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Archaeologists working in the Andes Mountains recently excavated a bur

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The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Critical Reasoning
Question no. 144

Archaeologists working in the Andes Mountains recently excavated a buried 4,000-year-old temple containing structures that align with a stone carving on a distant hill to indicate the direction of the rising sun at the summer solstice. Alignments in the temple were also found to point toward the position, at the summer solstice, of a constellation known in Andean culture as the Fox. Since the local mythology represents the fox as teaching people how to cultivate and irrigate plants, the ancient Andeans may have built the temple as a religious representation of the fox.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument is based?

(A) The constellation known as the Fox has the same position at the summer solstice as it did 4,000 years ago.
(B) In the region around the temple, the summer solstice marks the time for planting.
(C) The temple was protected from looters by dirt and debris built up over thousands of years.
(D) Other structural alignments at the temple point to further constellations with agricultural significance.
(E) The site containing the temple was occupied for a significant amount of time before abandonment.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Critical Reasoning
Question no. 144

Archaeologists working in the Andes Mountains recently excavated a buried 4,000-year-old temple containing structures that align with a stone carving on a distant hill to indicate the direction of the rising sun at the summer solstice. Alignments in the temple were also found to point toward the position, at the summer solstice, of a constellation known in Andean culture as the Fox. Since the local mythology represents the fox as teaching people how to cultivate and irrigate plants, the ancient Andeans may have built the temple as a religious representation of the fox.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument is based?
A. The constellation known as the Fox has the same position at the summer solstice as it did 4,000 years ago.
B. In the region around the temple, the summer solstice marks the time for planting.
C. The temple was protected from looters by dirt and debris built up over thousands of years.
D. Other structural alignments at the temple point to further constellations with agricultural significance.
E. The site containing the temple was occupied for a significant amount of time before abandonment.


Based on the position of constellation now, the argument is making a conclusion that andeans may have built the temple as a religious representation of the fox ..but to make this prediction one need to be sure of whether the position of constellation was same 4000 yrs ago as it is now ....This pre-thinking leads to A as answer .

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AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Critical Reasoning
Question no. 144

Archaeologists working in the Andes Mountains recently excavated a buried 4,000-year-old temple containing structures that align with a stone carving on a distant hill to indicate the direction of the rising sun at the summer solstice. Alignments in the temple were also found to point toward the position, at the summer solstice, of a constellation known in Andean culture as the Fox. Since the local mythology represents the fox as teaching people how to cultivate and irrigate plants, the ancient Andeans may have built the temple as a religious representation of the fox.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument is based?
A. The constellation known as the Fox has the same position at the summer solstice as it did 4,000 years ago.
B. In the region around the temple, the summer solstice marks the time for planting.
C. The temple was protected from looters by dirt and debris built up over thousands of years.
D. Other structural alignments at the temple point to further constellations with agricultural significance.
E. The site containing the temple was occupied for a significant amount of time before abandonment.


First of all, thank you for sharing these questions mate.

Now with the argument, it hinges on the constellation in the sky. Everything else is a significance based on the that constellation.
With that in mind, only answer choice A gives us the essential assumption the author needs to make to draw his conclusion i.e. The constellation was in the same place in the sky 4000 years ago, as it is today.

B - This is already mentioned in the passage, so it could be a trap answer but it's not an assumption.
C - This is Out of Context.
D - In terms of an assumption made by the author, this is irrelevant as this seems to be a fact, and it has nothing to do with the constellation.
E - Irrelevant.
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Re: Archaeologists working in the Andes Mountains recently excavated a bur [#permalink]

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AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Critical Reasoning
Question no. 144

Archaeologists working in the Andes Mountains recently excavated a buried 4,000-year-old temple containing structures that align with a stone carving on a distant hill to indicate the direction of the rising sun at the summer solstice. Alignments in the temple were also found to point toward the position, at the summer solstice, of a constellation known in Andean culture as the Fox. Since the local mythology represents the fox as teaching people how to cultivate and irrigate plants, the ancient Andeans may have built the temple as a religious representation of the fox.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument is based?
A. The constellation known as the Fox has the same position at the summer solstice as it did 4,000 years ago. Correct. Passage has mentioned relation between summer solstice and constellation known in Andean culture as the Fox. This option ensure that constellation was positioned at the time temple was build.
B. In the region around the temple, the summer solstice marks the time for planting. Timing of plantation is not discussed in passage
C. The temple was protected from looters by dirt and debris built up over thousands of years. Out of scope
D. Other structural alignments at the temple point to further constellations with agricultural significance. New information. Not discussed in passage
E. The site containing the temple was occupied for a significant amount of time before abandonment. out of scope


IMO : A

Explanation : marked against the argument

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Re: Archaeologists working in the Andes Mountains recently excavated a bur [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2017, 08:47
Arrived at the correct answer by negation rule...

The constellation known as the Fox doesn't have the same position at the summer solstice as it did 4,000 years ago.

Thus, the argument -

Quote:
Alignments in the temple were also found to point toward the position, at the summer solstice, of a constellation known in Andean culture as the Fox. Since the local mythology represents the fox as teaching people how to cultivate and irrigate plants, the ancient Andeans may have built the temple as a religious representation of the fox


Hence, the correct answer must be (A)

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Re: Archaeologists working in the Andes Mountains recently excavated a bur [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2017, 07:15
Abhishek009 wrote:
Arrived at the correct answer by negation rule...

The constellation known as the Fox doesn't have the same position at the summer solstice as it did 4,000 years ago.

Thus, the argument -

Quote:
Alignments in the temple were also found to point toward the position, at the summer solstice, of a constellation known in Andean culture as the Fox. Since the local mythology represents the fox as teaching people how to cultivate and irrigate plants, the ancient Andeans may have built the temple as a religious representation of the fox


Hence, the correct answer must be (A)



How does it weaken ? Maybe position is changed , it doesnt mean that they didnt built the temple for the Fox

help please?

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Re: Archaeologists working in the Andes Mountains recently excavated a bur [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2017, 07:41
rocko911 wrote:
Abhishek009 wrote:
Arrived at the correct answer by negation rule...

The constellation known as the Fox doesn't have the same position at the summer solstice as it did 4,000 years ago.

Thus, the argument -

Quote:
Alignments in the temple were also found to point toward the position, at the summer solstice, of a constellation known in Andean culture as the Fox. Since the local mythology represents the fox as teaching people how to cultivate and irrigate plants, the ancient Andeans may have built the temple as a religious representation of the fox


Hence, the correct answer must be (A)


How does it weaken ? Maybe position is changed , it doesnt mean that they didnt built the temple for the Fox

help please?



Archaeologists working in the Andes Mountains recently excavated a buried 4,000-year-old temple containing structures that align with a stone carving on a distant hill to indicate the direction of the rising sun at the summer solstice. Alignments in the temple were also found to point toward the position, at the summer solstice, of a constellation known in Andean culture as the Fox. Since the local mythology represents the fox as teaching people how to cultivate and irrigate plants, the ancient Andeans may have built the temple as a religious representation of the fox.

Quote:
Archaeologists found a 4000 year old temple.
The alignments in the temple and those on a stone point toward the constellation known as the Fox. (They point at that constellation NOW)
Conclusion - Andeans may have built the temple as a religions representation of the fox. (The temple was build 4000 years ago)


We need to find the author's assumption that will strengthen the above argument. In other words, we are trying to find the missing link that will fill the gap between the premises and the conclusion in the argument above. (Look at the quote above)
Only A provides us with the premise that the fox's position in the sky was the same 4000 years ago as it is today.



Hope this helps!
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Re: Archaeologists working in the Andes Mountains recently excavated a bur [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2017, 10:36
AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Critical Reasoning
Question no. 144

Archaeologists working in the Andes Mountains recently excavated a buried 4,000-year-old temple containing structures that align with a stone carving on a distant hill to indicate the direction of the rising sun at the summer solstice. Alignments in the temple were also found to point toward the position, at the summer solstice, of a constellation known in Andean culture as the Fox. Since the local mythology represents the fox as teaching people how to cultivate and irrigate plants, the ancient Andeans may have built the temple as a religious representation of the fox.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument is based?

(A) The constellation known as the Fox has the same position at the summer solstice as it did 4,000 years ago.
(B) In the region around the temple, the summer solstice marks the time for planting.
(C) The temple was protected from looters by dirt and debris built up over thousands of years.
(D) Other structural alignments at the temple point to further constellations with agricultural significance.
(E) The site containing the temple was occupied for a significant amount of time before abandonment.


Imo A
This is the only possible assumption to link the fox with the practice of teaching Andean people cultivation.
B is out irrelevant
C out of scope
D out of scope
E out of scope
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New post 04 Nov 2017, 00:28
Hello Verbal Experts,

Could you please explain this question in detail why A is correct and why other options are wrong?

Thanks.

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snjainpune wrote:
Hello Verbal Experts,

Could you please explain this question in detail why A is correct and why other options are wrong?

Thanks.


Hi snjainpune,

I'd be happy to clarify this question for you. The answer, simply, is negation, which is turning the answer into its opposite form. If the new answer destroys the argument, this is your answer for the question.

Archaeologists working in the Andes Mountains recently excavated a buried 4,000-year-old temple containing structures that align with a stone carving on a distant hill to indicate the direction of the rising sun at the summer solstice. Alignments in the temple were also found to point toward the position, at the summer solstice, of a constellation known in Andean culture as the Fox. Since the local mythology represents the fox as teaching people how to cultivate and irrigate plants, the ancient Andeans may have built the temple as a religious representation of the fox.

-- The blue is a premise, which builds up to the green, our conclusion.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument is based?

(A) The constellation known as the Fox has the same position at the summer solstice as it did 4,000 years ago. -- The constellation known as the Fox does not have the same position at the summer solstice as it did 4,000 years ago
(B) In the region around the temple, the summer solstice marks the time for planting. -- In the region around the temple, the summer solstice does not marks the time for planting
(C) The temple was protected from looters by dirt and debris built up over thousands of years. -- The temple was not protected from looters by dirt and debris built up over thousands of years.
(D) Other structural alignments at the temple point to further constellations with agricultural significance. -- Other structural alignments at the temple do not point to further constellations with agricultural significance
(E) The site containing the temple was occupied for a significant amount of time before abandonment.The site containing the temple was not occupied for a significant amount of time before abandonment

Based on our conclusion, "the ancient Andeans may have built the temple as a religious representation of the fox.", which one of the above destroys this argument? Option A! This says the temple may have been built for a different system, but is now pointed towards the fox. The rest of the options are, fortunately, out of scope and can thus be eliminated. Does this help?
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Last edited by nightblade354 on 09 Nov 2017, 17:01, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Archaeologists working in the Andes Mountains recently excavated a bur [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2017, 16:46
snjainpune wrote:
Hello Verbal Experts,

Could you please explain this question in detail why A is correct and why other options are wrong?

Thanks.

Quote:
Archaeologists working in the Andes Mountains recently excavated a buried 4,000-year-old temple containing structures that align with a stone carving on a distant hill to indicate the direction of the rising sun at the summer solstice. Alignments in the temple were also found to point toward the position, at the summer solstice, of a constellation known in Andean culture as the Fox. Since the local mythology represents the fox as teaching people how to cultivate and irrigate plants, the ancient Andeans may have built the temple as a religious representation of the fox.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument is based?

(A) The constellation known as the Fox has the same position at the summer solstice as it did 4,000 years ago.
(B) In the region around the temple, the summer solstice marks the time for planting.
(C) The temple was protected from looters by dirt and debris built up over thousands of years.
(D) Other structural alignments at the temple point to further constellations with agricultural significance.
(E) The site containing the temple was occupied for a significant amount of time before abandonment.

Awesome, nightblade354! I'll take a shot at this, too... but only because I wrote this two days ago and got distracted before hitting the "submit" button. Bad Ninja. ;)

The conclusion is that "the ancient Andeans may have built the temple as a religious representation of the fox." This conclusion is based on the finding that the temple has alignments pointing towards the position, at the summer solstice, of a constellation.

But this finding is based on the CURRENT alignments. The temple was build 4,000 years ago. What if the constellation has shifted over the course of the last 4,000 years? In that case, the alignment found by the archaeologists would be different than the alignment that existed when the Andeans built the temple. Thus, we would not be able to use the CURRENT alignment to make conclusions about the intentions of the Andeans 4,000 years ago.

I hope that helps!
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