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Dendrochronology, the study of tree-ring records to glean information

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Dendrochronology, the study of tree-ring records to glean information  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 14 Aug 2019, 22:07
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Dendrochronology, the study of tree-ring records to glean information about the past, is possible because each year a tree adds a new layer of wood between the existing wood and the bark. In temperate and subpolar climates, cells added at the growing season's start are large and thin-walled, but later the new cells that develop are smaller and thick-walled; the growing season is followed by a period of dormancy. When a tree trunk is viewed in cross section, a boundary line is normally visible between the small-celled wood added at the end of the growing season in the previous year and the large-celled spring wood of the following year's growing season. The annual growth pattern appears as a series of larger and larger rings. In wet years rings are broad; during drought years they are narrow, since the trees grow less. Often, ring patterns of dead trees of different, but overlapping, ages can be correlated to provide an extended index of past climate conditions.

However, trees that grew in areas with a steady supply of groundwater show little variation in ring width from year to year; these "complacent" rings tell nothing about changes in climate. And trees in extremely dry regions may go a year or two without adding any rings, thereby introducing uncertainties into the count. Certain species sometimes add more than one ring in a single year, when growth halts temporarily and then starts again.


1. In the highlighted text, "uncertainties" refers to

(A) dendrochronologists' failure to consider the prevalence of erratic weather patterns
(B) inconsistencies introduced because of changes in methodology
(C) some tree species' tendency to deviate from the norm
(D) the lack of detectable variation in trees with complacent rings
(E) the lack of perfect correlation between the number of a tree's rings and its age



2. The passage suggests which of the following about the ring patterns of two trees that grew in the same area and that were of different, but overlapping, ages?

(A) The rings corresponding to the overlapping years would often exhibit similar patterns.
(B) The rings corresponding to the years in which only one of the trees was alive would not reliably indicate the climate conditions of those years.
(C) The rings corresponding to the overlapping years would exhibit similar patterns only if the trees were of the same species.
(D) The rings corresponding to the overlapping years could not be complacent rings.
(E) The rings corresponding to the overlapping years would provide a more reliable index of dry climate conditions than of wet conditions.



3. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) evaluating the effect of climate on the growth of trees of different species
(B) questioning the validity of a method used to study tree-ring records
(C) explaining how climatic conditions can be deduced from tree-ring patterns
(D) outlining the relation between tree size and cell structure within the tree
(E) tracing the development of a scientific method of analyzing tree-ring patterns


Originally posted by maybeam on 22 Jul 2012, 02:41.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 14 Aug 2019, 22:07, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (148).
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Re: Dendrochronology, the study of tree-ring records to glean information  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2017, 16:38
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Alisher_Pardaev wrote:
Enangdi eshshak siksin hammangdi GMAtingdiyam

Hm. I see your point!

Wait... no. No, I don't. Moving on...

DIII wrote:
akhu wrote:
Why B is wrong ?
Clearly, the second paragraph is questioning the validity of method explained in first paragraph.

The passage is primarily concerned with
(A) evaluating the effect of climate on the growth of trees of different species
(B) questioning the validity of a method used to study tree-ring records
(C) explaining how climatic conditions can be deduced from tree-ring patterns
(D) outlining the relation between tree size and cell structure within the tree
(E) tracing the development of a scientific method of analyzing tree-ring patterns


Can someone explain?
I don't see how C Is the main point.
First dendrochronology was introduced and then it was questioned in the second paragraph.
if you take C as the answer it is missing the most of the second paragraph.

The author describes the method in the first paragraph and then, in the second paragraph, explains a couple limitations of that method. The author does not imply that the method is invalid or that it should not be used. Rather, the author explains how climatic conditions can be deduced from tree-ring patterns and then describes conditions under which that method would not be reliable. In other word, the author believes that the method is valid but that it doesn't work under certain circumstances.

So the main purpose is to describe how (and under what conditions) the method can be used, not to question the validity of the method.

So choice (C) is more accurate than choice (B).

I hope this helps!
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Re: Dendrochronology, the study of tree-ring records to glean information  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2012, 04:20
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In 2:55 minutes,
The rings are the main clues for understanding the age of a tree, the various shapes of the rings formed changes with the change of weather (water supplied to it, in different climatic condition).So, clearly it triggers the fact that the rings are the only link to find the age and if due to some reason the rings are uncertain to figure out by the researchers then it brings lack of correlation , i.e tree rings and its age.
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Re: Dendrochronology, the study of tree-ring records to glean information  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2012, 11:42
2
maybeam wrote:
Dendrochronology, the study of tree-ring records to glean information about the past, is possible because each year a tree adds a new layer of wood between the existing wood and the bark. In temperate and subpolar climates, cells added at the growing season's start are large and thin-walled, but later the new cells that develop are smaller and thick-walled; the growing season is followed by a period of dormancy. When a tree trunk is viewed in cross section, a boundary line is normally visible between the small-celled wood added at the end of the growing season in the previous year and the large-celled spring wood of the following year's growing season. The annual growth pattern appears as a series of larger and larger rings. In wet years rings are broad; during drought years they are narrow, since the trees grow less. Often, ring patterns of dead trees of different, but overlapping, ages can be correlated to provide an extended index of past climate conditions.

However, trees that grew in areas with a steady supply of groundwater show little variation in ring width from year to year; these "complacent" rings tell nothing about changes in climate. And trees in extremely dry regions may go a year or two without adding any rings, thereby introducing uncertainties into the count. Certain species sometimes add more than one ring in a single year, when growth halts temporarily and then starts again.


In the highlighted text, "uncertainties" refers to

(A) dendrochronologists' failure to consider the prevalence of erratic weather patterns
(B) inconsistencies introduced because of changes in methodology
(C) some tree species' tendency to deviate from the norm
(D) the lack of detectable variation in trees with complacent rings
(E) the lack of perfect correlation between the number of a tree's rings and its age

the validity of choice of OA.
No such points are mentioned in the passage.






In opening line it says "Dendrochronology, the study of tree-ring records to glean information about the past, is possible because each year a tree adds a new layer of wood between the existing wood and the bark."-------means every year tree adds a new layer (ring)

In last but one line it says "And trees in extremely dry regions may go a year or two without adding any rings, thereby introducing uncertainties into the count." ------means the regular pattern of "one ring per year" phenomenon may be not shown due to extremely dry weather.

So if scientists count the age of tree by counting number of rings and if the tree is having sometimes two rings in a year or no ring at all in any given year, this may lead to wrong age determination of the tree.


Hence E.

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Re: Dendrochronology, the study of tree-ring records to glean information  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2013, 00:30
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Why B is wrong ?
Clearly, the second paragraph is questioning the validity of method explained in first paragraph.

The passage is primarily concerned with
(A) evaluating the effect of climate on the growth of trees of different species
(B) questioning the validity of a method used to study tree-ring records
(C) explaining how climatic conditions can be deduced from tree-ring patterns
(D) outlining the relation between tree size and cell structure within the tree
(E) tracing the development of a scientific method of analyzing tree-ring patterns
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Re: Dendrochronology, the study of tree-ring records to glean information  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2014, 23:10
The passage suggests which of the following about the ring patterns of two trees that grew in the same area and that were of different, but overlapping, ages?
A. The rings corresponding to the overlapping years would often exhibit similar patterns.
B. The rings corresponding to the years in which only one of the trees was alive would not reliably indicate the climate conditions of those years.
C. The rings corresponding to the overlapping years would exhibit similar patterns only if the trees were of the same species.
D. The rings corresponding to the overlapping years could not be complacent rings.
E. The rings corresponding to the overlapping years would provide a more reliable index of dry climate conditions than of wet conditions.

I didn't understand this answer.

Passage states something about dead tress of different, but overlapping, ages.

How can a question ask about trees in general that grew in the same area and that were of different, but overlapping, ages.

So how about answering this one then?
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Re: Dendrochronology, the study of tree-ring records to glean information  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2016, 06:28
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1
Took 6 mins 10 seconds , including 2 mins to read the passage

-The author talks about a certain study that can be used to determine climatic conditions
-The study also talks about how aging is related to the number of rings a tree has
-The author does not offer an opinion and is merely stating facts



1.
"And trees in extremely dry regions may go a year or two without adding any rings, thereby introducing uncertainties into the count."
The rings of trees are used to determine the age of the trees and since there are no rings appearing on trees in dry regions, we cannot be sure on the age of the tree and hence there will not be a perfect correlation between age of tree and number of rings. Hence option (E)

2.
―Often, ring patterns of dead trees of different, but overlapping, ages can be correlated to provide an extended index of past climate conditions"
For 2 trees to be correlated they should have common features arising from their ring patterns which eventually indicate the climatic condition they grew in. Option (A) clearly states this point and hence is the right answer.

3.
The author is clearly concerned with determining how rings on trees can be used to predict past climactic conditions

Answer C
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Re: Dendrochronology, the study of tree-ring records to glean information  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2017, 05:59
akhu wrote:
Why B is wrong ?
Clearly, the second paragraph is questioning the validity of method explained in first paragraph.

The passage is primarily concerned with
(A) evaluating the effect of climate on the growth of trees of different species
(B) questioning the validity of a method used to study tree-ring records
(C) explaining how climatic conditions can be deduced from tree-ring patterns
(D) outlining the relation between tree size and cell structure within the tree
(E) tracing the development of a scientific method of analyzing tree-ring patterns


Can someone explain?
I don't see how C Is the main point.
First dendrochronology was introduced and then it was questioned in the second paragraph.
if you take C as the answer it is missing the most of the second paragraph.
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Re: Dendrochronology, the study of tree-ring records to glean information  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2018, 08:48
P1 - about D, how rings form in diff condition.
P2 - what if no change in climate; uncertainties;
Main point - explained D, impact of weather on rings, and uncertainties.
Tone - informative.

1. In the highlighted text, "uncertainties" refers to
pre-think - due to dry condition, how rings are not added.

(A) dendrochronologists' failure to consider the prevalence of erratic weather patterns - no
(B) inconsistencies introduced because of changes in methodology - no; changes in methodology- wrong
(C) some tree species' tendency to deviate from the norm - true but not the answer.
(D) the lack of detectable variation in trees with complacent rings - no
(E) the lack of perfect correlation between the number of a tree's rings and its age - yes; because of uncertainties introduced.

-------------------------------------------
2. The passage suggests which of the following about the ring patterns of two trees that grew in the same area and that were of different, but overlapping, ages?

Often, ring patterns of dead trees of different, but overlapping, ages can be correlated to provide an extended index of past climate conditions

(A) The rings corresponding to the overlapping years would often exhibit similar patterns. - has to be this
-------------------------------------------
3. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) evaluating the effect of climate on the growth of trees of different species - evaluating is +/- of something.
(B) questioning the validity of a method used to study tree-ring records - questioning is only a part.
(C) explaining how climatic conditions can be deduced from tree-ring patterns - not perfect but covering most of the passage. use of vocab is also moderate "explaining".best of the lot.
(D) outlining the relation between tree size and cell structure within the tree - sub part of P1
(E) tracing the development of a scientific method of analyzing tree-ring patterns - tracing the development of a scientific method --- well not working on a method.
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Re: Dendrochronology, the study of tree-ring records to glean information  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Mar 2019, 00:48
"The rings corresponding to the overlapping years could not be complacent rings." what's the meaning of this complacent rings??
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Re: Dendrochronology, the study of tree-ring records to glean information  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2019, 03:49
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GMATNinja

For Question2:

Basis this line in the passage "Certain species sometimes add more than one ring in a single year, when growth halts temporarily and then starts again."

Shouldn't the answer be :
(C) The rings corresponding to the overlapping years would exhibit similar patterns only if the trees were of the same species.

As (A) does not talk about any species?
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Re: Dendrochronology, the study of tree-ring records to glean information   [#permalink] 27 Nov 2019, 03:49
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