs……that of is also wrong. It should be costs ....those of.

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Re: Although some officials noted that using machines for [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2015, 12:10
mourinhogmat1 wrote:
I don't quite understand what you mean by A and D are out because of "previous year's costs". There is nothing wrong with using previous year's costs.

(A) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while the previous year’s costs were cut in half
The problem in A is with doubled and were. They are not parallel after the marker "while"

(B) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while cutting costs to half those of the previous year
CORRECT.

(C) mechanization of farming in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as cost were cut to half of the previous year’s
The problem in C is the change in meaning. The sentence uses "as" which is a comparator and not really a time indicator. In the original sentence, while was used to indicate the timeframe of occurence of events which is eliminated in this sentence.

(D) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield as it cut in half the previous year’s costs
Same problem as C.

(E) farming mechanization in the village of Long Bow doubled the corn yield while costs were cut to half that of the previous year
Same problem as A. X while Y the verbs should be parallel. Doubled while cutting is more parallel than doubled while costs. In the latter we are comparing doubled (a participle) with costs (a noun)

you are not right about C. "as" can be used to show actions/things that happen in the same time.
EX: As I was walking down the street, I saw Jim Carrey.

C is incorrect because of the parallelism error.
Re: Although some officials noted that using machines for   [#permalink] 22 Apr 2015, 12:10

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