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Micro-wear patterns found on the teeth of long-extinct specimens o

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Micro-wear patterns found on the teeth of long-extinct specimens o [#permalink]

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The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: RC 95 ~ 101
Page: 54

Micro-wear patterns found on the teeth of long-extinct specimens of the primate species australopithecine may provide evidence about their diets. For example, on the basis of tooth micro-wear patterns, Walker dismisses Jolly’s hypothesis that australopithecines ate hard seeds. He also disputes Szalay’s suggestion that the heavy enamel of australopithecine teeth is an adaptation to bone crunching, since both seed cracking and bone crunching produce distinctive micro-wear characteristics on teeth. His conclusion that australopithecines were frugivores (fruit eaters) is based upon his observation that the tooth micro-wear characteristics of east African australopithecine specimens are indistinguishable from those of chimpanzees and orangutans, which are commonly assumed to be frugivorous primates.

However, research on the diets of contemporary primates suggests that micro-wear studies may have limited utility in determining the foods that are actually eaten. For example, insect eating, which can cause distinct micro-wear patterns, would not cause much tooth abrasion in modern baboons, who eat only soft-bodied insects rather than hard-bodied insects. In addition, the diets of current omnivorous primates vary considerably depending on the environments that different groups within a primate species inhabit; if australopithecines were omnivores too, we might expect to find considerable population variation in their tooth micro-wear patterns. Thus, Walker’s description of possible australopithecine diets may need to be expanded to include a much more diverse diet.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

1. According to the passage, Walker and Szalay disagree on which of the following points?

(A) The structure and composition of australopithecine teeth
(B) The kinds of conclusions that can be drawn from the micro-wear patterns on australopithecine teeth
(C) The idea that fruit was a part of the australopithecine diet
(D) The extent to which seed cracking and bone crunching produce similar micro-wear patterns on teeth
(E) The function of the heavy enamel on australopithecine teeth


[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

2. The passage suggests that Walker’s research indicated which of the following about australopithecine teeth?

(A) They had micro-wear characteristics indicating that fruit constituted only a small part of their diet.
(B) They lacked micro-wear characteristics associated with seed eating and bone crunching.
(C) They had micro-wear characteristics that differed in certain ways from the micro-wear patterns of chimpanzees and orangutans.
(D) They had micro-wear characteristics suggesting that the diet of australopithecines varied from one region to another.
(E) They lacked the micro-wear characteristics distinctive of modern frugivores.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

3. The passage suggests that which of the following would be true of studies of tooth micro-wear patterns conducted on modern baboons?

(A) They would inaccurately suggest that some baboons eat more soft-bodied than hard-bodied insects.
(B) They would suggest that insects constitute the largest part of some baboons’ diets.
(C) They would reveal that there are no significant differences in tooth micro-wear patterns among baboon populations.
(D) They would inadequately reflect the extent to which some baboons consume certain types of insects.
(E) They would indicate that baboons in certain regions eat only soft-bodied insects, whereas baboons in other regions eat hard-bodied insects.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

4. The passage suggests which of the following about the micro-wear patterns found on the teeth of omnivorous primates?

(A) The patterns provide information about what kinds of foods are not eaten by the particular species of primate, but not about the foods actually eaten.
(B) The patterns of various primate species living in the same environment resemble one another.
(C) The patterns may not provide information about the extent to which a particular species’ diet includes seeds.
(D) The patterns provide more information about these primates’ diet than do the tooth micro-wear patterns of primates who are frugivores.
(E) The patterns may differ among groups within a species depending on the environment within which a particular group lives.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

5. It can be inferred from the passage that if studies of tooth micro-wear patterns were conducted on modern baboons, which of the following would most likely be true of the results obtained?

(A) There would be enough abrasion to allow a determination of whether baboons are frugivorous or insectivorous.
(B) The results would suggest that insects constitute the largest part of the baboons’ diet.
(C) The results would reveal that there are no significant differences in tooth micro-wear patterns from one regional baboon population to another.
(D) The results would provide an accurate indication of the absence of some kinds of insects from the baboons’ diet.
(E) The results would be unlikely to provide any indication of what inferences about the australopithecine diet can or cannot be drawn from micro-wear studies.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

6. It can be inferred from the passage that Walker’s conclusion about the australopithecine diet would be called into question under which of the following circumstances?

(A) The tooth enamel of australopithecines is found to be much heavier than that of modern frugivorous primates.
(B) The micro-wear patterns of australopithecine teeth from regions other than east Africa are analyzed.
(C) Orangutans are found to have a much broader diet than is currently recognized.
(D) The environment of east Africa at the time australopithecines lived there is found to have been far more varied than is currently thought.
(E) The area in which the australopithecine specimens were found is discovered to have been very rich in soft-bodied insects during the period when australopithecines lived there.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

7. The author of the passage mentions the diets of baboons and other living primates most likely in order to

(A) provide evidence that refutes Walker’s conclusions about the foods making up the diets of australopithecines
(B) suggest that studies of tooth micro-wear patterns are primarily useful for determining the diets of living primates
(C) suggest that australopithecines were probably omnivores rather than frugivores
(D) illustrate some of the limitations of using tooth micro-wear patterns to draw definitive conclusions about a group’s diet
(E) suggest that tooth micro-wear patterns are caused by persistent, as opposed to occasional, consumption of particular foods

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #5 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #6 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #7 OA

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Re: Micro-wear patterns found on the teeth of long-extinct specimens o [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2016, 05:21
Hi Can someone pls explain why answer to Q 104 is C?
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Re: Micro-wear patterns found on the teeth of long-extinct specimens o [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2016, 18:03
dsheth7 wrote:
Hi Can someone pls explain why answer to Q 104 is C?
Thanks


Walker's theory is that "a" (australopithecine) were fruit eaters because they had "indistinguishable" tooth micro-wear characteristics from orangutans, who "are commonly assumed to be [fruit eaters]."

His theory would be called into question if this correlation was somehow inaccurate or not conclusive. Hence the word "assumed to be" because they are not entirely certain that this is accurate.

A) There's no mention of the heaviness or density of the tooth. Out of Scoop
B) It would be interesting to see if other areas had the same results. If they did, then it would support his claim but if they didn't, then it wouldn't. It's not definite enough to answer this question.
C) If orangutans were found to be eating other things besides fruits, such as seeds or insects, then Walker's theory of "a" being only fruit eaters would be incorrect. Correct
D) A varied environment could or could not change the theory so like B, it's not definite enough to weaken his claim.
E) Even if there were soft-bodied bugs, it does not mean they ate it or maybe it does. Again, like B and C, it can go both ways so it's incorrect.

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Re: Micro-wear patterns found on the teeth of long-extinct specimens o [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2016, 23:05
Walker dismisses Jolly’s hypothesis that australopithecines ate hard seeds. Does this statement mean Walker agrees to what jolly says or he disagree with jolly?

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Re: Micro-wear patterns found on the teeth of long-extinct specimens o [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2016, 12:44
Although the passage is easy to read, the questions must be answered after reading the question and the options carefully!

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New post 26 May 2017, 22:45
Please can someone explain 103.
I chose A since micro-wear patterns would not cause much abrasion in modern-baboons who eat soft-bodies insects.
Kindly explain why D.
Thanks.

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Re: Micro-wear patterns found on the teeth of long-extinct specimens o [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2017, 12:56
Top Contributor
OG 2018 New RC
Line
    Micro-wear patterns found on the teeth of long-
    extinct specimens of the primate species
    australopithecine may provide evidence about their
    diets. For example, on the basis of tooth micro-wear
(5)
    patterns, Walker dismisses Jolly’s hypothesis that
    australopithecines ate hard seeds. He also disputes
    Szalay’s suggestion that the heavy enamel of
    australopithecine teeth is an adaptation to bone
    crunching, since both seed cracking and bone
(10)
    crunching produce distinctive micro-wear
    characteristics on teeth. His conclusion that
    australopithecines were frugivores (fruit eaters) is
    based upon his observation that the tooth micro-
    wear characteristics of east African
(15)
    australopithecine specimens are indistinguishable
    from those of chimpanzees and orangutans, which
    are commonly assumed to be frugivorous primates.


    However, research on the diets of
    contemporary primates suggests that micro-wear
(20)
    studies may have limited utility in determining the
    foods that are actually eaten. For example, insect
    eating, which can cause distinct micro-wear
    patterns, would not cause much tooth abrasion in
    modern baboons, who eat only soft-bodied insects
(25)
    rather than hard-bodied insects. In addition, the
    diets of current omnivorous primates vary
    considerably depending on the environments that
    different groups within a primate species inhabit; if
    australopithecines were omnivores too, we might
(30)
    expect to find considerable population variation in
    their tooth micro-wear patterns. Thus, Walker’s
    description of possible australopithecine diets may
    need to be expanded to include a much more
    diverse diet.
(Book Question: 95)
According to the passage, Walker and Szalay disagree on which of the following points?
A. The structure and composition of australopithecine teeth
B. The kinds of conclusions that can be drawn from the micro-wear patterns on australopithecine teeth
C. The idea that fruit was a part of the australopithecine diet
D. The extent to which seed cracking and bone crunching produce similar micro-wear patterns on teeth
E. The function of the heavy enamel on australopithecine teeth

(Book Question: 96)
The passage suggests that Walker’s research indicated which of the following about australopithecine teeth?
A. They had micro-wear characteristics indicating that fruit constituted only a small part of their diet.
B. They lacked micro-wear characteristics associated with seed eating and bone crunching.
C. They had micro-wear characteristics that differed in certain ways from the micro-wear patterns of chimpanzees and orangutans.
D. They had micro-wear characteristics suggesting that the diet of australopithecines varied from one region to another.
E. They lacked the micro-wear characteristics distinctive of modern frugivores.

(Book Question: 97)
The passage suggests that which of the following would be true of studies of tooth micro-wear patterns conducted on modern baboons?
A. They would inaccurately suggest that some baboons eat more soft-bodied than hard-bodied insects.
B. They would suggest that insects constitute the largest part of some baboons’ diets.
C. They would reveal that there are no significant differences in tooth micro-wear patterns among baboon populations.
D. They would inadequately reflect the extent to which some baboons consume certain types of insects.
E. They would indicate that baboons in certain regions eat only soft-bodied insects, whereas baboons in other regions eat hard-bodied insects.

(Book Question: 98)
The passage suggests which of the following about the micro-wear patterns found on the teeth of omnivorous primates?
A. The patterns provide information about what kinds of foods are not eaten by the particular species of primate, but not about the foods actually eaten.
B. The patterns of various primate species living in the same environment resemble one another.
C. The patterns may not provide information about the extent to which a particular species’ diet includes seeds.
D. The patterns provide more information about these primates’ diet than do the tooth micro-wear patterns of primates who are frugivores.
E. The patterns may differ among groups within a species depending on the environment within which a particular group lives.

(Book Question: 99)
It can be inferred from the passage that if studies of tooth micro-wear patterns were conducted on modern baboons, which of the following would most likely be true of the results obtained?
A. There would be enough abrasion to allow a determination of whether baboons are frugivorous or insectivorous.
B. The results would suggest that insects constitute the largest part of the baboons’ diet.
C. The results would reveal that there are no significant differences in tooth micro-wear patterns from one regional baboon population to another.
D. The results would provide an accurate indication of the absence of some kinds of insects from the baboons’ diet.
E. The results would be unlikely to provide any indication of what inferences about the australopithecine diet can or cannot be drawn from micro-wear studies.

(Book Question: 100)
It can be inferred from the passage that Walker’s conclusion about the australopithecine diet would be called into question under which of the following circumstances?
A. The tooth enamel of australopithecines is found to be much heavier than that of modern frugivorous primates.
B. The micro-wear patterns of australopithecine teeth from regions other than east Africa are analyzed.
C. Orangutans are found to have a much broader diet than is currently recognized.
D. The environment of east Africa at the time australopithecines lived there is found to have been far more varied than is currently thought.
E. The area in which the australopithecine specimens were found is discovered to have been very rich in soft-bodied insects during the period when australopithecines lived there.

(Book Question: 101)
The author of the passage mentions the diets of baboons and other living primates most likely in order to
A. provide evidence that refutes Walker’s conclusions about the foods making up the diets of australopithecines
B. suggest that studies of tooth micro-wear patterns are primarily useful for determining the diets of living primates
C. suggest that australopithecines were probably omnivores rather than frugivores
D. illustrate some of the limitations of using tooth micro-wear patterns to draw definitive conclusions about a group’s diet
E. suggest that tooth micro-wear patterns are caused by persistent, as opposed to occasional, consumption of particular foods


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Re: Micro-wear patterns found on the teeth of long-extinct specimens o [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2017, 22:59
Question #1 why not D?
Question #3 How to chose D over C
Question #5 why C is incorrect
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New post 29 Jun 2017, 11:13
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mynamegoeson wrote:
Question #1 why not D?
Question #3 How to chose D over C
Question #5 why C is incorrect


Quote:
(Book Question: 95)
According to the passage, Walker and Szalay disagree on which of the following points?
A. The structure and composition of australopithecine teeth
B. The kinds of conclusions that can be drawn from the micro-wear patterns on australopithecine teeth
C. The idea that fruit was a part of the australopithecine diet
D. The extent to which seed cracking and bone crunching produce similar micro-wear patterns on teeth
E. The function of the heavy enamel on australopithecine teeth

The key to this question can be found in the following sentence: "He also disputes Szalay’s suggestion that the heavy enamel of australopithecine teeth is an adaptation to bone crunching, since both seed cracking and bone crunching produce distinctive micro-wear characteristics on teeth."

In other words, according to Walker, if those primates had in fact used their teeth for bone crunching, then the teeth should show distinctive micro-wear characteristics. We can infer that such micro-wear characteristics are NOT present on the teeth, so Walker disputes the theory that primates developed hard enamel as an adaptation to bone crunching.

Walker says that both seed cracking and bone crunching produce distinctive micro-wear characteristics, but he does NOT say that those characteristics are necessarily the same for both. Also, the passage tells us nothing about Szalay's opinion on the similarities between the patterns produced by seed cracking and those produced by bone crunching, so we have no idea whether the two agree or disagree. Thus, we can rule out (D)

Szalay apparently did not take the micro-wear evidence into account when developing his/her theory. Walker, on the other hand, does consider the micro-wear evidence and, as a result, disagrees with Szalay's theory regarding the function of the heavy enamel on the teeth.

(E) is the best answer.

Quote:
(Book Question: 97)
The passage suggests that which of the following would be true of studies of tooth micro-wear patterns conducted on modern baboons?
A. They would inaccurately suggest that some baboons eat more soft-bodied than hard-bodied insects.
B. They would suggest that insects constitute the largest part of some baboons’ diets.
C. They would reveal that there are no significant differences in tooth micro-wear patterns among baboon populations.
D. They would inadequately reflect the extent to which some baboons consume certain types of insects.
E. They would indicate that baboons in certain regions eat only soft-bodied insects, whereas baboons in other regions eat hard-bodied insects.


We are told that " the diets of current omnivorous primates vary considerably depending on the environments that different groups within a primate species inhabit." If modern baboons are omnivorous, then their diets would vary considerably from group to group depending on environment. Thus, the groups would have different micro-wear patterns. The passage doesn't tell us whether baboons are omnivorous, but it does not give us information to conclude whether the micro-wear patterns of different baboon populations would be similar or varying. (C) can be eliminated.

We are also told that, "insect eating, which can cause distinct micro-wear patterns, would not cause much tooth abrasion in modern baboons, who eat only soft-bodied insects rather than hard-bodied insects." In other words, even eating tons and tons of soft-bodied insects would not cause any abrasion or micro-wear patterns on the teeth of modern baboons. Thus, based on the micro-wear patterns alone, we would not know whether those baboons ate tons of soft-bodied insects or ate no insects at all. The micro-wear patterns would not adequately reflect the extent to which the baboons consumed soft-bodied insects, so choice (D) is the best answer.

Quote:
(Book Question: 99)
It can be inferred from the passage that if studies of tooth micro-wear patterns were conducted on modern baboons, which of the following would most likely be true of the results obtained?
A. There would be enough abrasion to allow a determination of whether baboons are frugivorous or insectivorous.
B. The results would suggest that insects constitute the largest part of the baboons’ diet.
C. The results would reveal that there are no significant differences in tooth micro-wear patterns from one regional baboon population to another.
D. The results would provide an accurate indication of the absence of some kinds of insects from the baboons’ diet.
E. The results would be unlikely to provide any indication of what inferences about the australopithecine diet can or cannot be drawn from micro-wear studies.

As explained for the previous question, we do not know whether the micro-wear patterns of different baboon populations would be similar or varying, so (C) can be eliminated.

We do know that those baboons eat only soft-bodied insects and not hard-bodied insects. Their teeth would NOT show micro-wear patterns that would result from eating hard-bodied insects. Thus, the LACK of such micro-wear patterns would be an "accurate indication of the absence of some kind of insects (hard-bodied insects) from the baboons' diet." (D) is the best answer.

I hope this helps!
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Re: Micro-wear patterns found on the teeth of long-extinct specimens o [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2017, 00:04
Timing 12 min
6 correct 1 wrong
Question 5 is inference based question.
After rereading the answer to Question is correct .
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New post 23 Oct 2017, 00:29
Hi @Gmatninja, Experts,

Could you please explain why option E is incorrect for Question 5 ( Book Q# 99)

Option E says: The results would be unlikely to provide any indication of what inferences about the australopithecine diet can or cannot be drawn from micro-wear studies.

If we can not infer anything concrete from the studies of tooth micro wear patterns, THEN, WHY is it incorrect to INFER that results would be unlikely to provide any indication of what inferences about the austraXYZ diet can or cannot be drawn.

IS there ANY ASSUMPTION or LEAP which i have taken to think that OPtion E is correct ?

Thanks

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Quote:
(Book Question: 99)
It can be inferred from the passage that if studies of tooth micro-wear patterns were conducted on modern baboons, which of the following would most likely be true of the results obtained?
A. There would be enough abrasion to allow a determination of whether baboons are frugivorous or insectivorous.
B. The results would suggest that insects constitute the largest part of the baboons’ diet.
C. The results would reveal that there are no significant differences in tooth micro-wear patterns from one regional baboon population to another.
D. The results would provide an accurate indication of the absence of some kinds of insects from the baboons’ diet.
E. The results would be unlikely to provide any indication of what inferences about the australopithecine diet can or cannot be drawn from micro-wear studies.

kunal1608 wrote:
Hi GMATNinja, Experts,

Could you please explain why option E is incorrect for Question 5 ( Book Q# 99)

Option E says: The results would be unlikely to provide any indication of what inferences about the australopithecine diet can or cannot be drawn from micro-wear studies.

If we can not infer anything concrete from the studies of tooth micro wear patterns, THEN, WHY is it incorrect to INFER that results would be unlikely to provide any indication of what inferences about the austraXYZ diet can or cannot be drawn.

IS there ANY ASSUMPTION or LEAP which i have taken to think that OPtion E is correct ?

Thanks

Modern baboons eat insects (only soft-bodied). But if we study micro-wear patterns on their teeth, we would NOT find evidence that they eat insects (micro-wear studies would only provide evidence of eating insects if the baboons ate HARD-bodied insects). So, from a micro-wear study, we CANNOT conclude whether an animal eats insects.

Thus, the baboon micro-wear study would LIKELY provide evidence that information about insect consumption cannot be determined from micro-wear studies. In other words, the study would LIKELY provide an indication that you CANNOT draw insect-consumption inferences from micro-wear studies.

If choice (E) said "likely" instead of "unlikely", it would be correct. But, as is, (E) is incorrect (tricky!).

(D) is the best answer.
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New post 26 Oct 2017, 10:38
11 mins 30 seconds in total , including 2 mins to read . All correct except first one .
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New post 26 Oct 2017, 11:32
Skywalker18 wrote:
11 mins 30 seconds in total , including 2 mins to read . All correct except first one .


Could you please explain how you decided between option D and E for Q5

Thanks

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New post 26 Oct 2017, 11:37
GMATNinja wrote:
Quote:
(Book Question: 99)
It can be inferred from the passage that if studies of tooth micro-wear patterns were conducted on modern baboons, which of the following would most likely be true of the results obtained?
A. There would be enough abrasion to allow a determination of whether baboons are frugivorous or insectivorous.
B. The results would suggest that insects constitute the largest part of the baboons’ diet.
C. The results would reveal that there are no significant differences in tooth micro-wear patterns from one regional baboon population to another.
D. The results would provide an accurate indication of the absence of some kinds of insects from the baboons’ diet.
E. The results would be unlikely to provide any indication of what inferences about the australopithecine diet can or cannot be drawn from micro-wear studies.

kunal1608 wrote:
Hi GMATNinja, Experts,

Could you please explain why option E is incorrect for Question 5 ( Book Q# 99)

Option E says: The results would be unlikely to provide any indication of what inferences about the australopithecine diet can or cannot be drawn from micro-wear studies.

If we can not infer anything concrete from the studies of tooth micro wear patterns, THEN, WHY is it incorrect to INFER that results would be unlikely to provide any indication of what inferences about the austraXYZ diet can or cannot be drawn.

IS there ANY ASSUMPTION or LEAP which i have taken to think that OPtion E is correct ?

Thanks

Modern baboons eat insects (only soft-bodied). But if we study micro-wear patterns on their teeth, we would NOT find evidence that they eat insects (micro-wear studies would only provide evidence of eating insects if the baboons ate HARD-bodied insects). So, from a micro-wear study, we CANNOT conclude whether an animal eats insects.

Thus, the baboon micro-wear study would LIKELY provide evidence that information about insect consumption cannot be determined from micro-wear studies. In other words, the study would LIKELY provide an indication that you CANNOT draw insect-consumption inferences from micro-wear studies.

If choice (E) said "likely" instead of "unlikely", it would be correct. But, as is, (E) is incorrect (tricky!).

(D) is the best answer.


Thanks a lot for the explanation

Its still quite hard to understand :( , Could you please help me break down Statement E further .

I understand this part :"we CANNOT conclude whether an animal eats insects."

Is What you mean to say that if option E was drafted as : "The results would be likely to provide SOME indication of what inferences about the australopithecine diet can or cannot be drawn from micro-wear studies" . THEN It would be correct ?

Please Explain !

Thanks

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