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Given his luminous treatment of light, sky, and water, J.M.W. Turner

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Given his luminous treatment of light, sky, and water, J.M.W. Turner  [#permalink]

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 58, Date : 01-MAR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Given his luminous treatment of light, sky, and water, J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851) is often viewed in hindsight as a precursor of Impressionism. Yet as Turner authority Andrew Wilton has argued, his roots lie in a specifically eighteenth century tradition, that of the "sublime." Before landscape painting was accepted in England as the rendition of everyday reality, it was seen as the expression of a state of spiritual exaltation.

The roots of the notion of the sublime, Wilton notes, go back to antiquity: Longinus observed (according to an eighteenth century paraphrase) that "the effect of the sublime is to lift up the soul...so that participating, as it were, of the splendors of the divinity, it becomes filled with joy and exultation." The sublime, therefore, was understood to produce an effect of elevation toward unity with divine. In its origins, the sublime was associated with literary rather than visual art, as its connotations of power and mystery could most easily be conveyed in words; and its subject matter was epic, historical, or religious. To eighteenth century commentators, Homer, the Bible, and Milton were quintessentially sublime. When the concept was applied to painting, this narrative emphasis was maintained, leading almost by necessity to a focus on the human figure; for Joshua Reynolds, Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel frescoes exemplified the sublime in art. Because it did not show figures (except incidentally) landscape was necessarily seen as inferior.

The transition to the conception that produced Turner's landscapes had several sources. One was the eighteenth century's quasi-religious excitement in the scientific investigation of nature, shown for example when Addison exclaimed upon the astronomer's "pleasing astonishment, to see so many worlds, hanging one above another, and sliding round their axles in such an amazing pomp and solemnity." A second was the rise of a middle class with the leisure to travel, which led to an interest in the Rigged vistas of Wales and Scotland. Finally, James Thomson's immensely popular nature epic "The Seasons" (1726-30) applied blank verse, with its connotations of loftiness, to portrayal of nature's immensities. By the latter part of the century, there was a well-defined notion of the sublime in literature and painting, which included nature while by no means excluding earlier referents. According to Edmund Burke's definitive essay of 1757, the sublime in nature was closely tied up with vastness, lack of habitation and cultivation, and danger— which, as in the reaction to high mountain passes or storms at sea, was conducive to awe. These qualities, as evoked in the painting of landscapes (and urban vistas, an important though subordinate field), produced a series of genres that, Wilton stresses, form the key to Turner's work: the "picturesque sublime," the "terrific" (wild crags, cataracts, etc.), the sublime of the sea, mountains, and darkness, and finally the "architectural sublime" and the urban sublime.
(1) According to the passage, landscapes were not originally seen as embodying the sublime because

(A) the narrative connotations of the sublime implied an emphasis on the human figure X
(B) only religious subjects were seen as embodying the sublime
(C) Michelangelo did not paint landscape
(D) landscape was viewed purely as the visual representation of everyday nature scenes
(E) nature was not conceived as a source of awe and wonder

OA A

(2) The author gives specific examples of all of the following EXCEPT

(A) the conception of the sublime held in antiquity
(B) the subject matter which might be considered as representing the "terrific"
(C) a work of visual art considered as embodying the sublime by an eighteenth century authority
(D) a historical figure exemplifying the sublime
(E) a conception similar to that of the sublime in a non artistic context

OA B

(3) According to the author, Burke contributed to the development of the concept of the sublime by

(A) classifying the genres of the sublime in art
(B) broadening the conception of the sublime to include nature
(C) giving a more clear cut definition of the sublime than earlier writers
(D) defining some of the qualities in nature that could be considered sublime
(E) rejecting Longinus's identification of the sublime with religious experience

OA D



Difficulty Level: 700

Originally posted by aparnaharish on 23 Aug 2013, 04:42.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 29 Aug 2019, 04:52, edited 3 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (336).
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Re: Given his luminous treatment of light, sky, and water, J.M.W. Turner  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2015, 11:53
2
aparnaharish wrote:
The Sublime Art Movement
Given his luminous treatment of light, sky, and water, J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851) is often viewed in hindsight as a precursor of Impressionism. Yet as Turner authority Andrew Wilton has argued, his roots lie in a specifically eighteenth century tradition, that of the "sublime." Before landscape painting was accepted in England as the rendition of everyday reality, it was seen as the expression of a state of spiritual exaltation.

The roots of the notion of the sublime, Wilton notes, go back to antiquity: Longinus observed (according to an eighteenth century paraphrase) that "the effect of the sublime is to lift up the soul...so that participating, as it were, of the splendors of the divinity, it becomes filled with joy and exultation." The sublime, therefore, was understood to produce an effect of elevation toward unity with divine.

In its origins, the sublime was associated with literary rather than visual art, as its connotations of power and mystery could most easily be conveyed in words; and its subject matter was epic, historical, or religious. To eighteenth century commentators, Homer, the Bible, and Milton were quintessentially sublime. When the concept was applied to painting, this narrative emphasis was maintained, leading almost by necessity to a focus on the human figure; for Joshua Reynolds, Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel frescoes exemplified the sublime in art. Because it did not show figures (except incidentally) landscape was necessarily seen as inferior.

The transition to the conception that produced Turner's landscapes had several sources. One was the eighteenth century's quasi-religious excitement in the scientific investigation of nature, shown for example when Addison exclaimed upon the astronomer's "pleasing astonishment, to see so many worlds, hanging one above another, and sliding round their axles in such an amazing pomp and solemnity." A second was the rise of a middle class with the leisure to travel, which led to an interest in the Rigged vistas of Wales and Scotland. Finally, James Thomson's immensely popular nature epic "The Seasons" (1726-30) applied blank verse, with its connotations of loftiness, to portrayal of nature's immensities.

By the latter part of the century, there was a well-defined notion of the sublime in literature and painting, which included nature while by no means excluding earlier referents. According to Edmund Burke's definitive essay of 1757, the sublime in nature was closely tied up with vastness, lack of habitation and cultivation, and danger— which, as in the reaction to high mountain passes or storms at sea, was conducive to awe. These qualities, as evoked in the painting of landscapes (and urban vistas, an important though subordinate field), produced a series of genres that, Wilton stresses, form the key to Turner's work: the "picturesque sublime," the "terrific" (wild crags, cataracts, etc.), the sublime of the sea, mountains, and darkness, and finally the "architectural sublime" and the urban sublime.
(1) According to the passage, landscapes were not originally seen as embodying the sublime because
A. the narrative connotations of the sublime implied an emphasis on the human figure X
B. only religious subjects were seen as embodying the sublime
C. Michelangelo did not paint landscape
D. landscape was viewed purely as the visual representation of everyday nature scenes
E. nature was not conceived as a source of awe and wonder

OA A


(2) The author gives specific examples of all of the following EXCEPT

A. the conception of the sublime held in antiquity
B. the subject matter which might be considered as representing the "terrific"
C. a work of visual art considered as embodying the sublime by an eighteenth century authority
D. a historical figure exemplifying the sublime
E. a conception similar to that of the sublime in a nonartistic context

OA B

(3) According to the author, Burke contributed to the development of the concept of the sublime by

A. classifying the genres of the sublime in art
B. broadening the conception of the sublime to include nature
C. giving a more clear cut definition of the sublime than earlier writers
D. defining some of the qualities in nature that could be considered sublime
E. rejecting Longinus's identification of the sublime with religious experience

OA D


(4) Based on the information in the passage, which of the following is LEAST likely to have been the subject of a painting by Turner?

A. A narrow mountain pass
B. A cathedral in the center of a city
C. A storm at sea
D. The eruption of a volcano
E. Wheatfields by a country road
OA E


Please explain your answers.



Added one more question to this passage.
I found this passage extremely difficult to understand and even felt the sublime is related to chemical process sublimation.
Can some expert explain this passage in detail?
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Re: Given his luminous treatment of light, sky, and water, J.M.W. Turner  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2019, 19:10
Quote:
In its origins, the sublime was associated with literary rather than visual art, as its connotations of power and mystery could most easily be conveyed in words; and its subject matter was epic, historical, or religious. To eighteenth century commentators, Homer, the Bible, and Milton were quintessentially sublime. When the concept was applied to painting, this narrative emphasis was maintained, leading almost by necessity to a focus on the human figure; for Joshua Reynolds, Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel frescoes exemplified the sublime in art. Because it did not show figures (except incidentally) landscape was necessarily seen as inferior.


Quote:
(1) According to the passage, landscapes were not originally seen as embodying the sublime because

(A) the narrative connotations of the sublime implied an emphasis on the human figure X
(B) only religious subjects were seen as embodying the sublime
(C) Michelangelo did not paint landscape
(D) landscape was viewed purely as the visual representation of everyday nature scenes
(E) nature was not conceived as a source of awe and wonder


If you see the highlighted sentences in the paragraph above, you will see that the landscape did not emphasis on human figures and therefore was seen as inferior.
Now from above options only option A gives us the thought.

the narrative connotations of the sublime implied an emphasis on the human figure X
Because the landscape did not show figures, it was not originally seen as embodying the sublime

Therefore A.
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Re: Given his luminous treatment of light, sky, and water, J.M.W. Turner  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Mar 2019, 10:36
2. was extra tricky for me. I settled for E. I don't know why OA is B. In the last paragraph, does the author not give specific examples of "the subject matter which might be considered as representing the "terrific" " when he writes:


These qualities, as evoked in the painting of landscapes (and urban vistas, an important though subordinate field), produced a series of genres that, Wilton stresses, form the key to Turner's work: the "picturesque sublime,"the "terrific" (wild crags, cataracts, etc.), the sublime of the sea, mountains, and darkness, and finally the "architectural sublime" and the urban sublime.
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Re: Given his luminous treatment of light, sky, and water, J.M.W. Turner  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Apr 2019, 08:20
(2) The author gives specific examples of all of the following EXCEPT

A. the conception of the sublime held in antiquity-mentioned in the first line of the Second Paragraph
B. the subject matter which might be considered as representing the "terrific" -Though Terrific is mentioned in the Last paragraph but here it is not representing the subject as terrific instead it is used as a type of paintings which Turner may have taken as an inspiration
C. a work of visual art considered as embodying the sublime by an eighteenth century authority-mentioned in the Second line of the First Paragraph
D. a historical figure exemplifying the sublime-mentioned in the First line of the third Paragraph
E. a conception similar to that of the sublime in a nonartistic context-You can infer that in first line of the third paragraph.


Answer:B
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Re: Given his luminous treatment of light, sky, and water, J.M.W. Turner  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Apr 2019, 22:18
(2) The author gives specific examples of all of the following EXCEPT

(A) the conception of the sublime held in antiquity - incorrect; The roots of the notion of the sublime, Wilton notes, go back to antiquity: Longinus observed (according to an eighteenth century paraphrase) that "the effect of the sublime is to lift up the soul...so that participating, as it were, of the splendors of the divinity, it becomes filled with joy and exultation."
(B) the subject matter which might be considered as representing the "terrific"
(C) a work of visual art considered as embodying the sublime by an eighteenth-century authority
(D) a historical figure exemplifying the sublime - incorrect; for Joshua Reynolds, Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel frescoes exemplified the sublime in art
(E) a conception similar to that of the sublime in a non-artistic context- incorrect; To eighteenth century commentators, Homer, the Bible, and Milton were quintessentially sublime.

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyTargetTestPrep , DmitryFarber , VeritasKarishma , generis , other experts - please provide your advice for question 2
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Re: Given his luminous treatment of light, sky, and water, J.M.W. Turner  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2019, 04:28
aparnaharish wrote:
New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 58, Date : 01-MAR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Given his luminous treatment of light, sky, and water, J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851) is often viewed in hindsight as a precursor of Impressionism. Yet as Turner authority Andrew Wilton has argued, his roots lie in a specifically eighteenth century tradition, that of the "sublime." Before landscape painting was accepted in England as the rendition of everyday reality, it was seen as the expression of a state of spiritual exaltation.

The roots of the notion of the sublime, Wilton notes, go back to antiquity: Longinus observed (according to an eighteenth century paraphrase) that "the effect of the sublime is to lift up the soul...so that participating, as it were, of the splendors of the divinity, it becomes filled with joy and exultation." The sublime, therefore, was understood to produce an effect of elevation toward unity with divine. In its origins, the sublime was associated with literary rather than visual art, as its connotations of power and mystery could most easily be conveyed in words; and its subject matter was epic, historical, or religious. To eighteenth century commentators, Homer, the Bible, and Milton were quintessentially sublime. When the concept was applied to painting, this narrative emphasis was maintained, leading almost by necessity to a focus on the human figure; for Joshua Reynolds, Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel frescoes exemplified the sublime in art. Because it did not show figures (except incidentally) landscape was necessarily seen as inferior.

The transition to the conception that produced Turner's landscapes had several sources. One was the eighteenth century's quasi-religious excitement in the scientific investigation of nature, shown for example when Addison exclaimed upon the astronomer's "pleasing astonishment, to see so many worlds, hanging one above another, and sliding round their axles in such an amazing pomp and solemnity." A second was the rise of a middle class with the leisure to travel, which led to an interest in the Rigged vistas of Wales and Scotland. Finally, James Thomson's immensely popular nature epic "The Seasons" (1726-30) applied blank verse, with its connotations of loftiness, to portrayal of nature's immensities. By the latter part of the century, there was a well-defined notion of the sublime in literature and painting, which included nature while by no means excluding earlier referents. According to Edmund Burke's definitive essay of 1757, the sublime in nature was closely tied up with vastness, lack of habitation and cultivation, and danger— which, as in the reaction to high mountain passes or storms at sea, was conducive to awe. These qualities, as evoked in the painting of landscapes (and urban vistas, an important though subordinate field), produced a series of genres that, Wilton stresses, form the key to Turner's work: the "picturesque sublime," the "terrific" (wild crags, cataracts, etc.), the sublime of the sea, mountains, and darkness, and finally the "architectural sublime" and the urban sublime.
(1) According to the passage, landscapes were not originally seen as embodying the sublime because

(A) the narrative connotations of the sublime implied an emphasis on the human figure X
(B) only religious subjects were seen as embodying the sublime
(C) Michelangelo did not paint landscape
(D) landscape was viewed purely as the visual representation of everyday nature scenes
(E) nature was not conceived as a source of awe and wonder

OA A

(2) The author gives specific examples of all of the following EXCEPT

(A) the conception of the sublime held in antiquity
(B) the subject matter which might be considered as representing the "terrific"
(C) a work of visual art considered as embodying the sublime by an eighteenth century authority
(D) a historical figure exemplifying the sublime
(E) a conception similar to that of the sublime in a non artistic context

OA B

(3) According to the author, Burke contributed to the development of the concept of the sublime by

(A) classifying the genres of the sublime in art
(B) broadening the conception of the sublime to include nature
(C) giving a more clear cut definition of the sublime than earlier writers
(D) defining some of the qualities in nature that could be considered sublime
(E) rejecting Longinus's identification of the sublime with religious experience

OA D



Difficulty Level: 700


(1) According to the passage, landscapes were not originally seen as embodying the sublime because

(A) the narrative connotations of the sublime implied an emphasis on the human figure X => Sublime is related to literary because its connotation is about power and mystery... and sublime focus on the human figure;--- LANSCAPES didnt show figures, that's why it was not originally seen as embodying the sublime=> CORRECT
(B) only religious subjects were seen as embodying the sublime
(C) Michelangelo did not paint landscape
(D) landscape was viewed purely as the visual representation of everyday nature scenes
(E) nature was not conceived as a source of awe and wonder

(3) According to the author, Burke contributed to the development of the concept of the sublime by

(A) classifying the genres of the sublime in art
(B) broadening the conception of the sublime to include nature
(C) giving a more clear cut definition of the sublime than earlier writers
(D) defining some of the qualities in nature that could be considered sublime => "According to Edmund Burke's definitive essay of 1757, the sublime in nature was closely tied up with vastness, lack of habitation and cultivation, and danger— which, as in the reaction to high mountain passes or storms at sea, was conducive to awe. These qualities, as evoked in the painting of landscapes"=> CORRECT
(E) rejecting Longinus's identification of the sublime with religious experience
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Re: Given his luminous treatment of light, sky, and water, J.M.W. Turner  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2019, 21:42
1
Altough I got it incorrect. Here is what i think is the solution.

(2) The author gives specific examples of all of the following EXCEPT

A. the conception of the sublime held in antiquity - Longinus observed (according to an eighteenth century paraphrase) that "the effect of the sublime is to lift up the soul...so that participating, as it were, of the splendors of the divinity, it becomes filled with joy and exultation." this is the example of conception i.e. what sublime was believed to be in antiquity exemplified by a quote from Longinus
B. the subject matter which might be considered as representing the "terrific" -No support
C. a work of visual art considered as embodying the sublime by an eighteenth century authority - Joshua Reynolds, Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel frescoes exemplified the sublime in art. Because it did not show figures (except incidentally) landscape was necessarily seen as inferior. Frescoes is the piece of art
D. a historical figure exemplifying the sublime Joshua Reynolds, Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel frescoes exemplified the sublime in art. Because it did not show figures (except incidentally) landscape was necessarily seen as inferior. Michealangelo is the figure exemplifying the sublime
E. a conception similar to that of the sublime in a nonartistic context Addison exclaimed upon the astronomer's "pleasing astonishment, to see so many worlds, hanging one above another, and sliding round their axles in such an amazing pomp and solemnity." Addison is using a similar concept in astronomy.
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Re: Given his luminous treatment of light, sky, and water, J.M.W. Turner  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2019, 03:05
Mudit27021988 wrote:
Altough I got it incorrect. Here is what i think is the solution.

(2) The author gives specific examples of all of the following EXCEPT

A. the conception of the sublime held in antiquity - Longinus observed (according to an eighteenth century paraphrase) that "the effect of the sublime is to lift up the soul...so that participating, as it were, of the splendors of the divinity, it becomes filled with joy and exultation." this is the example of conception i.e. what sublime was believed to be in antiquity exemplified by a quote from Longinus
B. the subject matter which might be considered as representing the "terrific" -No support
C. a work of visual art considered as embodying the sublime by an eighteenth century authority - Joshua Reynolds, Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel frescoes exemplified the sublime in art. Because it did not show figures (except incidentally) landscape was necessarily seen as inferior. Frescoes is the piece of art
D. a historical figure exemplifying the sublime Joshua Reynolds, Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel frescoes exemplified the sublime in art. Because it did not show figures (except incidentally) landscape was necessarily seen as inferior. Michealangelo is the figure exemplifying the sublime
E. a conception similar to that of the sublime in a nonartistic context Addison exclaimed upon the astronomer's "pleasing astonishment, to see so many worlds, hanging one above another, and sliding round their axles in such an amazing pomp and solemnity." Addison is using a similar concept in astronomy.


To add on a point,
(2) The author gives specific examples of all of the following EXCEPT

The question asks for SPECIFIC EXAMPLES

So, all the quoted examples above for the Options are very specific, I'm really impressed by it. Good one! +1
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Re: Given his luminous treatment of light, sky, and water, J.M.W. Turner   [#permalink] 03 Sep 2019, 03:05
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