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In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contemp

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The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question no. 207

In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success” needed to found new businesses.

A. who have
B. with
C. having
D. who are those with
E. who are the ones to have
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contemp [#permalink]

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Wow! What a brilliant question that purely hinges on understanding the meaning and ability to realize that "needed" is used as a past participle (and not a verb) here.
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Yes, nice question. Our great OG specialist Abdur strikes yet again with one more briliiant question for OG, a test of the sentence structure. I tell all my students to go after Abdur's postings if one wants the top of the official questions.
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Re: In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contemp [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2017, 07:11
AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question no. 207

In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success” needed to found new businesses.

A. who have
B. with
C. having
D. who are those with
E. who are the ones to have


Option A: Correct
Option B: with is incorrect as it changes the meaning. Here the sentence talks about young people in general.But with the usage of "with" it cchanges the meaning.
Option C: Incorrect because the sentence is incomplete.
Option D: those is incorrect here.
Option E: Unnecessarily wordy.

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Re: In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contemp [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2017, 09:34
needed here mean "required"

is that correct?
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New post 16 Jun 2017, 09:39
victory47 wrote:
needed here mean "required"

is that correct?

Hi victory47, absolutely, and it's a participle (not a verb) here.
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Re: In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contemp [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2017, 00:39
daagh wrote:
Yes, nice question. Our great OG specialist Abdur strikes yet again with one more briliiant question for OG, a test of the sentence structure. I tell all my students to go after Abdur's postings if one wants the top of the official questions.

Hello Sir,

I am confused between Option A and Option B, Can you explain the reasoning here?

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Re: In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contemp [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2017, 08:34
Need more clarity around option A and B. Also, "to found" seems awkward to my ears.

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pikolo wrote

Quote:
Hello Sir,

I am confused between Option A and Option B, Can you explain the reasoning here?


A. In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that

it is young people who have “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success” needed(required) to found (establish) new businesses. This is a relative clause with the modifier phrase starting with 'who' modifying young people.

B. In 1776, Adam Smith wrote that

it is young people with “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success” needed to found new businesses. --- This prepositional modifier 'with' modifying young people lacks a verb to complete the meaning.

Therefore, A is correct.
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Re: In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contemp [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2017, 10:47
sayantanc2k , chetan2u

Can you explain this one in detail. i cannot understand this .

In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success” <Dont we need a verb here. it seems incomplete to read> needed to found new businesses.

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goforgmat wrote:
sayantanc2k , chetan2u

Can you explain this one in detail. i cannot understand this .

In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success” <Dont we need a verb here. it seems incomplete to read> needed to found new businesses.



Hello goforgmat,

I will be glad to help you out with this one. :-)

In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success” needed to found new businesses.

Let's first understand the meaning of this sentence. The sentence intends to say that Adam Smith wrote something in 1776. What did he write?

He wrote that young people possess two qualities (if I may): “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success”. What is the significance of these two qualities.

These two qualities are required to found = establish new businesses.

Now let's come to the grammar part of it.

In the above-mentioned sentence, the subjects are highlighted in blue while the verbs are in green. All the subjects have appropriate verbs.

Please note that the word needed is a verb-ed modifier that further explains “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success”.

We do not need anymore verbs in the sentence as there are no subjects with missing verbs.

We may expand this sentence as In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success” that are needed to found new businesses.

The added that clause is just the expanded version of the original sentence. We actually derive verb-ed modifiers in this way by removing the subject and the helping verb.

You can read our very famous article named ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers to learn how to distinguish between a verb-ed modifier and a simple past tense verb in the following link:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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New post 25 Aug 2017, 13:40
gmati3 wrote:
Need more clarity around option A and B. Also, "to found" seems awkward to my ears.


Hello gmati3,

I will be glad to help you with this one. :-)

I guess your confusion arises from the phrase to found because in to verb phrases, to is always followed by a plural verb in simple present tense. So how do we have found after to which is the past tense form of find.

Well, in this sentence, the word found is not the past tense form of find. The word found is a plural verb in simple present tense that means establish. The past tense form of this verb is founded.

If you replace found with establish, the sentence will become absolutely clear to you.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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pikolo2510 wrote:
Hello Sir,

I am confused between Option A and Option B, Can you explain the reasoning here?



Hello pikolo2510,

Although your question is not for me, I would like to present my two cents nonetheless. :-)

This official sentence has to do with the way certain structures are used with certain expressions.

This official sentence uses the clause it is young people. Such clauses are generally followed by another clause that presents more information about the preceding noun entity.

    It is Joe who made his team victorious in the last match.

Similarly, we need a clause after it is young people to keep the structure and the meaning correct. Hence, Choice A is the correct answer.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contemp [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2017, 07:59
Hi Experts GMATNinja GMATNinjaTwo egmat

Can you please elaborate on active vs passive voice in (A) emphasizing why needed is a verb-ed modifier? I think doer - young people makes sense with verb needed .

To take a simple example:
I lifted the box active
The box was lifted by me passive

What is incorrect with option (E) ?
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New post 31 Aug 2017, 08:09
adkikani wrote:
Hi Experts GMATNinja GMATNinjaTwo egmat

Can you please elaborate on active vs passive voice in (A) emphasizing why needed is a verb-ed modifier? I think doer - young people makes sense with verb needed .

To take a simple example:
I lifted the box active
The box was lifted by me passive

What is incorrect with option (E) ?



Hello Arpit/ adkikani,

Thank you for the PM. :-)

Read the sentence very carefully and let me know per the context of the sentence what is needed ti start new businesses - young people or the two attributes that the sentence mentions?

(Hint: read my response to goforgmat above)


Looking forward to hear from you. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contemp [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2017, 08:38
Hi egmat / Shraddha

I understood that the two attributes are needed to start business and thanks to helping me to identify my first mistake.
However while going through verb-ed modifiers here
which mentions removing of helping verb and relative pronoun (hopefully the list includes which though most of examples include that) The post clearly mentions the relative pronoun to be used in passive voice.

I am still unable to understand why the sentence in in passive voice?

In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people
who have “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success” needed to found new businesses.

Are not we emphasizing on subject - young people and not actions / attributed they possess?

What shall be active voice of this sentence?

Thanks in advance for your two cents !

WR,
Arpit
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adkikani wrote:
Hi egmat / Shraddha

I understood that the two attributes are needed to start business and thanks to helping me to identify my first mistake.
However while going through verb-ed modifiers here
which mentions removing of helping verb and relative pronoun (hopefully the list includes which though most of examples include that) The post clearly mentions the relative pronoun to be used in passive voice.

I am still unable to understand why the sentence in in passive voice?

In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people
who have “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success” needed to found new businesses.

Are not we emphasizing on subject - young people and not actions / attributed they possess?

What shall be active voice of this sentence?

Thanks in advance for your two cents !

WR,
Arpit



Hello Arpit, adkikani,

In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success” needed to found new businesses.

The above-mentioned official sentence is NOT written in passive voice. All the verbs highlighted in he above-mentioned correct sentence is in active voice. The word needed is the verb-ed modifier because the two attributes are not the doer of this action.

In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success” that are needed to found new businesses.

If we turn the verb-ed modifier needed into verb are needed, then this verb is in passive voice.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contemp [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2017, 00:59
adkikani wrote:
Can you please elaborate on active vs passive voice in (A) emphasizing why needed is a verb-ed modifier?

Hi adkikani, indeed it does become tricky sometimes to distinguish between simple past tense (verb) and past participles (adjectives).

Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses a very effective framework for distinguishing between simple past tense and past participle. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contemp [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2017, 20:24
In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success” needed to found new businesses.

A. who have
B. with --> this does not show POSSESSION. Idea is that young people HAVE (1) contempt of risk, and (2) hope of success
C. having --> same as "B" (does not show possession). Also, we need a verb here to pair with the subject (people)
D. who are those with --> redundancy error: if you have "who", why do you need "those"? Talking about the same thing

E. who are the ones to have --> same as "D" (redundancy error: if you have "who", why do you need "the ones"?

A is good b/c you have possessive "who", which ties in to "people". Also, "have" shares the plural form of "people".

Kudos please if you find this helpful :)

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Re: In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contemp [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2017, 08:26
egmat wrote:
goforgmat wrote:
sayantanc2k , chetan2u

Can you explain this one in detail. i cannot understand this .

In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success” <Dont we need a verb here. it seems incomplete to read> needed to found new businesses.



Hello goforgmat,

I will be glad to help you out with this one. :-)

In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success” needed to found new businesses.

Let's first understand the meaning of this sentence. The sentence intends to say that Adam Smith wrote something in 1776. What did he write?

He wrote that young people possess two qualities (if I may): “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success”. What is the significance of these two qualities.

These two qualities are required to found = establish new businesses.

Now let's come to the grammar part of it.

In the above-mentioned sentence, the subjects are highlighted in blue while the verbs are in green. All the subjects have appropriate verbs.

Please note that the word needed is a verb-ed modifier that further explains “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success”.

We do not need anymore verbs in the sentence as there are no subjects with missing verbs.

We may expand this sentence as In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contempt of risk and the presumptuous hope of success” that are needed to found new businesses.

The added that clause is just the expanded version of the original sentence. We actually derive verb-ed modifiers in this way by removing the subject and the helping verb.

You can read our very famous article named ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers to learn how to distinguish between a verb-ed modifier and a simple past tense verb in the following link:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Hi egmat

As usual your explanation are really good , especially this one cleared my concepts of verb-ed modifiers thoroughly.

Can you also tell how to distinguish between verb and verb-ed modifier.
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Re: In 1776 Adam Smith wrote that it is young people who have “the contemp   [#permalink] 06 Sep 2017, 08:26

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