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Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year retailers

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New post 27 Apr 2019, 02:28
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Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year, retailers and analysts hesitate to predict five-year trends in retail sales during the months that have historically been the most profitable.

A) Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year, retailers and analysts hesitate to predict

B) With the erratic pattern of this year’s sales increases, retailers and analysts are hesitant in predicting

C) This year, due to the erratic pattern of increasing sales, there is some hesitation among retailers and analysts in predicting

D) The erratic pattern of sales increases have made retailers and analysts hesitate this year to predict

E) This year’s erratic pattern of increasing sales have made retailers and analysts hesitate to predict


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New post 27 Apr 2019, 20:50
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Analysis of all options is at the bottom of this post.

cool16 wrote:
hi,
when i was solving this question , i eliminate option A as there is a clause in preposition,
Because of < Clause> ,
Since it is a official question , the answer is absolutely correct,
but i have seen the following structure all the time
Because of Noun/ Noun entity or Because <Clause >

So my question is,
Is the above statement an exception?
or the usage in OA is absolutely correct

Thanks

Option A: Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year,
retailers and analysts hesitate to predict five-year trends in retail sales during the months that have historically been the most profitable.



Hi cool16 ,

No, option A is not an exception.
(And +1 kudos for not "fighting" with the official answer.)

Option A does not have a clause with a subject and a verb after Because of.
The underlined words are a noun phrase (a noun + modifiers).
. . . the erratic pattern of sales increases [NOUN phrase] this year. . .

You got tripped up by "sales increases."
That phrase is a noun phrase.

The noun is increases.
-- The legislators proposed two tax rate increases: one on the sale of alcohol and one on the sale of legal marijuana.

The adjective is sales. (What kind of increases? Sales increases.)
-- Similar example: The sales figures for this year are surprisingly high.
-- True, "sales" is a often just a noun.
But sales can and does act as an adjective that describes increases. See below.

Sales and increases cannot be a subject and verb together.
Sales is plural and increases is singular.

• "SALES increases" - nouns that modify nouns

In English, we use nouns to modify nouns:
Spanish teacher
Sports car
Race horse
Corn bread

In the noun phrase sales increases, the noun increases is modified by the noun, sales, which acts as an adjective.
(What kind of increases? Sales increases.)

When a noun modifies another noun
(1) we can call the first noun a "noun-adjective" and
(2) the "noun-adjective" always comes before the noun that it modifies. No exceptions.

"Sales" is a noun-adjective.
GMAC is exploiting the fact that no good synonym exists for the noun increases in this context.
Sales rises? Not idiomatic. Sales spikes? Sales surges? Better, but a spike and surge indicate a radical increase, not just a "regular" increase.

In short, we realize that sales increases is a noun phrase because
(1) the two words cannot be subject/verb. Sales is plural. Increases is singular.
(2) sales increases follows the compound preposition because of.
-- prepositions must be followed by nouns or noun phrases
-- in English, one noun can act as an adjective that describes a subsequent noun.

• Introductory phrase structure?

Although the "because of" phrasing is not common in spoken English, that phrasing is fairly common in formal written English.

You correctly note that the compound preposition because of should be followed by a noun or noun phrase.
Because of is indeed followed by a noun phrase; that fact is just hard to see if we don't examine "sales increases" carefully.

That is, the introductory phrase is a compound preposition (Because of)
+
a noun phrase (the erratic pattern OF sales increases this year...)

As I note in my post below, here, we have two prepositions back to back:
because of [an erratic pattern]
and
of [sales increases this year]

More specifically, we have:

[compound preposition] + THE + [adjective] + [noun/direct object] + OF + [noun-adjective + noun] + [time adjective]

[Because of] + THE + [erratic] + [pattern] + OF + [sales + increases] + [this year]

Finally, to what time period does this pattern [of sales increases] belong?
This pattern belongs to this year
This year = adjective
Most of the time, a "when" phrase or word is an adverb.
When a time phrase modifies a noun, it is an adjective.
-- This November's daily temperatures are surprisingly high, especially compared to last November's daily temperatures .
-- In both instances, the phrase "this November's" is an adjective that modifies the noun temperatures, not the verbs are or compared.

This part of the question is hard. Just below I have indicated the errors in the other options.

Hope that helps.

************
PROCESS OF ELIMINATION

When in doubt, compare. Option A has no errors. The other four have clear errors.

Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year, retailers and analysts hesitate to predict five-year trends in retail sales during the months that have historically been the most profitable.

A) Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year, retailers and analysts hesitate to predict

B) With the erratic pattern of this year’s sales increases, retailers and analysts are hesitant in predicting:
GMAC does not like "with" to express causality. The meaning is strange and not clear: along with or together with the erratic pattern of sales increases, analysts are hesitant?
Finally, hesitant in predicting is not idiomatic. They are hesitant TO do something. They are hesitant TO predict trends.

C) This year, due to the erratic pattern of increasing sales, there is some hesitation among retailers and analysts in predicting
Especially compared to option A, option C is awkwardly phrased, unnecessarily passive, and wordy. No need exists for there is.The phrase some hesitation among . . . in predicting is cumbersome.
Finally, hesitation IN predicting is not idiomatic. There is hesitation TO predict.

D) The erratic pattern of sales increases have made retailers and analysts hesitate this year to predict
The singular subject pattern is not in agreement with the plural verb have.

E) This year’s erratic pattern of increasing sales have made retailers and analysts hesitate to predict - same S/V problem as that in D
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New post 27 Apr 2019, 05:04
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Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year, retailers and analysts hesitate to predict five-year trends in retail sales during the months that have historically been the most profitable.

A) Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year, retailers and analysts hesitate to predict
To attach an extra action to a verb, you need to use a gerund or infinitive.

B) With the erratic pattern of this year’s sales increases, retailers and analysts are hesitant in predicting
To attach an extra action to a verb, you need to use a gerund or infinitive...not "in predicting."

C) This year, due to the erratic pattern of increasing sales, there is some hesitation among retailers and analysts in predicting
"Pattern of increasing sales" is different from "sales increases..."

D) The erratic pattern of sales increases have made retailers and analysts hesitate this year to predict
Should be "has". "This year" is modifying hesitation...when it should be closer to sales increases.

E) This year’s erratic pattern of increasing sales have made retailers and analysts hesitate to predict
Should be "has"...

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Re: Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year retailers  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2019, 06:34
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A) Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year, retailers and analysts hesitate to predict CORRECT

B)With the erratic pattern of this year’s sales increases, retailers and analysts are hesitant in predicting

C) This year, due to the erratic pattern of increasing sales, there is some hesitation among retailers and analysts in predicting -PASSIVE VOICE

D) The erratic pattern of sales increases have made retailers and analysts hesitate this year to predict -PASSIVE VOICE

E) This year’s erratic pattern of increasing sales have made retailers and analysts hesitate to predict -PASSIVE VOICE
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New post 27 Apr 2019, 18:44
2
hi,
when i was solving this question , i eliminate option A as there is a clause in preposition,
Because of < Clause> ,
Since it is a official question , the answer is absolutely correct,
but i have seen the following structure all the time
Because of Noun/ Noun entity or Because <Clause >

So my question is,
Is the above statement an exception?
or the usage in OA is absolutely correct

Thanks
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New post 27 Apr 2019, 23:55
1
Actually I felt that the question was easier to attempt if choices are eliminated based on errors.
B: Eliminate due to With
C: Eliminate since it is too wordy and at the same time uses due to which is wrong here. Refer to Aristotle's SC Holy grail, due to vs because of explanation. To check whether due to can be used replace it with caused by. If sentence still makes sense, it is correct to use Due to.
D & E: Eliminate because of the use of have, Erratic pattern will attract has (Singular). sales increases is actually in a prepositional phrase (of sales increases) & cannot be a subject.

Hope the explanation is helpful.
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Re: Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year retailers  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2019, 12:11
generis wrote:
cool16 wrote:
hi,
when i was solving this question , i eliminate option A as there is a clause in preposition,
Because of < Clause> ,
Since it is a official question , the answer is absolutely correct,
but i have seen the following structure all the time
Because of Noun/ Noun entity or Because <Clause >

So my question is,
Is the above statement an exception?
or the usage in OA is absolutely correct

Thanks

Option A: Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year,
retailers and analysts hesitate to predict five-year trends in retail sales during the months that have historically been the most profitable.


Hi cool16 ,

No, option A is not an exception.
(And kudos for not "fighting" with the official answer.)

Option A does not have a clause with a subject and a verb after Because of.
The underlined words are a noun phrase (a noun + modifiers).

You got tripped up by "sales increases."
That phrase is a noun. (The two words could not be a subject and verb; sales is plural and increases is singular.)
To make things even more difficult, we have "this year," which seems to be
telling us when an action happened. "This year" seems to be an adverb.

In this case, the phrase "this year" is an adjective.

• "SALES INCREASES" - nouns that modify nouns

In English, we use nouns to modify nouns:
Spanish teacher
Sports car
Race horse
Corn bread

sales increases is a noun.
Increases is a noun, not a verb.
And increases is modified by the "noun-adjective" sales (What kind of increases?).

When a noun modifies another noun
(1) we can call the first noun a "noun-adjective" and
(2) the "noun-adjective" always comes before the noun that it modifies. No exceptions.

• Introductory phrase structure is a compound preposition + noun phrase

[compound preposition] + THE + [adjective] + [noun/direct object] + OF + [noun-adjective + noun]..........[adjective]
Because of .........................the........erratic............pattern...................of................sales increases...................this year

Finally, to what time period does this pattern [of sales increases] belong? this year (this year = adjective)
Most of the time, a "when" phrase or word is an adverb.
When a time phrase modifies a noun, it is an adjective.
Please look at this definition of "yesterday," here, to see the way in which a "when" word is an adjective.

This part of the question is hard.

Hope that helps.


generis,
Hi, I found pattern is the subject and increases is the verb.
Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year..........

Ho come increases is the noun. Example- he increases his score by 5 marks. Increases works as a verb. Please help me on this. I eliminated option A because because of + noun + immediate verb is usually wrong in GMAT.
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New post 19 Jun 2019, 12:12
I found pattern is the subject and increases is the verb.
Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year..........

How come increases is the noun. Example- he increases his score by 5 marks. Increases works as a verb. Please help me on this. I eliminated option A because because of + noun + immediate verb is usually wrong in GMAT.
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Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year retailers  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2019, 18:45
4
sunny91 wrote:
generis wrote:
cool16 wrote:
hi,
when i was solving this question , i eliminate option A as there is a clause in preposition,
Because of < Clause> ,
Since it is a official question , the answer is absolutely correct,
but i have seen the following structure all the time
Because of Noun/ Noun entity or Because <Clause >

So my question is,
Is the above statement an exception?
or the usage in OA is absolutely correct

Thanks

Option A: Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year,
retailers and analysts hesitate to predict five-year trends in retail sales during the months that have historically been the most profitable.


Hi cool16 ,

No, option A is not an exception.
(And kudos for not "fighting" with the official answer.)

Option A does not have a clause with a subject and a verb after Because of.
The underlined words are a noun phrase (a noun + modifiers).

You got tripped up by "sales increases."
That phrase is a noun. (The two words could not be a subject and verb; sales is plural and increases is singular.)

• "SALES INCREASES" - nouns that modify nouns

In English, we use nouns to modify nouns:
Spanish teacher
Sports car
Race horse
Corn bread

sales increases is a noun.
Increases is a noun, not a verb.
And increases is modified by the "noun-adjective" sales (What kind of increases?).


generis,
Hi, I found pattern is the subject and increases is the verb.
Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year..........

Ho come increases is the noun. Example- he increases his score by 5 marks. Increases works as a verb. Please help me on this. I eliminated option A because because of + noun + immediate verb is usually wrong in GMAT.

Hi sunny91 ,

I think you are asking the same question whose answer you are quoting.

Let me try to explain a different way.

First, you are correct. Because of is a preposition that needs a noun. (Because of WHAT?).
Prepositions can be followed only by a noun, noun phrase, or pronoun.

You think that Because of is followed by a clause whose subject is pattern and whose verb is increases. No.

The highlighted part is incorrect, though I understand why you think that "increases" is a verb: often it IS a verb.

Pattern is not followed by a verb.
Pattern is followed by a preposition (OF) + noun (increases)

How do we know? The word OF.
Pattern OF.
OF is a preposition that MUST be followed by a noun.

So when we see a preposition, OF, and a word such as "increases" that could be a verb OR a noun, we must think, "That word should be a noun. IS that word a noun?"

Quote:
How come increases is the noun.

Increases is a noun because
(1) it follows the preposition OF (which requires a noun, so "increases" should be a noun),
(2) it IS a noun at times,
(3) some noun must follow OF, and
(4) It makes sense.

The structure of the prepositional phrase will not allow "increases" to be a verb. We cannot ignore the OF.
If pattern were a subject, OF could not come between pattern and the verb increases.
-- Subject/verb: The pattern increases.
(Weird, but a grammatical subject and verb. No OF.)

-- NOT a subject/verb:
The pattern OF increases. :x
There is no such noun as "pattern of."

Pretend the main clause is different. I'll use different verbs that cannot also be nouns.
Because of the pattern of writes :x
Because of the pattern of weeps :x

TWO prepositional phrases

In other words, we have two prepositional phrases back-to-back:
(Preposition) + noun
1) (BECAUSE OF) a pattern
2) (OF) sales increases

Let's try some different words.

Because of the erratic pattern of purchasing habits, retailers and analysts hesitate to predict five-year trends in retail sales during the months that have historically been the most profitable. :)

Correct, back to back prepositional phrases:
(1) preposition + noun
[Because of] + [the erratic pattern]
(2) preposition + noun
[of] + [purchasing habits]

"Purchasing habits" is a noun phrase. That fact is easy to see.
"Sales increases" is also a noun phrase. That fact is not as easy to see, in part because English uses nouns as adjectives sometimes.

Spanish teacher
Sports car
Corn bread
sales increases
Quote:
How come increases is the noun. Example- he increases his score by 5 marks. Increases works as a verb.
[/quote]
Increases can be a verb OR a noun.
Notice that you cannot write
"He of increases his score by 5 marks."

I'm not saying that increases is never a verb.
I'm saying that increases is not a verb in this sentence.
"Increases" can be a verb sometimes.
But "can be sometimes" does not equal "must be always."

Takeaway: Prepositions can be followed by only a noun, pronoun, or gerund (verbING).

If a word seems to be a verb (and is not an __ING word), does a preposition come right before the "verb" in question. Yes? Then that word cannot be a verb.

If you are still confused, try explaining to me why increases IS NOT a noun.

Or ask another question. I'm happy to try to help. This sentence is hard.

I hope that helps.
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Re: Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year retailers  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2019, 18:55
generis wrote:
Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year, retailers and analysts hesitate to predict five-year trends in retail sales during the months that have historically been the most profitable.

A) Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year, retailers and analysts hesitate to predict

B) With the erratic pattern of this year’s sales increases, retailers and analysts are hesitant in predicting

C) This year, due to the erratic pattern of increasing sales, there is some hesitation among retailers and analysts in predicting

D) The erratic pattern of sales increases have made retailers and analysts hesitate this year to predict

E) This year’s erratic pattern of increasing sales have made retailers and analysts hesitate to predict


SC71061.01
Verbal Review 2020 NEW QUESTION


First D and E incorrect that pattern of sales is a singular and the verb used is have. Easy eliminate.

C- the problem is that the noun this is year is left abandoned without verb following.
B- it is incorrect it missed to convey causality between erratic pattern and hesitation.

So A is correct.

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New post 27 Jun 2019, 10:51
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I have seen many incorrect choices in which "with" is used after comma (to modify the preceding clause) or "with" is used to commence the sentence as given in option B (to modify the succeeding clause or I don't know how to name it); in all those questions the option containing "with" is marked incorrect.

I wonder what is the real use of "with"?
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New post 29 Jun 2019, 06:51
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Thanks Generis,
I got your point. I understood that the sales cant increase by themselves, something else is the doer. In order to have a verb, the sentence can be modified as Because the erratic pattern of sales has increased this year,...... I meant in passive voice we have the doer. In the active voice, pattern of sales is not the doer and thus increases is the modifier of sales ie. sales increases.
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Re: Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year retailers  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2019, 00:56
I am uneasy with "sales increase". if there is "increase in sales" in another choice, I will eliminate "sales increase".
I am sure that there is an official question that tests the difference between "increase in something" and "something increase'.

the takeaways is that "noun+increase" is inferior but not wrong .
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Re: Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year retailers  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2019, 08:30
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Balkrishna wrote:
I have seen many incorrect choices in which "with" is used after comma (to modify the preceding clause) or "with" is used to commence the sentence as given in option B (to modify the succeeding clause or I don't know how to name it); in all those questions the option containing "with" is marked incorrect.

I wonder what is the real use of "with"?

That's a really tricky topic, and I'm not sure that I've ever come up with a great explanation for it. It's really hard to clearly and succinctly define the correct uses a preposition such as "with"... but you're right, it seems to be a thing on the GMAT. :x

In many cases, "with" seems to suggest something -- or somebody -- is being accompanied in some way. For example, you could say: "I frequently eat pizza with emu sausage" or "Tim attended a movie with his two screaming toddlers."

Quote:
Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year, retailers and analysts hesitate to predict five-year trends in retail sales during the months that have historically been the most profitable.

B) With the erratic pattern of this year’s sales increases, retailers and analysts are hesitant in predicting

So why is (B) wrong?

I think in this case, the meaning ends up being awfully confusing. Are retailers and analysts accompanied in some way by the "erratic pattern of... sales in increases"? That doesn't seem logical. As written, the sentence appears to be saying that the retailers and analysts are somehow performing an action (specifically, the act of being hesitant to make a prediction) along with the erratic pattern of sales. It's much, much clearer to say that the retails and analysts hesitate because of the erratic pattern of sales increases. (And we could also argue that the verb form is much better in (A), for whatever that's worth.)

I hope that helps!
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Re: Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year retailers  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2019, 12:14
A) Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year, retailers and analysts hesitate to predict CORRECT

B)With the erratic pattern of this year’s sales increases, retailers and analysts are hesitant in predicting ("MEANING CHANGED)

C) This year, due to the erratic pattern of increasing sales, there is some hesitation among retailers and analysts in predicting -PASSIVE VOICE

D) The erratic pattern of sales increases have made retailers and analysts hesitate this year to predict -"Have" is plural verb referring to "erratic pattern of sales" which is singular

E) This year’s erratic pattern of increasing sales have made retailers and analysts hesitate to predict -"Have" is plural verb referring to "erratic pattern of sales" which is singular
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Re: Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year retailers  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2019, 22:42
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Whenever one has a doubt about whether the "because of" phrase is modifying a verb or the 'due to' phrase is modifying a noun, please try this test. We will take two choices from the question in context to do this test.

A) Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year, retailers and analysts hesitate to predict

C) This year, due to the erratic pattern of increasing sales, there is some hesitation among retailers and analysts in predicting

In these sentences, the confusion arises as the 'because of' and the 'due to' modifiers are placed earlier than the placement of the main clauses. This structure doesn't let us clearly understand the nature of the main clause in the proper perspective. Therefore, we shall now change the construction of these sentences by bringing the main clause to the fore and relegating the modifiers to the end.

A. retailers and analysts hesitate to predict …, because of o the erratic pattern of sales increases this year.

C. This year, there is some hesitation among retailers and analysts in predicting…, due to the erratic pattern of increasing sales
Both the above sentences are structurally correct. Because now we can see that in A, the 'because of' phrase modifies a verb 'hesitate' and in C, the 'due to' phrase modifies noun 'hesitation' promptly. (C is essentially wrong because of distorting the 'increases in sales' as 'increasing sales')

We must also keep in mind that whatever immediately follows the prepositional 'because of' or 'due to' will always be a noun or noun phrase. What is of relevance to us is the main clause. Let there be no confusions about it.

The simplest ways to tackle this question should be:

Remove choices C and E for distorting sales increases to increasing sales, dump D for a sly SV number error, and B for not using a 'causal transition' - because/ because of/due to. We can also fault B for using the incorrect idiom 'for predicting' rather than the infinitive 'to predict'. We are left with A, which doesn't fall into these pitfalls.
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Re: Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year retailers  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2019, 18:18
generis wrote:
Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year, retailers and analysts hesitate to predict five-year trends in retail sales during the months that have historically been the most profitable.

A) Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year, retailers and analysts hesitate to predict

B) With the erratic pattern of this year’s sales increases, retailers and analysts are hesitant in predicting

C) This year, due to the erratic pattern of increasing sales, there is some hesitation among retailers and analysts in predicting

D) The erratic pattern of sales increases have made retailers and analysts hesitate this year to predict

E) This year’s erratic pattern of increasing sales have made retailers and analysts hesitate to predict


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Verbal Review 2020 NEW QUESTION



A) Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year, retailers and analysts hesitate to predict - Correct

B) With the erratic pattern of this year’s sales increases, retailers and analysts are hesitant in predicting - Wrong: 1) Modifier 2) Idiom

C) This year, due to the erratic pattern of increasing sales, there is some hesitation among retailers and analysts in predicting - Wrong: 1) "due" 2) Wordy 3) Idiom 4) Meaning change due to "increasing"

D) The erratic pattern of sales increases have made retailers and analysts hesitate this year to predict - Wrong: 1) SV 2) Modifier

E) This year’s erratic pattern of increasing sales have made retailers and analysts hesitate to predict - Wrong: 1) SV
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Re: Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year retailers  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Nov 2019, 17:37
Shouldn't answer choice A read : "DUE TO the erratic pattern......?"

I was taught that "because of" should refer to a verb and "Due To" refers to a noun.
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Re: Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year retailers  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2019, 15:29
ctmerrill50 wrote:
Shouldn't answer choice A read : "DUE TO the erratic pattern......?"

I was taught that "because of" should refer to a verb and "Due To" refers to a noun.


Because of is a complex preposition, so it should be follow by a noun/pronoun/noun phrase.
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Re: Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year retailers  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2019, 16:15
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ctmerrill50 wrote:
Shouldn't answer choice A read : "DUE TO the erratic pattern......?"

I was taught that "because of" should refer to a verb and "Due To" refers to a noun.

Close! The phrase "due to ____" should modify a noun, not refer to a noun. Similarly, "because of _____" should modify a verb.

WHY do retailers and analysts hesitate to predict...? BECAUSE OF the erratic pattern...

The "because of..." phrase tells us WHY retailers and analysts hesitate -- in other words, it modifies the verb "hesitate". This is perfectly fine.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Because of the erratic pattern of sales increases this year retailers   [#permalink] 30 Nov 2019, 16:15
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