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# Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain

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Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 16 Jul 2018, 08:16
11
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Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain Caribbean islands occupy different habitats: some live only in the grass, some only on tree trunks, and some only on twigs. These species also differ morphologically: grass dwellers are slender with long tails, tree dwellers are stocky with long legs, twig dwellers are slender but stubby-legged. What is striking about these lizards is not that coexisting species differ in morphology and habitat use (such differences are common among closely related sympatric species), but that the same three types of habitat specialists occur on each of four islands: Puerto Rico, Cuba, Hispaniola, and Jamaica. Moreover, the Puerto Rican twig species closely resembles the twig species of Cuba, Hispaniola, and Jamaica in morphology, habitat use, and behavior. Likewise, the specialists for other habitats are similar across the islands.

The presence of similar species on different islands could be variously explained. An ancestral species might have adapted to exploit a particular ecological niche on one island and then traveled over water to colonize other islands. Or this ancestral species might have evolved at a time when the islands were connected, which some of these islands may once have been. After the islands separated, the isolated lizard populations would have become distinct species while also retaining their ancestors' niche adaptations. Both of these scenarios imply that specialization to each niche occurred only once. Alternatively, each specialist could have arisen independently on each of the islands.

If each type of specialist evolved just once, then similar specialists on different islands would be closely related. Conversely, if the specialists evolved independently on each island, then a specialist on one island would be more closely related to other types of anoles on the same island—regardless of their ecological niches—than it would be to a similar specialist on a different island.

Biologists can infer how species are related evolutionarily by comparing DNA sequences for the same genes in different species. Species with similar DNA sequences for these genes are generally more closely related to each other than to species with less-similar DNA sequences. DNA evidence concerning the anoles led researchers to conclude that habitat specialists on one island are not closely related to the same habitat specialists elsewhere, indicating that specialists evolved independently on each island.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) describe some unusual features of anole lizard species
(B) account for a particular type of behavior found among anole lizard species
(C) contrast two types of evidence that have been used to support a particular hypothesis concerning anole lizard species
(D) explain how researchers resolved a particular scientific question concerning anole lizard species
(E) examine different explanations for a particular trait common to certain anole lizard species

2. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the highlighted sentence?

(A) It raises a question about why coexisting anole lizard species occupy the different types of habitats mentioned in the first sentence.
(B) It introduces a fact about anole lizard species that the passage will go on to explore.
(C) It identifies a particular aspect of anole lizard behavior that distinguishes anoles from other lizard species.
(D) It explains why one aspect of anole lizard species' habitat use has been difficult to account for.
(E) It points out a surprising relationship between morphology and habitat use that is explained in the concluding paragraph.

3. It can be inferred form the passage that which of the following is true of the Cuban tree-dwelling anole lizard and the Jamaican tree-dwelling anole lizard?

(A) They share a morphology characterized by stocky bodies and long legs.
(B) They have bodies that are relatively slender compared to their stubby legs.
(C) They differ significantly form one another in size.
(D) They differ significantly from one another in behavior and habitat use.
(E) They are genetically closely related to one another.

4. The passage suggests that if a grass-dwelling anole lizard species evolved on one island and then traveled over water to colonize a second island, the grass-dwelling anoles on the two islands would eventually

(A) develop very different DNA sequences
(B) develop into different species that are more distantly related to each other than to tree- and twig-dwelling anoles on their own islands
(C) come to differ significantly from one another in habitat use
(D) develop into different, but closely related, species
(E) evolve significant morphological differences

Source : SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN
March 2001
Volume 284, Issue 3

Evolution: A Lizard's Tale
On some islands in the Caribbean, evolution seems to have taken the same turn—over and over and over again
By Jonathan B. Losos

Attachments

scientificamerican0301-64.pdf [1.22 MiB]

Originally posted by AN225 on 19 Apr 2011, 11:58.
Last edited by hazelnut on 16 Jul 2018, 08:16, edited 5 times in total.
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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2014, 09:26
3
2
Hi maggie,
My 2 cents on this. Hope this answers ur questions.
BTW wht abt ur timing on this one.Mine was 10 mins and max i cld have squeezed here is to 9 mins.
===========================================
Para-1: Intro abt the Anole lizard and a fact is presented.
Para-2: Theory#1 is presented to explain the mentioned fact.And intro abt the theory/explanation#2.
Para-3: Discussion is continued from Para2.
Para#4: scientists perform some experiment and final conclusion is presented.

In nutshell: a unique trait is presented and is then resolved or explained using an experiemnt.
=====================================
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. describe some unusual features of anole lizard species -only in starting para.
B. account for a particular type of behavior found among anole lizard species -arg is not just abt the description.Its abt identifying the reason behind the mentioned trait.
C. contrast two types of evidence that have been used to support a particular hypothesis concerning anole lizard species -No 2 evidences r offered.2 theories r presented and then a conclusion is made.
D. explain how researchers resolved a particular scientific question concerning anole lizard species
E. examine different explanations for a particular trait common to certain anole lizard species- i would prefer D over E. author doesn't check-out/examine the 2 theories. Theories r presented, then an experiment is performed which confirmed one of the theory.
##### General Discussion
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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2011, 12:34
D,B,A,D, Let me know correct answers, Thanks!
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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2011, 05:20
From my key information, you are right!
girlinslc wrote:
D,B,A,D, Let me know correct answers, Thanks!
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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2011, 19:27
Can someone please explain the answer for Q1. The research of scientists is described only in the last paragraph.
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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2011, 10:42
I have my choices as DDDD , Can some one explain the answers for Q2 and Q3? Also how to these RCs that have loads of details
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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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15 Sep 2011, 10:41
I got DBDD. Can someone explain answer to question 3 ?
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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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29 Nov 2011, 18:10
Got 3 out of 4. (Q1 wrong). Although the passage was not particularly difficult, the questions were tough.

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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2011, 04:45
Got 3 out of 4. Missed question 4.
Spent 8 minutes
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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2012, 00:31
D,B,A,B(got Q4 wrong) in 5 mins 59 secs.For Q 4 should have read this more carefully
Quote:
DNA evidence concerning the anoles led researchers to conclude that habitat specialists on one island are not closely related to the same habitat specialists elsewhere, indicating that specialists evolved independently on each island.
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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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27 Mar 2012, 18:03
around 6 min :
d
b
a
d

all correct
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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2013, 09:21
Phew! took whole 11 min, still got 1 wrong. Is it too much to spend 11 min in this passage?
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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2013, 12:18
Got all correct under 6 mins.
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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2013, 12:22
atalpanditgmat wrote:
Phew! took whole 11 min, still got 1 wrong. Is it too much to spend 11 min in this passage?

Yes I guess 11 mins is 2-3mins more than you should take to get them correct. Try putting your self under time crunch to solve a bunch of RCs (short 1's and long 1's) and aim to get max accuracy. It will help to increase your speed and fasten your comprehension.
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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2013, 08:26
Hey guys!!!!
I am constantly going wrong on the "primary purpose" question. Can someone help me with strategies for this question?
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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2013, 10:18
crazykid wrote:
Can someone please explain the answer for Q1. The research of scientists is described only in the last paragraph.

same doubt here .. Can someone please explain Q1?
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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2014, 09:09
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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2014, 10:15
JarvisR wrote:
Hi maggie,
My 2 cents on this. Hope this answers ur questions.
BTW wht abt ur timing on this one.Mine was 10 mins and max i cld have squeezed here is to 9 mins.
===========================================
Para-1: Intro abt the Anole lizard and a fact is presented.
Para-2: Theory#1 is presented to explain the mentioned fact.And intro abt the theory/explanation#2.
Para-3: Discussion is continued from Para2.
Para#4: scientists perform some experiment and final conclusion is presented.

In nutshell: a unique trait is presented and is then resolved or explained using an experiemnt.
=====================================
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. describe some unusual features of anole lizard species -only in starting para.
B. account for a particular type of behavior found among anole lizard species -arg is not just abt the description.Its abt identifying the reason behind the mentioned trait.
C. contrast two types of evidence that have been used to support a particular hypothesis concerning anole lizard species -No 2 evidences r offered.2 theories r presented and then a conclusion is made.
D. explain how researchers resolved a particular scientific question concerning anole lizard species
E. examine different explanations for a particular trait common to certain anole lizard species- i would prefer D over E. author doesn't check-out/examine the 2 theories. Theories r presented, then an experiment is performed which confirmed one of the theory.

Thanks JarvisR,
I see the point. Word "hypothesis" in option C should also have helped me doubt it, but anyway I get it now.
About timing.. I dint keep a track of it for the first time! But sure it was a difficult one, I took 7 mins on it second time.

On a side note, I see u had the exam a day back! If u dont mind please share ur experience
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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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27 Mar 2015, 22:06
D B A D
easy passage.
6mins 20secs.
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Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain  [#permalink]

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09 May 2016, 21:56
7 mins ,2 incorrect !!.

Thanks for posting good question. Would further welcome more tips to improve RC

Regards
Megha
Re: Anole lizard species that occur together (sympatrically) on certain &nbs [#permalink] 09 May 2016, 21:56

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