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Geologist Charles Lyell (1797 – 1875) believed the theologians of

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Geologist Charles Lyell (1797 – 1875) believed the theologians of  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2015, 15:29
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A
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Geologist Charles Lyell (1797 – 1875) believed the theologians of previous centuries had vastly underestimated the age of the Earth and that evidence will justify a much older Earth compared to what they previously expected.

A) the theologians of previous centuries had vastly underestimated the age of the Earth and that evidence will justify a much older Earth compared to what they previously expected
B) the theologians of previous centuries vastly underestimated the age of the Earth and that evidence would justify a much older Earth than was previously suspected
C) that the theologians of previous centuries vastly underestimated the age of the Earth and that evidence will justify a much older Earth compared to the previously expected
D) that the theologians of previous centuries had vastly underestimated the age of the Earth and that evidence would justify a much older Earth than was previously suspected
E) that the theologians of previous centuries vastly underestimated the age of the Earth and that evidence will justify a much older Earth than they previously suspected

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Re: Geologist Charles Lyell (1797 – 1875) believed the theologians of  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2015, 16:41
Im thinking D because

-believed that: split
- we use had because the something happened before something else
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Re: Geologist Charles Lyell (1797 – 1875) believed the theologians of  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2015, 23:42
We use past perfect in D just because it is reporting sentence in which all simple pasts go past perfect. Otherwise, there is no need to use PP, it is clear from context that one event comes before another
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Re: Geologist Charles Lyell (1797 – 1875) believed the theologians of  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2015, 18:30
Temurkhon wrote:
We use past perfect in D just because it is reporting sentence in which all simple pasts go past perfect. Otherwise, there is no need to use PP, it is clear from context that one event comes before another


How is D preferred over E? Is it only past perfect. or something else. I too think that past perfect is not mandatory.
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Re: Geologist Charles Lyell (1797 – 1875) believed the theologians of  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2015, 19:51
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Critical points: 1. Norms of reported speech 2. Connector parallelism, and 3. The verb ‘believed’ before the start of the underlining.

A) the theologians of previous centuries had vastly underestimated the age of the Earth and that evidence will justify a much older Earth compared to what they previously expected ---. Eliminated on point 1 for not observing the norms of reported speech
B) the theologians of previous centuries vastly underestimated the age of the Earth and that evidence would justify a much older Earth than was previously suspected -- Eliminated on point 2. Lack of connector parallelism
C) that the theologians of previous centuries vastly underestimated the age of the Earth and that evidence will justify a much older Earth compared to the previously expected – ‘Believed’ is the last of the past events. That entails simple past; underestimating was the earlier event; so we need a past perfect to describe underestimating—had underestimated is the proper verb tense form.
D) that the theologians of previous centuries had vastly underestimated the age of the Earth and that evidence would justify a much older Earth than was previously suspected – perfect in all respects. Use of the future past modal’ would’ is correct; correct choice

E) that the theologians of previous centuries vastly underestimated the age of the Earth and that evidence will justify a much older Earth than they previously suspected -- simple past is inapt; again the shift of tense from the modal past to simple future is serious flaw.
The split between expected and suspected seems to be a distracter. Not sure why anyone will suspects or expects a factual finding; best to ignore it.
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Geologist Charles Lyell (1797 – 1875) believed the theologians of  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2015, 20:52
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From the point believed A and B are wrong because of parallelism error. after "and" both A and B have that which is not there, in first part, in both A and B.

C and E are wrong because of use of simple future tense "Will". as this belief was of Geologist and stated by author in present time. so use of "would" form is correct with past perfect in first part. C also has meaning issue.

I don't know my If my explanations are right or not but this is how I did it.
Please correct me if I am wrong.
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Re: Geologist Charles Lyell (1797 – 1875) believed the theologians of  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Feb 2016, 11:42
The we need to use past perfect since one action started in the past and finished in the past. Hence D is a correct choice. "Would" is correct because we deal with forecast
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Re: Geologist Charles Lyell (1797 – 1875) believed the theologians of  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Feb 2016, 17:47
I choose b because we do not have a past action which happen after to use past perfect here.
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Re: Geologist Charles Lyell (1797 – 1875) believed the theologians of  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jan 2018, 00:59
the real issue in E is the verb tense.
"than was previously suspected" is correct. There is a question with the similar pattern, but the pattern in E is correct. I guess such issue of comparison is not a big deal in gmat.
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Geologist Charles Lyell (1797 – 1875) believed the theologians of  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2018, 06:40
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MAGOOSH Official Explanation:



Split #1: the object of "believe" has to be a "that" clause. In colloquial speech, one can drop the word "that", but in the formal language of the GMAT, this is unacceptable. We need to have the word "that" at the beginning of the clause. Choices (A) & (B) omit the word "that", and so are incorrect.

Split #2: the comparison following the words "much older Earth" ----

(A) compared to what they previously expected --- long & awkward

(B) than was previously expected --- elegant & correct

(C) compared to the previously expected --- long & awkward

(D) than was previously suspected --- elegant & correct

(E) than they previously suspected --- awkward

Technically the awkward versions could be correct, so we can't definitively eliminate anything on this basis, but we suspect none of these will be part of the correct answer.

Split #3: sequence of tenses. Lyell believed something in the past, and so the verbs describing the content of his belief must follow the rules of the sequence of tenses. The "underestimating" was done by theologians before Lyell's time, in Lyell's past, so this verb should be in the past perfect, "had underestimated." The "justifying" was in Lyell's future, so this verb should be in the conditional tense, "would justify." Only (A) & (D) have the first verb in the past perfect, and only (B) & (D) have the second verb in the condition. Therefore, only (D) has both verbs correct.

For all these reasons, (D) is the only possible answer.
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Re: Geologist Charles Lyell (1797 – 1875) believed the theologians of  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jul 2018, 08:02
A,B -"that" is needed to prevent distortion of meaning.
C,E - While talking about future in past we have to use "would". Usage of will is incorrect.

Hence, D is the answer.
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Re: Geologist Charles Lyell (1797 – 1875) believed the theologians of &nbs [#permalink] 23 Jul 2018, 08:02
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Geologist Charles Lyell (1797 – 1875) believed the theologians of

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