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Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named

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Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named after him, to explain an airplane’s wing’s generation of lift, and made a discovery that led to an early method of measuring blood pressure.


(A) equation named after him, to explain an airplane’s wing’s generation of lift

(B) equation named after him, and this principle explains the lift of an airplane’s wing

(C) equation, named it after himself, explained how an airplane’s wing is generating lift

(D) equation named for him, giving an explanation of the generation of the lift of an airplane’s wing

(E) equation named for him, which explains how an airplane’s wing generates lift



Folks sometimes think of GMAT SC in terms of grammar only, but the SC is as much about logic as it is about grammar. The splits in this question are less about grammatical errors and more about logical problems. For a discussion of logic in GMAT SC questions, more practice questions of this sort, and the OE of this particular question, see:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2014/logical-sp ... orrection/

Mike :-)

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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2014, 11:13
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ynk wrote:
hi mike,

can u please tell me what's wrong with option C?

Dear ynk,

I'm happy to respond. :-) First of all, my friend, I am going to chide you for being so informal in your language. With all due respect, you have presented your request the way a child would. Think about it. What if some other user on GMAT Club reads this, and some day is in a position of power --- perhaps someone who might hire you or some partner with whom you will negotiate a deal. What if your casual and sloppy language now makes an impression on that person? My friend, have respect for yourself. Always put your best forward. Especially in a question about GMAT SC, always strive to maintain the same standards the GMAT itself keeps on SC. Always hold yourself to the highest standards -- that is one of the habits of excellence.

As your question --- here's the SC question again:
Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named after him, to explain an airplane’s wing’s generation of lift, and made a discovery that led to an early method of measuring blood pressure.
(A) equation named after him, to explain an airplane’s wing’s generation of lift
(B) equation named after him, and this principle explains the lift of an airplane’s wing
(C) equation, named it after himself, explained how an airplane’s wing is generating lift
(D) equation named for him, giving an explanation of the generation of the lift of an airplane’s wing
(E) equation named for him, which explains how an airplane’s wing generates lift


There are a few problems with (C). First of all, this makes the mistake of false parallelism. You see, Parallelism is not primarily is a grammatical structure: instead, it is primarily a logical structure. The grammar merely reflects the logic. If we get a string of verbs in a sentence, it is not necessarily correct to put them all into parallel unless they logically belong in parallel. The mistake in (C) reflects a very mechanical understanding of Parallelism, thinking only on the level of grammar and not on the level of logic.
The second problem is the a subtle change in meaning --- the prompt tells us that the fluid equation was "named after" Bernoulli, but exactly did that happen? Did Bernoulli create the equation and name it after himself? Or, did he simply publish the fluid equation, and in time, others referred to it as "Bernoulli's Equation"? We don't really know, so we have to leave that ambiguous. Choice (C) explicitly choose the first option, the option that Bernoulli named the equation after himself, and we don't know that this is the case.
There is also a logical problem in putting the verb "explain" in parallel with the others. Yes, the equation explains an airplane's lift. Was Bernoulli himself trying to explain an airplane's lift? NO! He lived well over a century before airplanes were around, so he couldn't possibly have been trying to explain airplanes. This is an example of the logical problems that false parallelism creates.
Finally, the progressive tense "is generating" is 100% awkward and incorrect. That seems to suggest we are taking about a specific airplane wing, perhaps sitting right outside our room. This is not the sense of the sentence. We are talking about airplane wings in general, so we need the general present tense, not the present progressive.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2014, 02:58
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is "equation named for him" a correct idiom ? Even for a logical split are we allowed to use incorrect idioms?
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2014, 17:20
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aniketnd01 wrote:
is "equation named for him" a correct idiom ? Even for a logical split are we allowed to use incorrect idioms?

Dear aniketnd01,
That phrase, "equation named for him," is 100% idiomatically correct. Of course, on the GMAT SC, the right answer has to be grammatically correct, idiomatically correct, logically correct, and rhetorically sound all at once. We can never drop one in favor of the other.

What makes you think that phrase is not a correct idiom?
Mike :-)
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2014, 09:24
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mikemcgarry wrote:
[color=#0000ff]...and made a discovery that lead to an early method of measuring blood pressure.


Be careful when writing the past tense of the word lead. It is actually led.

All the best...
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2014, 11:30
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Perchance wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
[color=#0000ff]...and made a discovery that lead to an early method of measuring blood pressure.

Be careful when writing the past tense of the word lead. It is actually led.
All the best...

Dear Perchance,
Many thanks for this astute observation. I corrected this same typo on the original blog, but forgot to correct it here as well ---- I corrected it just now. It's funny: the underlined splits always get far more scrutiny than the non-underlined parts of the sentence, but of course, in the OA, the whole sentence has to be grammatically correct. Thank you for pointing this out, my friend, and best of luck to you!
Mike :-)
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2014, 13:00
Hi,
Doesn't "which" modify "him" rather than "equation"?
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2014, 13:15
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varunmb wrote:
Hi,
Doesn't "which" modify "him" rather than "equation"?

Dear varunmb,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

First of all, the relative pronoun "which" can only refer to an object, not to a person. We would need "who" for a person.

More importantly, the participial phrase "named for him" is a vital noun-modifier, and a vital modifier can come between the noun, "equation," and the non-vital modifier, "which explains how ..." For a thorough explanation of vital noun-modifiers, see this blog:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... modifiers/

Mike :-)
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2014, 04:29
hi mike,

can u please tell me what's wrong with option C?
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2015, 02:41
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In the 18th century, Daniel cold not have explained some airplane’s feature, the plane itself having been invented in the 20th century by the Wrights brothers.

A. equation named after him, to explain an airplane’s wing’s generation of lift --1. A is out because it is out of scope for the above-stated reason 2. An airplane’s wing’s’ is very weird

B. equation named after him, and this principle explains the lift of an airplane’s wing – A past tense clause and then a present tense clause and then again a past tense clause – and two ands to separate three items—all these things make this choice awful.

C. equation, named it after himself, explained how an airplane’s wing is generating lift --1. This is invalid for the same reason as in A. 2. Named it after himself implies that Daniel himself named it after his ownself.

D. equation named for him, giving an explanation of the generation of the lift of an airplane’s wing – The adverbial modifier, ‘giving an explanation of the generation’ modifies Daniel’ deriving the fluid equation; this is logically incorrect.

E. equation named for him, which explains how an airplane’s wing generates lift, --- may be the best since the present tense of the modifier indicates that the reference to the airplane is a thing of present times and that when the modifier when removed still carries the original meaning intact.

Only one doubt though. Is 'named for him', a correct idiom?
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 22 Oct 2015, 11:00
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Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782)
    derived the famous fluid equation named after him, to explain an airplane’s wing’s generation of lift, and
    made a discovery that led to an early method of measuring blood pressure.

airplane’s wing’s generation.........weird


B. equation named after him, and this principle explains the lift of an airplane’s wing
and this principle refers to equation isntead of Bernoulli principle
use of and in modifier phrase appears incorrect
x and y and z structure is also not proper.


C. equation, named it after himself, explained how an airplane’s wing is generating lift
forced parallelism is shown here.
Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782)
  • derived the famous fluid equation,
  • named it after himself,
  • explained how an airplane’s wing is generating lift and
  • made a discovery that led to an early method of measuring blood pressure.

All these are not different successive events but interrelated. Incorrect choice.


D. equation named for him, giving an explanation of the generation of the lift of an airplane’s wing...........
he derived equation by
    giving an explanation of wing lift and
    made a discovery
This does not make sense for me.
......

E. equation named for him, which explains how an airplane’s wing generates lift......

Daniel Bernoulli (1700 - 1782)
    derived the famous fluid equation named for him, which explains how an airplane’s wing generates lift, and
    made a discovery that led to an early method of measuring blood pressure.

made a discovery correctly refers to Daniel Bernouli
Thanks Mike

Originally posted by Nevernevergiveup on 20 Oct 2015, 03:18.
Last edited by Nevernevergiveup on 22 Oct 2015, 11:00, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2015, 03:34
daagh wrote:
In the 18th century, Daniel cold not have explained some airplane’s feature, the plane itself having been invented in the 20th century by the Wrights brothers.

A. equation named after him, to explain an airplane’s wing’s generation of lift --1. A is out because it is out of scope for the above-stated reason 2. An airplane’s wing’s’ is very weird

B. equation named after him, and this principle explains the lift of an airplane’s wing – A past tense clause and then a present tense clause and then again a past tense clause – and two ands to separate three items—all these things make this choice awful.

C. equation, named it after himself, explained how an airplane’s wing is generating lift --1. This is invalid for the same reason as in A. 2. Named it after himself implies that Daniel himself named it after his ownself.

D. equation named for him, giving an explanation of the generation of the lift of an airplane’s wing – The adverbial modifier, ‘giving an explanation of the generation’ modifies Daniel’ deriving the fluid equation; this is logically incorrect.

E. equation named for him, which explains how an airplane’s wing generates lift, --- may be the best since the present tense of the modifier indicates that the reference to the airplane is a thing of present times and that when the modifier when removed still carries the original meaning intact.

Only one doubt though. Is 'named for him', a correct idiom?


Hey daagh, quick questions on E:
1) What does 'Which' modify? I thought it modifies 'Him'
2) Who explains- the equation or the Mr. Daniel?
3) Your explanation for B- "A past tense clause and then a present tense clause.. ". Doesnt it apply here? Derived.. explains ??

Please reconsider :)
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2015, 03:47
A for me:

1) Eliminating D and E:
Wrong usage 'named for him', i think 'named after him' is better.
D and E are out

2) Eliminating B and C
B. equation named after him, and this principle explains the lift of an airplane’s wing
What does 'this' refer to? There is no 'Principle'.
Tens issue- Derived... Named... Explains

C. equation, named it after himself, explained how an airplane’s wing is generating lift
the parallel construction with commas gives a list of below three items-
i) Derived the equation
ii) Named it
iii) Explained
This indicated that the 'Explanation' was independent of 'Derivation'. This is not true. The explanation was a result of derivation.

A is the best choice.

Please correct me if im wrong.
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2015, 04:04
arhumsid


1) What does 'Which' modify? I thought it modifies ‘Him’ --- which cannot modify a person or a personal pronoun. It no doubt points to the equation; it may be noted that there is no other noun it can modify logically.
2) Who explains- the equation or the Mr. Daniel? --- Where is the word ‘who’ in the choice? I didn’t get you.

3) Your explanation for B- "A past tense clause and then a present tense clause. “ Doesn’t it apply here? Derived. explains ?? I did not get this point also.
I only said that this sentence construction is awful since there is no uniformity in the use of tenses. The first sentence is in past tense and the second sentence is in present tense and the third is again in past tense. In addition, when there are three items, only the last item should be separated by an ‘and’ Thirdly, if the derived equation explains the airplane thing, then it is wrong for the logic explained about the chronology of events.
On the contrary, In E, the modifier is in present tense. This means that other modern people have derived the conclusion about the airplane wing presently.
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2015, 05:25
daagh wrote:
arhumsid


1) What does 'Which' modify? I thought it modifies ‘Him’ --- which cannot modify a person or a personal pronoun. It no doubt points to the equation; it may be noted that there is no other noun it can modify logically.
2) Who explains- the equation or the Mr. Daniel? --- Where is the word ‘who’ in the choice? I didn’t get you.

3) Your explanation for B- "A past tense clause and then a present tense clause. “ Doesn’t it apply here? Derived. explains ?? I did not get this point also.
I only said that this sentence construction is awful since there is no uniformity in the use of tenses. The first sentence is in past tense and the second sentence is in present tense and the third is again in past tense. In addition, when there are three items, only the last item should be separated by an ‘and’ Thirdly, if the derived equation explains the airplane thing, then it is wrong for the logic explained about the chronology of events.
On the contrary, In E, the modifier is in present tense. This means that other modern people have derived the conclusion about the airplane wing presently.


Sorry for being unclear. Here are the doubts:
1) Usage of which: Which modifies the entity it follows. It can never modify clauses. And, it can never modify people (Please correct me if im wrong)
in option E "equation named for him, which explains"
Isnt 'Which' wrongly modifying 'him' when it should be modifying 'Equation'?

2) Now, if, after your explanation of point 1 above, we conclude that 'which' correctly refers to 'equation' and not to 'him', E wrongly suggests that the equation explains how.... But equation is not the one who explains, Mr. Bernoulli is (through this equation), right?

3) (We will skip the tense part as im more worried about the above two issues)

Please let me know where i am going wrong
Thanks!
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2015, 07:55
@ arhunsid


Sorry for being unclear. Here are the doubts:

1) Usage of which: Which modifies the entity it follows. It can never modify clauses. And, it can never modify people (Please correct me if I’m wrong) ----- ‘Which’ always modifies the noun entity before and not what it follows. Even in that touch rule, there is some flexibility. ‘Which’ need not always modify the noun just in front, but sometimes a noun a few more words before.

in option E "equation named for him, which explains"

Isn't 'Which' wrongly modifying 'him' when it should be modifying 'Equation'? --- No. "which" is not modifying him; it is only modifying equations, because of logic.

2) Now, if, after your explanation of point 1 above, we conclude that 'which' correctly refers to 'equation' and not to 'him', E wrongly suggests that the equation explains how.... But equation is not the one who explains, Mr. Bernoulli is (through this equation), right? --- No you are reading too much. Equation can explain. Why not? We do accept the theory: The Sun is the centre of the Solar system. We don’t even bother to know who the author of this theory is. So equation explaining some bla bla is acceptable.
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2015, 09:44
doesn't the correct answer choice change the meaning?
in the original sentence:
DB derived the famous fluid equation named after him, to explain an airplane’s wing’s generation of lift, and made a discovery that led to an early method of measuring blood pressure.

To represents an intention. He derived the equation to explain smth.
In the correct answer choice, this is absent, and thus the meaning is distorted. I selected A just because of this subtle change in meaning.
I understand that in that time, planes did not exist, but it is the original sentence that sets the tone.
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2015, 10:16
mvictor wrote:
doesn't the correct answer choice change the meaning?
in the original sentence:
DB derived the famous fluid equation named after him, to explain an airplane’s wing’s generation of lift, and made a discovery that led to an early method of measuring blood pressure.

To represents an intention. He derived the equation to explain smth.
In the correct answer choice, this is absent, and thus the meaning is distorted. I selected A just because of this subtle change in meaning.
I understand that in that time, planes did not exist, but it is the original sentence that sets the tone.

Dear mvictor,
I'm happy to respond. :-) The SC is first and foremost a test of logic and meaning, and secondarily a test of grammar & usage. Folks forget this. You always have to be engaged in critical thinking --- at some level, the whole point of the GMAT is to measure your capacity for critical thinking. Furthermore, critical thinking is absolutely essential in the business world: the business person who is unable to engage in critical thinking is likely to be swindled.

On the GMAT SC, you have to be faithful to the meaning in the prompt, but if what the prompt says is patently illogical, you are not supposed to be faithful to that! Instead, you are to think critically about what the author was trying to communicate when he said that prompt sentence. In each SC question, we have to assume that an intelligent person was trying to say something logically valid, and we are trying to decipher what that sound logical statement was. We have to assume that any lack of logic that appears in the prompt is an accident, a failure of the speaker to use the language correctly to convey his intended meaning; our job is to figure out how to express that intended meaning correctly. There is absolutely no reason to strive to preserve something that absolutely no intelligent logical person would ever want to assert in the first place.

My friend, does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2015, 19:57
HI Mike , i had query about A, which automatically got resolved when i started typing.
A - meaning says derivation of question had some purpose , which is to explain how wings generates lift.
A is wrong because of the test "airplane’s wing’s generation of lift". "To explain shows purpose , which is not wrong here."
Please correct me if i am wrong and missing anything.
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Oct 2015, 10:29
sudhirmadaan wrote:
HI Mike , i had query about A, which automatically got resolved when i started typing.
A - meaning says derivation of question had some purpose , which is to explain how wings generates lift.
A is wrong because of the test "airplane’s wing’s generation of lift". "To explain shows purpose , which is not wrong here."
Please correct me if i am wrong and missing anything.

Dear sudhirmadaan,
I'm happy to respond, my friend. :-) With all due respect, you question is not perfectly clear. I will answer what I think is your questions, but I would urge you to be much more careful about writing the very best questions you can. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2014/asking-exc ... questions/
Asking excellent questions is one of the habits of excellence.

In choice (A), the structure "airplane’s wing’s generation of lift" is somewhat awkward, and quite likely would be wrong on the GMAT SC, but I don't know whether this, by itself, would be definitive, enough to dismiss an answer choice as wrong. This makes us suspicious, but does not

The definitively incorrect part about (A) is the attribution of purpose. This is grammatically correct but not logical correct. You don't need to have an expert understanding of the physics involved or of the detailed development of aircraft, but you have to have the general idea that there were no airplanes around in the 1700s. Therefore, Bernoullli's purpose could not have been explaining something that didn't exist at all in his time.

Once again, you don't have to be an expert in anything discussed on the GMAT Verbal, but you have to have a general sense of how the world works and of the approximate order of history. See this blog:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2014/gmat-criti ... knowledge/

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Daniel Bernoulli (1700 – 1782) derived the famous fluid equation named   [#permalink] 26 Oct 2015, 10:29

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