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By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawy

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By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawy  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 16 Sep 2019, 05:15
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 254, Date : 07-Aug-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawyers (legal advocates in Christian ecclesiastical courts, which dealt with cases involving marriage, inheritance, and other issues) had appeared in most of Western Europe, and a body of professional standards had been defined for them. One might expect that the professional associations would play a prominent role in enforcing these standards of conduct, as other guilds often did, and as modern professional associations do, but that seems not to have happened. Advocates’ professional organizations showed little fervor for disciplining their erring members. Some even attempted to hobble efforts at enforcement. The Florentine guild of lawyers, for example, forbade its members to play any role in disciplinary proceedings against other guild members. In the few recorded episodes of disciplinary enforcement, the initiative for disciplinary action apparently came from a dissatisfied client, not from fellow lawyers.

At first glance, there seem to be two possible explanations for the rarity of disciplinary proceedings. Medieval canon lawyers may have generally observed the standards of professional conduct scrupulously. Alternatively, it is possible that deviations from the established standards of behavior were not uncommon, but that canonical disciplinary mechanisms were so inefficient that most delinquents escaped detection and punishment.

Two considerations make it clear that the second of these explanations is more plausible. First, the English civil law courts, whose ethical standards were similar to those of ecclesiastical courts, show many more examples of disciplinary actions against legal practitioners than do the records of church courts. This discrepancy could well indicate that the disciplinary mechanisms of the civil courts functioned more efficiently than those of the church courts. The alternative inference, namely, that ecclesiastical advocates were less prone to ethical lapses than their counterparts in the civil courts, seems inherently weak, especially since there was some overlap of personnel between the civil bar and the ecclesiastical bar.

Second, church authorities themselves complained about the failure of advocates to measure up to ethical standards and deplored the shortcomings of the disciplinary system. Thus the Council of Basel declared that canon lawyers failed to adhere to the ethical prescriptions laid down in numerous papal constitutions and directed Cardinal Cesarian to address the problem. In England, where medieval church records are extraordinarily rich, similar complaints about the failure of the disciplinary system to reform unethical practices were very common.

Such criticisms seem to have had a paradoxical result, for they apparently reinforced the professional solidarity of lawyers at the expense of the enforcement of ethical standards. Thus the profession’s critics may actually have induced advocates to organize professional associations for self-defense. The critics’ attacks may also have persuaded lawyers to assign a higher priority to defending themselves against attacks by nonprofessionals than to disciplining wayward members within their own ranks.


1. Which one of the following best states the main conclusion of the passage?

(A) Professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers probably only enforced ethical standards among their own members when provoked to do so by outside criticisms.
(B) Professional organizations of medieval civil lawyers seem to have maintained stricter ethical standards for their own members than did professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers.
(C) Professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers apparently served to defend their members against critics’ attacks rather than to enforce ethical standards.
(D) The ethical standards maintained by professional associations of medieval canon lawyers were chiefly laid down in papal constitutions.
(E) Ethical standards for medieval canon lawyers were not laid down until professional organizations for these lawyers had been formed.



2. According to the passage, which one of the following statements about law courts in medieval England is true?

(A) Some English lawyers who practiced in civil courts also practiced in church courts, but others served exclusively in one court or the other.
(B) English canon lawyers were more likely to initiate disciplinary proceedings against their colleagues than were English civil lawyers.
(C) English civil lawyers maintained more stringent ethical standards than did civil lawyers in the rest of Europe.
(D) English ecclesiastical courts had originally been modeled upon English civil courts.
(E) English ecclesiastical courts kept richer and more thorough records than did English civil courts.



3. The author refers to the Florentine guild of lawyers in the first paragraph most probably in order to

(A) introduce a theory about to be promoted
(B) illustrate the type of action referred to in the previous sentence
(C) underline the universality of a method discussed throughout the paragraph
(D) point out a flaw in an argument presented earlier in the paragraph
(E) rebut an anticipated objection to a thesis just proposed



4. The author refers to the Council of Basel (Highlighted) primarily in order to

(A) provide an example of the type of action needed to establish professional standards for canon lawyers
(B) contrast the reactions of English church authorities with the reactions of other bodies to violations of professional standards by canon lawyers
(C) bolster the argument that violations of professional standards by canon lawyers did take place
(D) explain how rules of conduct for canon lawyers were established
(E) describe the development of a disciplinary system to enforce professional standards among canon lawyers



5. According to the information in the passage, for which one of the following ethical violations would documentation of disciplinary action against a canon lawyer be most likely to exist?

(A) betraying a client’s secrets to the opposing party
(B) bribing the judge to rule in favor of a client
(C) misrepresenting credentials in order to gain admission to the lawyers’ guild
(D) spreading rumors in order to discredit an opposing lawyer
(E) knowingly helping a client to misrepresent the truth



6. Which one of the following is most analogous to the “professional solidarity” (Highlighted)?

(A) Members of a teachers’ union go on strike when they believe one of their colleagues to be falsely accused of using an inappropriate textbook.
(B) In order to protect the reputation of the press in the face of a largely hostile public, a journalist conceals distortions in a colleague’s news article.
(C) Several dozen recording artists agree to participate in a concert to benefit an endangered environmental habitat.
(D) In order to expedite governmental approval of a drug, a government official is persuaded to look the other way when a pharmaceutical manufacturer conceals evidence that the drug may have minor side effects.
(E) A popular politician agrees to campaign for another, less popular politician belonging to the same political party.



7. The passage suggests that which one of the following is most likely to have been true of medieval guilds?

(A) Few guilds of any importance existed before the mid-fourteenth century.
(B) Many medieval guilds exercised influence over the actions of their members.
(C) Most medieval guilds maintained more exacting ethical standards than did the associations of canon lawyers.
(D) Medieval guilds found it difficult to enforce discipline among their members.
(E) The ethical standards of medieval guilds varied from one city to another.



8. The author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following regarding the hypothesis that medieval canon lawyers observed standards of professional conduct scrupulously?

(A) It is untrue because it is contradicted by documents obtained from the ecclesiastical courts.
(B) It is unlikely because it describes behavior markedly different from behavior observed in the same situation in modern society.
(C) It is unlikely because it describes behavior markedly different from behavior observed in a similar area of medieval society.
(D) It is impossible to assess intelligently because of the dearth of civil and ecclesiastical documents.
(E) It is directly supported by documents obtained from civil and ecclesiastical courts.



  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 20 (October 1996)
  • Difficulty Level: 700

Originally posted by firasath on 18 Jan 2010, 17:24.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 16 Sep 2019, 05:15, edited 5 times in total.
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Re: By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawy  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2019, 23:00
1
All correct in 16 mins, including 6 mins to read.

Para 1- professional associations of canon lawyers did not enforce standards of conduct, Some even attempted to hobble efforts at enforcement.
Para 2- two possible explanations for the rarity of disciplinary proceedings
Para 3- Two considerations make it clear that the second of these explanations is more plausible. First
Para 4- Second of the two considerations
Para 5- paradoxical result, for they apparently reinforced the professional solidarity of lawyers at the expense of the enforcement of ethical standards.

1. Which one of the following best states the main conclusion of the passage?
(C) Professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers apparently served to defend their members against critics’ attacks rather than to enforce ethical standards.
Thus the profession’s critics may actually have induced advocates to organize professional associations for self-defense. The critics’ attacks may also have persuaded lawyers to assign a higher priority to defending themselves against attacks by nonprofessionals than to disciplining wayward members within their own ranks.

2. According to the passage, which one of the following statements about law courts in medieval England is true?

(A) Some English lawyers who practiced in civil courts also practiced in church courts, but others served exclusively in one court or the other.
since there was some overlap of personnel between the civil bar and the ecclesiastical bar.

3. The author refers to the Florentine guild of lawyers in the first paragraph most probably in order to
(B) illustrate the type of action referred to in the previous sentence
Some even attempted to hobble efforts at enforcement. The Florentine guild of lawyers, for example, forbade its members to play any role in disciplinary proceedings against other guild members

4. The author refers to the Council of Basel (Highlighted) primarily in order to
(C) bolster the argument that violations of professional standards by canon lawyers did take place.
the Council of Basel declared that canon lawyers failed to adhere to the ethical prescriptions laid down in numerous papal constitutions and directed Cardinal Cesarian to address the problem.

5. According to the information in the passage, for which one of the following ethical violations would documentation of disciplinary action against a canon lawyer be most likely to exist?

(A) betraying a client’s secrets to the opposing party
In the few recorded episodes of disciplinary enforcement, the initiative for disciplinary action apparently came from a dissatisfied client, not from fellow lawyers.

6. Which one of the following is most analogous to the “professional solidarity” (Highlighted)?

(A) Members of a teachers’ union go on strike when they believe one of their colleagues to be falsely accused of using an inappropriate textbook.- incorrect, one of their colleagues is falsely accused makes this incorrect
(B) In order to protect the reputation of the press in the face of a largely hostile public, a journalist conceals distortions in a colleague’s news article.- Correct, the journalist conceals the distortions to protect the reputation of the press
(C) Several dozen recording artists agree to participate in a concert to benefit an endangered environmental habitat.- irrelevant
(D) In order to expedite governmental approval of a drug, a government official is persuaded to look the other way when a pharmaceutical manufacturer conceals evidence that the drug may have minor side effects.- incorrect
(E) A popular politician agrees to campaign for another, less popular politician belonging to the same political party.- incorrect

7. The passage suggests that which one of the following is most likely to have been true of medieval guilds?

(B) Many medieval guilds exercised influence over the actions of their members.
The Florentine guild of lawyers, for example, forbade its members to play any role in disciplinary proceedings against other guild members.

8. The author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following regarding the hypothesis that medieval canon lawyers observed standards of professional conduct scrupulously?

(C) It is unlikely because it describes behavior markedly different from behavior observed in a similar area of medieval society.- Correct, in para 2, the author lists 2 possible explanations
In para 3, he states that the second one is more plausible and gives two reasons
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Re: By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawy  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2019, 22:07
Can someone please explain OA for Q4.
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Re: By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawy  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2019, 01:50
Explanation


4. The author refers to the Council of Basel (Highlighted) primarily in order to

Difficulty Level: 650

Explanation

In lines 36-38, the author cites the medieval church as an organization that supports his argument that religious lawyers failed to deal with unethical behavior in their ranks. The example of the Council of Basel (lines 38-41) simply provides concrete evidence to show that the stance of the medieval church does indeed support his view.

(A) The Council of Basel, according to lines 38-41, instructed Cardinal Cesarini to find a way to get religious lawyers to adhere to ethical standards already in existence; this council had no role in establishing such standards.

(B) is outside the scope of the passage. The text never explicitly compares the reaction of the English church to that of other bodies regarding unethical behavior by medieval religious lawyers.

(D) is outside the scope of the passage, too. Lines 49-50 simply mention that ethical standards were set down by the Pope; they never explain how these rules of conduct were actually established.

(E) is also outside the scope of the passage. The text never describes the development of a disciplinary system to enforce ethical behavior. It just discusses why the system didn’t work.

• Always read the answer choices fully and carefully. It’s easy to fall for wrong choices—like those here—that have a superficial plausibility (because they invoke the language of passage details).

Answer: C


Hope it helps

Mudit27021988 wrote:
Can someone please explain OA for Q4.

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By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawy  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Feb 2020, 12:36
Hi everyone,
Got 5/8 correct in 19 minutes.

-----------------------------------------------------


P1

In paragraph one we are given who the canon lawyers are and the fact that they were subjected to standards. Nonetheless, they were not interested in enforcing such standards among themselves and sometimes they even try to hobble the enforcement of such standards.

Purpose: The purpose is to present the canon lawyers and to claim that they were not interested in enforcing standards.


P2

Here we are given two possible explanations:
#1: canon lawyers already followed standards very strictly
#2: following such standards was counterproductive

Purpose: The purpose of this paragraph is to present two possible explanations for a phenomenon described in the previous paragraph



P3

In this paragraph the author claims that the second explanation is more likely than the first one. The author then cites 2 evidence to strengthen this idea:
#1 In face of ethical violations, civil lawyers were subjects to punishments while their ecclesiastical counterparts were not.
One possible inference is that Ecclesiastical lawyers did not commit ethical violations while their civil counterparts did and that's why they were subjected to such punishments.
However we know that it is probable that #2 is not correct as many times people working in the civil area worked in the ecclesiastical area and vice versa.

Purpose: The purpose of this paragraph is to offer the first consideration to strengthen the idea that the second explanation given in the previous paragraph is the most plausible.



P4

The second consideration is that church members themselves complained about the faultiness of this system. They did so in the council of Basel. Plus we are given that in England we had a similar situation.

Purpose: The purpose of this paragraph is to present the second consideration in favor of the second theory.


P5

Here the author suggests that critics to the lack of enforcement of standards might have been counterproductive. As a matter of facts lawyers probably created associations to defend themselves and maybe they did not educate their members because they were too busy defending themselves from various attacks.

Purpose: The purpose of this paragraph is to suggest that critics and opposers of the lack of enforcement of standards might have been counterproductive


Main point

The main point of this passage is to investigate the reasons why among the canon lawyers there was a lack of enforcement of standards.


-----------------------------------------------------


1. Which one of the following best states the main conclusion of the passage?

Pre-thinking

Main point question

The main point of this passage is to investigate the reasons why among the canon lawyers there was a lack of enforcement of standards.

(A) Professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers probably only enforced ethical standards among their own members when provoked to do so by outside criticisms.
Tricky but the question is inconsistent as canon lawyers when provoked to enforce standards did the opposite

(B) Professional organizations of medieval civil lawyers seem to have maintained stricter ethical standards for their own members than did professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers.
Out of scope

(C) Professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers apparently served to defend their members against critics’ attacks rather than to enforce ethical standards.
Correct, throughout all the passage the author investigates the reasons behind this lack of enforcement and this is the answer to the author's quest.

(D) The ethical standards maintained by professional associations of medieval canon lawyers were chiefly laid down in papal constitutions.
out of context and wrong

(E) Ethical standards for medieval canon lawyers were not laid down until professional organizations for these lawyers had been formed.
out of scope


-----------------------------------------------------


2. According to the passage, which one of the following statements about law courts in medieval England is true?

Pre-thinking

Detail question

Law courts in medieval England are discussed in P3 and in P4.

(A) Some English lawyers who practiced in civil courts also practiced in church courts, but others served exclusively in one court or the other.
From P3: The alternative inference, namely, that ecclesiastical advocates were less prone to ethical lapses than their counterparts in the civil courts, seems inherently weak, especially since there was some overlap of personnel between the civil bar and the ecclesiastical bar.

(B) English canon lawyers were more likely to initiate disciplinary proceedings against their colleagues than were English civil lawyers.
Never mentioned

(C) English civil lawyers maintained more stringent ethical standards than did civil lawyers in the rest of Europe.
Never mentioned

(D) English ecclesiastical courts had originally been modeled upon English civil courts.
Never mentioned

(E) English ecclesiastical courts kept richer and more thorough records than did English civil courts.
Never mentioned


-----------------------------------------------------


3. The author refers to the Florentine guild of lawyers in the first paragraph most probably in order to

Pre-thinking

Function question

As usual when we are asked for the function of an element in the passage it is useful to evaluate the sentences before that element.
In this case: " Some even attempted to hobble efforts at enforcement."


(A) introduce a theory about to be promoted
Not in line with pre-thinking

(B) illustrate the type of action referred to in the previous sentence
in line with pre-thinking

(C) underline the universality of a method discussed throughout the paragraph
Not in line with pre-thinking

(D) point out a flaw in an argument presented earlier in the paragraph
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) rebut an anticipated objection to a thesis just proposed
Not in line with pre-thinking


-----------------------------------------------------


4. The author refers to the Council of Basel (Highlighted) primarily in order to

Pre-thinking

Function question

The usage of this example is functional to strengthen this claim from P4: "Second, church authorities themselves complained about the failure of advocates to measure up to ethical standards and deplored the shortcomings of the disciplinary system."

The tricky part of this question is that the above statement reinforces itself the idea that the second explanation is more plausible. What was the second explanation? Alternatively, it is possible that deviations from the established standards of behavior were not uncommon, but that canonical disciplinary mechanisms were so inefficient that most delinquents escaped detection and punishment.


(A) provide an example of the type of action needed to establish professional standards for canon lawyers
As per the passage such actions were counterproductive in the end. OUT

(B) contrast the reactions of English church authorities with the reactions of other bodies to violations of professional standards by canon lawyers
Out of scope

(C) bolster the argument that violations of professional standards by canon lawyers did take place
In line with pre-thinking

(D) explain how rules of conduct for canon lawyers were established
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) describe the development of a disciplinary system to enforce professional standards among canon lawyers
Not in line with pre-thinking


-----------------------------------------------------


5. According to the information in the passage, for which one of the following ethical violations would documentation of disciplinary action against a canon lawyer be most likely to exist?

Pre-thinking

Detail question

Tricky to find but here it is: "In the few recorded episodes of disciplinary enforcement, the initiative for disciplinary action apparently came from a dissatisfied client, not from fellow lawyers.
"


(A) betraying a client’s secrets to the opposing party
In line with pre-thinking

(B) bribing the judge to rule in favor of a client
Not in line with pre-thinking

(C) misrepresenting credentials in order to gain admission to the lawyers’ guild
Not in line with pre-thinking

(D) spreading rumors in order to discredit an opposing lawyer
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) knowingly helping a client to misrepresent the truth
Not in line with pre-thinking


-----------------------------------------------------


6. Which one of the following is most analogous to the “professional solidarity” (Highlighted)?

Pre-thinking

Analogous statement question

Professional solidarity refers to those lawyers that when attacked from whoever decided to group together to defend themselves by such attacks.

(A) Members of a teachers’ union go on strike when they believe one of their colleagues to be falsely accused of using an inappropriate textbook.
Lawyers are not falsely accused

(B) In order to protect the reputation of the press in the face of a largely hostile public, a journalist conceals distortions in a colleague’s news article.
Here we have the element of attack and defense. Correct

(C) Several dozen recording artists agree to participate in a concert to benefit an endangered environmental habitat.
not in line with pre-thinking

(D) In order to expedite governmental approval of a drug, a government official is persuaded to look the other way when a pharmaceutical manufacturer conceals evidence that the drug may have minor side effects.
not in line with pre-thinking

(E) A popular politician agrees to campaign for another, less popular politician belonging to the same political party.
not in line with pre-thinking


-----------------------------------------------------


7. The passage suggests that which one of the following is most likely to have been true of medieval guilds?

Pre-thinking

Inference questions

From P1: "One might expect that the professional associations would play a prominent role in enforcing these standards of conduct, as other guilds often did, and as modern professional associations do, but that seems not to have happened. "

(A) Few guilds of any importance existed before the mid-fourteenth century.
Out of scope

(B) Many medieval guilds exercised influence over the actions of their members.
The statement above suggests that the guilds were able to enforce standards of conduct, hence they were able to influence their members

(C) Most medieval guilds maintained more exacting ethical standards than did the associations of canon lawyers.
Most is too extreme

(D) Medieval guilds found it difficult to enforce discipline among their members.
Cannot be inferred

(E) The ethical standards of medieval guilds varied from one city to another.
Cannot be inferred


-----------------------------------------------------


8. The author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following regarding the hypothesis that medieval canon lawyers observed standards of professional conduct scrupulously?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

The author clearly states that it is not plausible because of the overlapse

(A) It is untrue because it is contradicted by documents obtained from the ecclesiastical courts.
Too extreme

(B) It is unlikely because it describes behavior markedly different from behavior observed in the same situation in modern society.
Inconsistent

(C) It is unlikely because it describes behavior markedly different from behavior observed in a similar area of medieval society.
Yes, as there was overlaps with such area it is unlikely that the same people would behave differently in the two areas

(D) It is impossible to assess intelligently because of the dearth of civil and ecclesiastical documents.
Too extreme

(E) It is directly supported by documents obtained from civil and ecclesiastical courts.
incorrect


-----------------------------------------------------

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By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawy  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Feb 2020, 18:53
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P1: Surprisingly, professional associations for canon lawyers didn’t enforce standards as expected.
P2: Two explanations given for limited disciplinary action. 1) Lawyers were pretty principled on their own and 2) inefficiency of the system.
P3: Two pieces of supporting evidence for the 2nd explanation. 1) More actions against lawyers in civil law = more efficiency than church. Overlap between lawyers of both courts disproves P2 theory about being more principled in general.
P4: Continuation of P3. Church also complained of ethics and sent some Cardinal to fix the situation.
P5: All this criticism backfired. Lawyers now prioritise self-defence vs. discipline overall.
MP: Criticism of lack of ethics led to canon lawyer’s guild over-protecting itself. Author explores various explanations and supports one/disproves the other.

1. Which one of the following best states the main conclusion of the passage?

Pre-Thinking: The main conclusion is mostly located in P1 and P5. We’re looking for an answer that describes that criticism of the ethics of lawyers actually led to their association prescribing even fewer disciplinary actions.

(A) Professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers probably only enforced ethical standards among their own members when provoked to do so by outside criticisms. [While true as noted in P1 (disciplinary action apparently came from a dissatisfied client, not from fellow lawyers), the conclusion is about the paradox.]

(B) Professional organizations of medieval civil lawyers seem to have maintained stricter ethical standards for their own members than did professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers. [Might be true but is not the main conclusion.]

(C) Professional organizations of medieval canon lawyers apparently served to defend their members against critics’ attacks rather than to enforce ethical standards. [True. Match!]

(D) The ethical standards maintained by professional associations of medieval canon lawyers were chiefly laid down in papal constitutions. [We don’t know this was CHIEFLY LAID DOWN piece for fact. Also too specific! They did mention “Council of Basel” and “Cardinal Cesarian”….and that “the ethical prescriptions laid down in numerous papal constitutions”… but seems like a trap.]

(E) Ethical standards for medieval canon lawyers were not laid down until professional organizations for these lawyers had been formed. [This answer choice discusses the chronology of ethic formation with regards to professional organization creation. This idea isn’t mentioned. Not relevant]


2. According to the passage, which one of the following statements about law courts in medieval England is true?

Pre-Thinking: This is a detail question. We’re headed over to P3 for this one. The passage discusses that law courts had 1) more examples of disciplinary actions…. and 2) overlap of personnel.

(A) Some English lawyers who practiced in civil courts also practiced in church courts, but others served exclusively in one court or the other.
[Sounds like our pre-thinking and there’s proof in P3 (…especially since there was some overlap of personnel between the civil bar and the
ecclesiastical bar).]

(B) English canon lawyers were more likely to initiate disciplinary proceedings against their colleagues than were English civil lawyers. [This seems opposite of what the entire passage is stating. See P3 (…civil courts show many more examples of disciplinary actions against legal practitioners than do the records of church courts).]

(C) English civil lawyers maintained more stringent ethical standards than did civil lawyers in the rest of Europe. [Sounds like a trap! We don’t know if they painted MORE STRINGENT ethical standards. In fact, the passage says otherwise (…English civil law courts, whose ethical standards were similar to those of ecclesiastical courts…). The law courts had the SIMILAR standards, the canon guilds just didn’t act on the discipline piece. Also, what is this comparison to the REST OF EUROPE? No.]

(D) English ecclesiastical courts had originally been modeled upon English civil courts.
[Not relevant/mentioned. We don’t know the chronology of how each was modelled.]

(E) English ecclesiastical courts kept richer and more thorough records than did English civil courts.
[It mentions this topic in P4 (…medieval church records are extraordinarily rich…) but we don’t know if those records were “richer” than the records of “English civil courts.” This COULD be true but not necessarily!]

3. The author refers to the Florentine guild of lawyers in the first paragraph most probably in order to

Pre-Thinking: This is a general structure question. We’re headed to P1! Reading the sentence before (….some even attempted to hobble efforts at enforcement. The Florentine guild of lawyers, for example…), we see the Florentine guild is mentioned to shed additional light and give a real-life example of how guilds might “hobble efforts at enforcement.”

(A) introduce a theory about to be promoted
[Florentine isn’t mentioned to introduce a theory that is “about to be promoted”. In fact, the sentence afterwards continues along the same vein of describing how severely bad enforcement was.]

(B) illustrate the type of action referred to in the previous sentence
[Match. It is an “illustra[tion]” or example of a type of action (hobbling efforts at enforcement).]

(C) underline the universality of a method discussed throughout the paragraph
[What is the universality? What method? Not discussed.]

(D) point out a flaw in an argument presented earlier in the paragraph
[Doesn’t point out a flaw].

(E) rebut an anticipated objection to a thesis just proposed
[No rebuttal.]

4. The author refers to the Council of Basel (Highlighted) primarily in order to

Pre-Thinking: Our favourite! The detail (why is this here?) question! Heading to P4, we read slightly before (…deplored the shortcomings of the disciplinary system. Thus the Council of Basel … directed Cardinal Cesarian to address the problem) and sounds like we’re looking for answer choice that explains that this Council 1) agreed and 2) acted on all these complaints.

(A) provide an example of the type of action needed to establish professional standards for canon lawyers [OK, maybe… but not feeling 100% especially since they already had standards. They just didn’t follow them.]

(B) contrast the reactions of English church authorities with the reactions of other bodies to violations of professional standards by canon lawyers [No contrast.]

(C) bolster the argument that violations of professional standards by canon lawyers did take place [Eliminated this at first glance BUT I see that the “Thus the Counsel declared…” = agreement with the complaints. ]

(D) explain how rules of conduct for canon lawyers were established [Not relevant at all in this passage. Also rules of conduct were already established beforehand…?]

(E) describe the development of a disciplinary system to enforce professional standards among canon lawyers [Hmmm, it doesn’t mention “the shortcomings of the disciplinary system” which lead the Basel counsel to also make the same claim. There was no “description of the development” though…unless they mean we directed someone else to fix it? Nah, we just talk about why the system is broken.]


5. According to the information in the passage, for which one of the following ethical violations would documentation of disciplinary action against a canon lawyer be most likely to exist?

Pre-Thinking: So we’re looking for an answer that is analogous to P1’s last sentence (…disciplinary action apparently came from a dissatisfied client, not from fellow lawyers). So something where the lawyer made the client unhappy!

(A) betraying a client’s secrets to the opposing party [Yup, that would make me unhappy!]
(B) bribing the judge to rule in favor of a client [I’d be :)]
(C) misrepresenting credentials in order to gain admission to the lawyers’ guild [Hm, this isn’t related to the client at all.]
(D) spreading rumors in order to discredit an opposing lawyer [Not related to client.]
(E) knowingly helping a client to misrepresent the truth [I’d be :)]

6. Which one of the following is most analogous to the “professional solidarity” (Highlighted)?

Pre-Thinking: So “professional solidarity” is mentioned in P5 as the result of the criticism leading to more self-defence as a group…. even when the actions are unethical.

(A) Members of a teachers’ union go on strike when they believe one of their colleagues to be falsely accused of using an inappropriate textbook. [Nope. “Falsely accused” = they believe they are morally correct.]

(B) In order to protect the reputation of the press in the face of a largely hostile public, a journalist conceals distortions in a colleague’s news article. [This works. Standing up for colleague’s distorted news <ethical standards> because of critical press!]

(C) Several dozen recording artists agree to participate in a concert to benefit an endangered environmental habitat. [No. There is no morally wrong piece that a group is trying to protect its internal people from.]

(D) In order to expedite governmental approval of a drug, a government official is persuaded to look the other way when a pharmaceutical manufacturer conceals evidence that the drug may have minor side effects. [Government official and manufacturer aren’t exactly in the same “group”.]

(E) A popular politician agrees to campaign for another, less popular politician belonging to the same political party. [Not a match. Sure, they’re both politicians but not stated if those standards were wrong/right.]

7. The passage suggests that which one of the following is most likely to have been true of medieval guilds?

Pre-Thinking: An detail/inference-ish question! Let’s see what we can prove. Note that this is discussing medieval guilds in general (canon and civil).

(A) Few guilds of any importance existed before the mid-fourteenth century. [We don’t know about the number of guilds before 14c. We don’t care!]

(B) Many medieval guilds exercised influence over the actions of their members. [Hm, sounds about right. Proof in P1 (One might expect that the professional associations would play a prominent role in enforcing these standards of conduct, as other guilds often did, and as modern professional associations do, but that seems not to have happened)]

(C) Most medieval guilds maintained more exacting ethical standards than did the associations of canon lawyers. [Possible BUT at some point the author seems to claim that the standards are similar - just that one acted on those standards when they were broken and the canon lawyers didn’t. See P4.]

(D) Medieval guilds found it difficult to enforce discipline among their members.
[Not mentioned. But the “difficulty” was more so for different reasons…. like not wanting to. See P1 (showed little fervor for disciplining their erring members….)].

(E) The ethical standards of medieval guilds varied from one city to another.
[When did we start talking about variance from city to city? Nope.]

8. The author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following regarding the hypothesis that medieval canon lawyers observed standards of professional conduct scrupulously?

Pre-Thinking: An detail/inference-ish question! So, we’re back to P2 which talks about how medieval canon lawyers having principles to start (generally observed the standards of professional conduct scrupulously). BUT in P3, author says this “alternative inference” is likely false (inherently weak, especially since there was some overlap of personnel between the civil bar and the ecclesiastical bar). This means we’re looking for an answer where the author doesn’t agree with this hypothesis because of the evidence of overlapping occupation.

(A) It is untrue because it is contradicted by documents obtained from the ecclesiastical courts.
[Maybe…but where are we with the “documents”? Eh. Let’s move on…first].

(B) It is unlikely because it describes behavior markedly different from behavior observed in the same situation in modern society.
[Modern society? No.]

(C) It is unlikely because it describes behavior markedly different from behavior observed in a similar area of medieval society.
[Pretty good match. Basically the AC says if the civil lawyers had ethical lapses and some of those lawyers were also part of the ecclesiastical bar, then this whole hypothesis is shot.]

(D) It is impossible to assess intelligently because of the dearth of civil and ecclesiastical documents. [No. Also extreme.]

(E) It is directly supported by documents obtained from civil and ecclesiastical courts. [Possibly but possible isn’t good enough here. There’s no mention of “directly supported by documents”].

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By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawy   [#permalink] 22 Feb 2020, 18:53

By the mid-fourteenth century, professional associations of canon lawy

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