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Large scale mining of metal and coal in the region has led to both

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Large scale mining of metal and coal in the region has led to both  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2018, 04:47
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Large scale mining of metal and coal in the region has led to both acid rock drainage, acid water flowing out from abandoned mines, and the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, altering the receiving environment to its detriment, but are harmless if collected and disposed of in time.


(A) acid water flowing out from abandoned mines, and the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, altering

(B) which is the outflow of acidic water from abandoned mines, as well as the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, altering

(C) the outflow of acidic water from abandoned mines, the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, which may alter

(D) acid water flowing out from abandoned mines, the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, which may alter

(E) which is the outflow of acidic water from abandoned mines, and the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, which may alter

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Re: Large scale mining of metal and coal in the region has led to both  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2018, 15:04

Official Explanation:



Answer - E
Concepts tested: Modifiers, Parallelism, Idioms

A - ‘altering…’ modifies the entire preceding clause, whereas it must modify ‘tailings’.
B – Same as A. Additionally, the use of ‘both’ and ‘as well as’ in B is redundant.
C - ‘and’ is missing before ‘the deposition’ and are, therefore, run-on sentences.
D – Same as C
E – This option uses the right modifier as the “Which” refers to acid rock drainage.
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Re: Large scale mining of metal and coal in the region has led to both  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2018, 05:52
"Both" requires "and" and phrase "Which may alter" is parallel to "are harmless if collected". So I will go with E here

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Large scale mining of metal and coal in the region has led to both  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 08 Oct 2018, 08:42
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aragonn wrote:
Large scale mining of metal and coal in the region has led to both acid rock drainage, acid water flowing out from abandoned mines, and the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, altering the receiving environment to its detriment, but are harmless if collected and disposed of in time.


(A) acid water flowing out from abandoned mines, and the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, altering

(B) which is the outflow of acidic water from abandoned mines, as well as the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, altering

(C) the outflow of acidic water from abandoned mines, the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, which may alter

(D) acid water flowing out from abandoned mines, the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, which may alter

(E) which is the outflow of acidic water from abandoned mines, and the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, which may alter


+1 for E

(A) acid water flowing out from abandoned mines, and the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, altering

(B) which is the outflow of acidic water from abandoned mines, as well as the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, altering --> Both X as well as Y is wrong idiomatic usage

(C) the outflow of acidic water from abandoned mines, the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, which may alter

(D) acid water flowing out from abandoned mines, the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, which may alter

(E) which is the outflow of acidic water from abandoned mines, and the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, which may alter
--> We have two modifiers here "which is the outflow of acidic water from abandoned mines" modifying - acid rock drainage
and "elements or compounds uncovered during mining" modifying - the deposition of tailings. Here, 'which' is modifying both of them as we can observe in the non underlined part of the sentence - but are harmless ( plural are signifies both X and Y are modified by 'which')
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Originally posted by Akash720 on 08 Oct 2018, 08:08.
Last edited by Akash720 on 08 Oct 2018, 08:42, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Large scale mining of metal and coal in the region has led to both  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2018, 08:26
Akash720 both used for 2 things only..... I think u should revisit your answer

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Re: Large scale mining of metal and coal in the region has led to both  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2018, 08:43
aragonn wrote:
Akash720 both used for 2 things only..... I think u should revisit your answer

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Thanks aragonn, I hope I've corrected my mistake.
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Re: Large scale mining of metal and coal in the region has led to both  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2018, 08:54
aragonn wrote:
Large scale mining of metal and coal in the region has led to both acid rock drainage, acid water flowing out from abandoned mines, and the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, altering the receiving environment to its detriment, but are harmless if collected and disposed of in time.


(A) acid water flowing out from abandoned mines, and the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, altering

(B) which is the outflow of acidic water from abandoned mines, as well as the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, altering

(C) the outflow of acidic water from abandoned mines, the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, which may alter

(D) acid water flowing out from abandoned mines, the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, which may alter

(E) which is the outflow of acidic water from abandoned mines, and the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, which may alter


IMO E.

Options B, C and D are wrong because of idiom error, 'both X and Y.
And I think Option A is wrong for two reasons: 'acid water flowing...' seems to be an item in the list, both X, Y and Z and doesn't clearly modifies 'acid rock drainage'; if altering is used then there is no clear plural noun for 'but are harmless...' clause.
Option E corrects these two mistakes by using 'which is...' to modify 'drainage' and by using 'elements... which may... but are...' to make clear: 'elements' as the plural noun subject for 'but are...' clause.
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Re: Large scale mining of metal and coal in the region has led to both  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2018, 21:40
+1 for E, however, I'm not too pleased with the option itself.

Quote:
acid rock drainage which is the outflow of acidic water from abandoned mines, and the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, which may alter


Isn't there a parallelism error here? Shouldn't it be "drainage of acid rocks" and "deposition of tailings" or "acid rock drainage" and "tailing deposition"?

Looking forward to the OA and a correction if my reasoning is incorrect.
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Re: Large scale mining of metal and coal in the region has led to both  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2018, 07:21
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shaarang wrote:
+1 for E, however, I'm not too pleased with the option itself.

Quote:
acid rock drainage which is the outflow of acidic water from abandoned mines, and the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, which may alter


Isn't there a parallelism error here? Shouldn't it be "drainage of acid rocks" and "deposition of tailings" or "acid rock drainage" and "tailing deposition"?

Looking forward to the OA and a correction if my reasoning is incorrect.


Hi,

There isn't a parallelism error because the sentence is comparing same entity, noun. For parallelism to hold the noun form need not follow same structure.
Same goes for participles, V+ed particle can be in parallel with V+ing participle when they describe a common entity.
For participles you can visit this post for further detail: https://gmatclub.com/forum/verb-ed-verb-ing-can-be-parallel-126923.html

Hope this helps!
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Re: Large scale mining of metal and coal in the region has led to both  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Oct 2018, 09:39
In E: "..., and the deposition of tailings, elements or compounds uncovered during mining, which may alter"

"which" can modifies "mining" or "elements or compound" am I right? Is there ambiguity here??

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Re: Large scale mining of metal and coal in the region has led to both   [#permalink] 09 Oct 2018, 09:39
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